Structures of diphospho-myo-inositol pentakisphosphate and bisdiphospho-myo-inositol tetrakisphosphate from Dictyostelium resolved by NMR analysis.
ABSTRACT: Diphospho-myo-inositol phosphates (PP-InsP5 and bis-PP-InsP4) were isolated from Dictyostelium in order to clarify the precise positional isomerism by two-dimensional 1H/31P-NMR analysis. The diphosphorylated inositol phosphates are 4-PP-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P5 and 4,5-bis-PP-Ins(1,2,3,6)P4 or their corresponding enantiomers. The vicinal arrangement of the diphospho groups with its steric and electrostatic constraints possibly qualifies bis-PP-InsP4 as a metabolite with high phosphate-group-transfer potential in phosphotransferase reactions.
Project description:Two diphospho-myo-inositol phosphates from Dictyostelium were recently investigated by two-dimensional 1H/31P NMR analysis and assigned to be either D-4-diphospho-myo-inositol pentakisphosphate (D-4-PP-InsP5) and D-4,5-bisdiphospho-myo-inositol tetrakisphosphate (D-4,5-bis-PP-InsP4) or their corresponding enantiomers D-6-PP-InsP5 and D-5,6-bis-PP-InsP4. In the present study the naturally occurring enantiomers were identified by using defined synthetic PP-InsP5 isomers as substrates for a partially purified PP-InsP5 5-kinase from Dictyostelium. This enzyme specifically phosphorylates the naturally occurring PP-InsP5 and the synthetic D-6-PP-InsP5, leading to D-5,6-bis-PP-InsP4. In contrast, neither D-4-PP-InsP5 nor D-1-PP-InsP5 or D-3-PP-InsP5 are converted by the enzyme.
Project description:Avian erythrocytes were incubated with myo-[3H]inositol for 6-7 h and with [32P]Pi for the final 50-90 min of this period. An acid extract was prepared from the prelabelled erythrocytes, and the specific radioactivities of the gamma-phosphate of ATP and of both the myo-inositol moieties (3H, d.p.m./nmol) and the individual phosphate groups (32P, d.p.m./nmol) of [3H]Ins[32P](1,3,4,6)P4,[3H]Ins[32P](1,3,4,5)P4, [3H]Ins[32P](3,4,5,6)P4 and [3H]Ins[32P](1,3,4,5,6)P5 were determined. The results provide direct confirmation that one of the cellular InsP4 isomers is Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 which is synthesized by sequential phosphorylation of the 1,4,5 and 3 substitution sites of the myo-Ins moiety, precisely as previously deduced [Batty, Nahorski & Irvine (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 211-215; Irvine, Letcher, Heslop & Berridge (1986) Nature (London) 320, 631-634]. This is compatible with the proposed synthetic route from PtdIns via PtdIns4P, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and Ins(1,4,5)P3. The data also suggest that, in avian erythrocytes, the principle precursor of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 is Ins(3,4,5,6)P4. Furthermore, if the gamma- (and/or beta-) phosphate of ATP is the precursor of the phosphate moieties of Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, then this isomer must be derived from the phosphorylation of Ins(3,4,6)P3. If the gamma- (and/or beta-) phosphate of ATP similarly acts as the ultimate precursor to all of the phosphates of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4, then, in intact avian erythrocytes, the main precursor of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 is Ins(1,4,6)P3. This contrasts with the expectation, based on results with cell-free systems, that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 is synthesized by the direct phosphorylation of Ins(1,3,4)P3.
Project description:The ubiquitous mammalian signaling molecule bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate (1,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 , or InsP8 ) displays the most congested three-dimensional array of phosphate groups found in nature. The high charge density, the accumulation of unstable P-anhydrides and P-esters, the lack of UV?absorbance, and low levels of optical rotation constitute severe obstacles to its synthesis, characterization, and purification. Herein, we describe the first procedure for the synthesis of enantiopure 1,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 and 3,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 utilizing a C2 -symmetric P-amidite for desymmetrization and concomitant phosphitylation followed by a one-pot bidirectional P-anhydride-forming reaction that combines sixteen chemical transformations with high efficiency. The configuration of these materials is unambiguously shown by subsequent X-ray analyses of both enantiomers after being individually soaked into crystals of the kinase domain of human diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase?2.
