Comparative cellular processing of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp160 by the mammalian subtilisin/kexin-like convertases.
ABSTRACT: We present here the pulse and pulse-chase analysis of the biosynthesis of the envelope glycoprotein gp160 and its intracellular processing by the subtilisin/kexin-like convertases furin, PACE4, PC1, PC5 and its isoform PC5/6-B. We demonstrate that furin and to a much lesser extent PACE4, PC5/6-B and PC1 are candidate enzymes capable of processing gp160 intracellularly. Furthermore we show that furin can also process gp160/gp120 into gp77/gp53 products by cleavage at the sequence RIQR/GPGR just preceding the conserved GPGR structure found at the tip of the hypervariable V3 loop. The results show that processing into gp120 could occur at or before the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where sulphation of the oligosaccharide moieties of gp160 was detected. In contrast, the formation of gp77/gp53 by furin is a late event occurring after exit from the TGN. Our data also revealed that the alpha glucosidase I inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, although affecting the oligosaccharide composition of gp160, does not impair the processing of either gp160 or gp120 by either furin or PACE4. Finally, the co-expression of the [Arg355, Arg358]-alpha-1-antitrypsin Portland variant was shown to potently inhibit the processing of both gp160 and gp120 by these convertases.
Project description:By using reverse transcriptase/PCR and oligonucleotide sequences derived from conserved segments (including the conserved RRGDL sequence) of the known proprotein convertases (PCs) PC1, PC2, furin, and PC4, we identified a subtilisin/kexin-like PC called PC5 in both mouse and rat tissues. The composite structure (2.85 kb) was deduced from the analysis of the reverse transcription/PCR products combined with the sequence from a clone isolated from a cDNA library made from corticotropin-activated mouse adrenocortical Y1 cells. The deduced cDNA structures of mouse PC5 and rat PC5 showed that the closest homologue is PACE4. Furthermore, like furin, Drosophila melanogaster (d) dfurin2, and PACE4, PC5 shows the presence of a C-terminal Cys-rich domain containing either 5 (PC5 and PACE4) or 10 (dfurin2) repeats of the consensus motif Cys-Xaa2-Cys-Xaa3-Cys-Xaa(5-7)-Cys-Xaa2-Cys-Xaa (8-15)-Cys-Xaa3-Cys-Xaa(9-16). The richest sources of rat PC5 mRNA (3.8 kb) are the adrenal and gut, but it can also be detected in many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues. Corticotropin-stimulated adrenocortical Y1 cells showed an increased expression of PC5 mRNA, suggesting an upregulation by cAMP. In situ hybridization of rat brain sections demonstrated a unique distribution of PC5 compared to PC1, PC2, and furin.
Project description:In order to define the enzymes responsible for the maturation of the precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF), its biosynthesis and intracellular processing by the pro-protein convertases furin, PC1, PC2, PACE4, PC5 and the PC5 isoform PC5/6-B were analysed using the vaccinia virus expression system in cells containing a regulated and/or a constitutive secretory pathway. Results demonstrate that in both cell types furin, and to a lesser extent PACE4 and PC5/6-B, are the best candidate proNGF convertases. Furthermore, two processed NGF forms of 16.5 and 13.5 kDa were evident in constitutively secreting cell lines such as LoVo and BSC40 cells, whereas only the 13.5 kDa form was observed in AtT20 cells, which contain secretory granules. Both forms display the same N-terminal sequence as mature NGF, and were also produced following site-directed mutagenesis of the C-terminal Arg-Arg sequence of NGF into Ala-Ala, suggesting that the difference between them is not at the C-terminus. Co-expression of proNGF with furin and either chromogranin B or secretogranin II (but not chromogranin A) in BSC40 cells eliminated the 16.5 kDa form. Data also show that N-glycosylation of the pro-segment of proNGF and trimming of the oligosaccharide chains are necessary for the exit of this precursor from the endoplasmic reticulum and its eventual processing and secretion. Sulphate labelling experiments demonstrated that proNGF is processed into mature NGF following the arrival of the precursor in the trans-Golgi network. This comparative study shows that the three candidate mammalian subtilisin/kexin-like convertases identified process proNGF into NGF and that the nature of the final processed products is dependent on the intracellular environment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In zebrafish, vascular endothelial growth factor-C precursor (proVEGF-C) processing occurs within the dibasic motif HSIIRR(214) suggesting the involvement of one or more basic amino acid-specific proprotein convertases (PCs) in this process. In the present study, we examined zebrafish proVEGF-C expression and processing and the effect of unprocessed proVEGF-C on caudal fin regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell transfection assays revealed that the cleavage of proVEGF-C, mainly mediated by the proprotein convertases Furin and PC5 and to a less degree by PACE4 and PC7, is abolished by PCs inhibitors or by mutation of its cleavage site (HSIIRR(214) into HSIISS(214)). In vitro, unprocessed proVEGF-C failed to activate its signaling proteins Akt and ERK and to induce cell proliferation. In vivo, following caudal fin amputation, the induction of VEGF-C, Furin and PC5 expression occurs as early as 2 days post-amputation (dpa) with a maximum levels at 4-7 dpa. Using immunofluorescence staining we localized high expression of VEGF-C and the convertases Furin and PC5 surrounding the apical growth zone of the regenerating fin. While expression of wild-type proVEGF-C in this area had no effect, unprocessed proVEGF-C inhibited fin regeneration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Taken together, these data indicate that zebrafish fin regeneration is associated with up-regulation of VEGF-C and the convertases Furin and PC5 and highlight the inhibitory effect of unprocessed proVEGF-C on fin regeneration.