Project description:Stimulation of human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells by bradykinin causes a very rapid release of inositol phosphates and a transient rise in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Bradykinin-induced inositol phosphate formation is half-maximal at a concentration of 4 nM and is not affected by pertussis toxin. H.p.l.c. analysis of the various inositol phosphates shows an immediate but transient accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], which reaches a peak value of approx. 10 times the basal level within 15 s and slightly precedes the rise in [Ca2+]i, both parameters changing in parallel. After a lag period, bradykinin also induces a massive accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P3 and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4]. Our data support the view that part of the newly formed Ins(1,4,5)P3 is converted into Ins(1,3,4)P3 phosphorylation/dephosphorylation with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 as intermediate. Furthermore, A431 cells were found to contain strikingly high basal levels of two other inositol phosphates, presumably inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP5) and inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), representing more than 50% of the total 3H radioactivity incorporated into inositol phosphates. The presumptive InsP5 and InsP6 are only slightly affected by bradykinin. Although Ins(1,3,4)P3 and InsP4 could function as second messengers, our results suggest that, unlike Ins(1,4,5)P3, neither Ins(1,3,4)P3 nor InsP4 are involved in Ca2+ mobilization.
Project description:1. We have studied the metabolism of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate) by rat liver homogenates incubated in a medium resembling intracellular ionic strength and pH. 2. Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was dephosphorylated to a single inositol trisphosphate product, Ins(1,3,4)P3 (inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate), the identity of which was confirmed by periodate degradation, followed by reduction and dephosphorylation to yield altritol. 3. The major InsP2 (inositol bisphosphate) product was inositol 3,4-bisphosphate [Shears, Storey, Morris, Cubitt, Parry, Michell & Kirk (1987) Biochem. J. 242, 393-402]. Small quantities of a second InsP2 product was also detected in some experiments, but its isomeric configuration was not identified. 4. The Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase activity was primarily associated with plasma membranes. 5. ATP (5 mM) decreased the membrane-associated Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase activities by 40-50%. This inhibition was imitated by AMP, adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate or PPi, but not by adenosine or Pi. A decrease in [ATP] from 7 to 3 mM halved the inhibition of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase activity, but the extent of inhibition was not further decreased unless [ATP] less than 0.1 mM. 6. Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase was insensitive to 50 mM-Li+, but was inhibited by 5 mM-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. 7. The Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase activity was unchanged by cyclic AMP, GTP, guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, or by increasing [Ca2+] from 0.1 to 1 microM. 8. Ins(1,3,4)P3 was phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent manner to an isomer of InsP4 that was partially separable on h.p.l.c. from Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The novel InsP4 appears to be Ins(1,3,4,6)P4. Its metabolic fate and function are not known.
Project description:The metabolism of [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3) was studied in permeabilized rat aortic smooth-muscle cells. Addition of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 to the leaky cells led to formation of several labelled metabolites. Amounts of [3H]inositol bisphosphate and [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate ([3H]InsP4) reached a maximum within 2 min of incubation, whereas production of [3H]inositol monophosphate and [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3) was delayed. Formation of InsP4 and Ins(1,3,4)P3 was Ca2+-sensitive in the physiological intracellular range (0.06-5 microM), showing a maximum at 1 microM-Ca2+. A correlation between the formation of InsP4 and that of Ins(1,3,4)P3 was observed, suggesting that the former is the precursor of the latter. These results suggest that, in vascular smooth-muscle cells, Ins(1,4,5)P3 is metabolized via two distinct pathways: (1) a dephosphorylation pathway, leading to formation of inositol bis- and mono-phosphate; and (2) a Ca2+-sensitive phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway, involving formation of InsP4 and leading to formation of Ins(1,3,4)P3.