Project description:The secretory proprotein convertase (PC) family comprises nine members: PC1/3, PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, PACE4, PC7, SKI-1/S1P, and PCSK9. The first seven PCs cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues, and SKI-1/S1P cleaves its substrates at non-basic residues in the Golgi. PCSK9 cleaves itself once, and the secreted inactive protease escorts specific receptors for lysosomal degradation. It regulates the levels of circulating LDL cholesterol and is considered a major therapeutic target in phase III clinical trials. In vivo, PCs exhibit unique and often essential functions during development and/or in adulthood, but certain convertases also exhibit complementary, redundant, or opposite functions.
Project description:Proprotein convertases (PCs), also known as eukaryotic subtilases, are a group of serine proteases comprising furin (PACE), PC1 (PC3), PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5 (PC6), and PC7 (LPC, PC8) that generate bioactive proteins and peptides, such as hormones, receptors, and growth factors by cleaving precursor proteins at multibasic motifs. Two other family members, SKI-1/S1P and PCSK9, cleave regulator proteins involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis at nonbasic peptide bonds. Furin is ubiquitous in eukaryotic tissues and cells. PACE4, PC5, and PC7 are also widespread, whereas the expression of the other PCs is more restricted. PCs are synthesized as multi-segmented zymogens which are autocatalytically activated. The prodomains have regulatory and inhibitory functions. The catalytic domains are the most conserved domains among the PCs. The architecture of the catalytic active furin domain is known in different binding states. The C-terminal parts of the PCs differ in length and structure and contain encoded peptide signatures guiding the PCs to the subcellular destinations on the secretory pathways: SKI-1/S1P to the cis-Golgi, furin, PC5B, and PC7 to the TGN region but also to the plasma membrane. PACE4, PC5A, and PCSK9 are attached at the cell surface. Truncated, soluble furin and SKI-1/S1P, as well as PC1 and PC2, are released into the extracellular matrix. Many enveloped viruses are activated by furin and furin-like PCs and arenaviruses and a few bunyaviruses by SKI-1/S1P. The PCs cleave the viral fusion glycoprotein to trigger fusion of viral envelopes with cellular membranes to deliver the viral genome into host cells. Cleavage by PCs, occasionally in concert with other endoproteases, enables conformational changes in the viral membrane proteins needed for correct oligomerization of glycoprotein spikes and their effective incorporation into virions. Mutational alterations of PC cleavage sites can reduce the fusion potential of viral surface proteins and thus facilitate the development of secure live attenuated vaccines. Alternatively, agents preventing cleavage of viral surface (glyco)proteins block fusion capacity and multicyclic virus replications. PC inhibitors are suggested as promising antiviral drugs for quite a number of viruses causing severe infections.
Project description:Protein C, a secretory vitamin K-dependent anticoagulant serine protease, inactivates factors Va/VIIIa. It is exclusively synthesized in liver hepatocytes as an inactive zymogen (proprotein C). In humans, thrombin cleavage of the propeptide at PR221↓ results in activated protein C (APC; residues 222-461). However, the propeptide is also cleaved by a furin-like proprotein convertase(s) (PCs) at KKRSHLKR199↓ (underlined basic residues critical for the recognition by PCs), but the order of cleavage is unknown. Herein, we present evidence that at the surface of COS-1 cells, mouse proprotein C is first cleaved by the convertases furin, PC5/6A, and PACE4. In mice, this cleavage occurs at the equivalent site, KKRKILKR198↓, and requires the presence of Arg198 at P1 and a combination of two other basic residues at either P2 (Lys197), P6 (Arg193), or P8 (Lys191) positions. Notably, the thrombin-resistant R221A mutant is still cleaved by these PCs, revealing that convertase cleavage can precede thrombin activation. This conclusion was supported by the fact that the APC-specific activity in the medium of COS-1 cells is exclusively dependent on prior cleavage by the convertases, because both R198A and R221A lack protein C activity. Primary cultures of hepatocytes derived from wild-type or hepatocyte-specific furin, PC5/6, or complete PACE4 knock-out mice suggested that the cleavage of overexpressed proprotein C is predominantly performed by furin intracellularly and by all three proprotein convertases at the cell surface. Indeed, plasma analyses of single-proprotein convertase-knock-out mice showed that loss of the convertase furin or PC5/6 in hepatocytes results in a ∼30% decrease in APC levels, with no significant contribution from PACE4. We conclude that prior convertase cleavage of protein C in hepatocytes is critical for its thrombin activation.