Project description:When hepatocytes were incubated with [32P]Pi, the kinetics for the labelling of the monoester phosphate groups of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate were similar to each other and slightly slower than that for the labelling of the gamma-phosphate of ATP. Analysis of the water-soluble 3H-labelled materials derived from [3H]inositol-labelled hepatocytes revealed that, in addition to inositol and its mono-, bis- and tris-phosphates (Ins, InsP, InsP2 and InsP3), these cells contained two unidentified radioactive compounds which co-eluted with InsP on anion-exchange chromatography. When [3H]inositol-labelled hepatocytes were stimulated with 0.23 microM-vasopressin in the presence of 10 mM-Li+, there was an accumulation of radioactivity in InsP, InsP2 and InsP3 but not in Ins or the two unidentified compounds. Further analysis of these inositol phosphates by h.p.l.c. revealed that vasopressin also stimulates the accumulation of inositol tetrakisphosphate (InsP4) in these cells. Vasopressin-stimulated InsP and InsP2 accumulations were maximal in the presence of 1-10 mM-Li+ but InsP3 accumulation continued to increase up to 50 mM-Li+. Accumulated inositol phosphates were retained within the cell. Li+ from 1 to 50 mM did not influence the extent of vasopressin-stimulated inositol lipid degradation in hepatocytes. In the absence of Li+, radioactivity in vasopressin-stimulated hepatocytes accumulated almost entirely in free inositol. The vasopressin-stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in the presence of 10 mM-Li+ was abolished by a V1-vasopressin antagonist. Inositol phosphate accumulation was not influenced by ionophore A23187, dimethyl sulphoxide or indomethacin.
Project description:The effects of Li+ on carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism were examined in rat cerebral-cortex slices labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol. The muscarinic agonist carbachol evoked an enhanced steady-state accumulation of [3H]inositol monophosphate ([3H]InsP1), [3H]inositol bisphosphate ([3H]InsP2), [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3), [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3) and [3H]inositol tetrakisphosphate ([3H]InsP4). Li+ (5 mM), after a 10 min lag, severely attenuated carbachol-stimulated [3H]InsP4 accumulation while simultaneously potentiating accumulation of both [3H]InsP1 and [3H]InsP2 and, at least initially, of [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3. These data are consistent with inhibition of inositol mono-, bis- and 1,3,4-tris-phosphate phosphatases to different degrees by Li+ in brain, but are not considered to be completely accounted for in this way. Potential direct and indirect mechanisms of the inhibitory action of Li+ on [3H]InsP4 accumulation are considered. The present results stress the complex action of Li+ on cerebral inositol metabolism and indicate that more complex mechanisms than are yet evident may regulate this process.
Project description:Syntheses of a metabolite of the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, and an analogue, the 1,4-bisphosphorothioate, are reported, by using phosphite chemistry on (+/-)-1,2:4,5-di-isopropylidene-myo-inositol. The synthesis of (+/-)-1,2:4,5-di-isopropylidene 3,6-bis[di-(2-cyanoethyl)]phosphite provides an intermediate that can be oxidized to either the corresponding bisphosphate or bisphosphorothioate. myo-Inositol phosphorothioates are proposed as novel analogues of myo-inositol phosphates; their resistance to phosphatase-catalysed breakdown is reported.
Project description:Partisphere SAX HPLC analysis of endogenous inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol-labelled barley aleurone tissue revealed a range of isomers, including D- and/or L-Ins3P, D- and/or L-Ins(1,4)P2, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2)P2, a third unidentified InsP2, Ins(1,2,3)P3, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4)P4, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5, InsP6 and a molecule with the chromatographic properties of an inositol pyrophosphate. The striking match between the identities of the stereoisomers, and in some cases enantiomers, detected in vivo and those stereoisomers produced in vitro by the action of wheat-bran phytase on InsP6 [Cosgrove (1980) Inositol Phosphates: Their Chemistry, Bio-chemistry and Physiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam] strongly suggests that most of the inositol phosphates identified are products of the breakdown of InsP4 by endogenous phytase(s) with stereospecificity similar to that of the wheat-bran enzyme(s).