Project description:Furin belongs to the family of proprotein convertases (PCs) and is involved in numerous normal physiological and pathogenic processes, such as viral propagation, bacterial toxin activation, cancer, and metastasis. Furin and related furin-like PCs cleave their substrates at characteristic multibasic consensus sequences, preferentially after an arginine residue. By incorporating decarboxylated arginine mimetics in the P1 position of substrate analogue peptidic inhibitors, we could identify highly potent furin inhibitors. The most potent compound, phenylacetyl-Arg-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide (15), inhibits furin with a K(i) value of 0.81 nM and has also comparable affinity to other PCs like PC1/3, PACE4, and PC5/6, whereas PC2 and PC7 or trypsin-like serine proteases were poorly affected. In fowl plague virus (influenza A, H7N1)-infected MDCK cells, inhibitor 15 inhibited proteolytic hemagglutinin cleavage and was able to reduce virus propagation in a long-term infection test. Molecular modeling revealed several key interactions of the 4-amidinobenzylamide residue in the S1 pocket of furin contributing to the excellent affinity of these inhibitors.
Project description:The basic amino acid-specific proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC5/6) is an essential secretory protease, as knock-out mice die at birth and exhibit multiple homeotic transformation defects, including impaired bone morphogenesis and lung structure. Some of the observed defects were attributed to impaired processing of the TGF?-like growth differentiating factor 11 precursor (proGdf11). In this work we present evidence that the latent TGF?-binding proteins 2 and 3 (LTBP-2 and -3) inhibit the extracellular processing of proGdf11 by PC5/6A. This is partly due to the binding of LTBPs in the endoplasmic reticulum to the zymogen proPC5/6A, thus allowing the complex to exit the endoplasmic reticulum and be sequestered as an inactive zymogen in the extracellular matrix but not at the cell surface. This results in lower levels of PC5/6A in the media, without affecting those of PACE4, Furin, or a soluble form of PC7. The secreted soluble protease-specific activity of PC5/6A or a variant lacking the C-terminal Cys-rich domain (PC5/6-?CRD) is significantly decreased when co-expressed with LTBPs in cells. A similar enzymatic inhibition seems to apply to PACE4 and Furin. In situ hybridization analyses revealed extensive co-localization of PC5/6 and LTBP-3 mRNAs in mice at embryonic day 15.5 and post partum day 1. In conclusion, this is the first time that a zymogen of the proprotein convertases was shown to exit the endoplasmic reticulum in the presence of LTBPs, representing a potential novel mechanism for the regulation of PC5/6A activity, e.g. in tissues such as bone and lung where LTBP-3 and PC5/6 co-localize.
Project description:A novel subtilisin-like protein, PC8, was identified by PCR using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic region of members of the prohormone convertase family. PC8 was predicted to be 785 residues long and was structurally related to the mammalian convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2, sharing more than 50% amino acid identity over the catalytic region with these family members. PC8 possessed the catalytically important Asp, His, Asn and Ser amino acids, the homo B domain of this family of enzymes and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence indicative of a transmembrane domain. Structurally, PC8 is more related to furin and PACE4 than to PC1 or PC2. Like furin and PACE4, PC8 mRNA was found to be widely expressed; this is in contrast with PC1 and PC2, which have a restricted distribution. Two transcripts, of 4.5 and 3.5 kb, were detected in both human cell lines and rat tissues. Unlike furin and PACE4, both of which map to chromosome 15, PC8 maps to chromosome 11q23-11q24, suggesting that this gene may have resulted from an ancient gene duplication event from either furin or PACE4, or conversely that these genes arose from PC8.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a member of the TGF-? superfamily and plays a critical role in heart development. In the postnatal heart, BMP10 is restricted to the right atrium. The inactive pro-BMP10 (?60 kDa) is processed into active BMP10 (?14 kDa) by an unknown protease. Proteolytic cleavage occurs at the RIRR(316)? site (human), suggesting the involvement of proprotein convertase(s) (PCs). In vitro digestion of a 12-mer peptide encompassing the predicted cleavage site with furin, PACE4, PC5/6, and PC7, showed that furin cleaves the best, whereas PC7 is inactive on this peptide. Ex vivo studies in COS-1 cells, a cell line lacking PC5/6, revealed efficient processing of pro-BMP10 by endogenous PCs other than PC5/6. The lack of processing of overexpressed pro-BMP10 in the furin- and PACE4-deficient cell line, CHO-FD11, and in furin-deficient LoVo cells, was restored by stable (CHO-FD11/Fur cells) or transient (LoVo cells) expression of furin. Use of cell-permeable and cell surface inhibitors suggested that endogenous PCs process pro-BMP10 mostly intracellularly, but also at the cell surface. Ex vivo experiments in mouse primary hepatocytes (wild type, PC5/6 knock-out, and furin knock-out) corroborated the above findings that pro-BMP10 is a substrate for endogenous furin. Western blot analyses of heart right atria extracts from wild type and PACE4 knock-out adult mice showed no significant difference in the processing of pro-BMP10, implying no in vivo role of PACE4. Overall, our in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo data suggest that furin is the major convertase responsible for the generation of BMP10.