Activation by phosphorylation of phosphofructokinase from the annelid Lumbricus terrestris and comparison of phosphorylated sites in invertebrate phosphofructokinases.
ABSTRACT: Purified phosphofructokinase from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris was phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from the same organism to an extent of approx. 0.5 mol/mol of subunit. Activation of the enzyme occurred in parallel to the incorporation of covalently bound phosphate and was reversed by the action of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. Phosphorylation decreased the co-operativity of fructose 6-phosphate saturation in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of ATP, and increased the apparent Vmax obtained with saturating concentrations of the activators 5'-AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The phosphorylated sites of phosphofructokinase from L. terrestris and from two molluscs (Helix pomatia and Mytilus edulis) were sequenced and shown to exhibit distinct similarity to sequences located near to the N-terminus of nematode phosphofructokinases [Klein, Olson, Favreau, Wintertowed, Hatzenbuhler, Shea, Nulf and Geary (1991) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 48, 17-26.
Project description:Activities of both rat muscle and liver phosphofructokinases are significantly inhibited after a single ethanol intake in the dose of 2.5 g per kg of body weight. This inhibitory effect is indirect, since ethanol in concentration (50 mM) close to that established after 2.5 g per kg of body weight intake cannot decrease their activities in vitro. Inhibition of liver phosphofructokinase activity after the 5.0 g per kg ethanol intake may be direct, since liver phosphofructokinase activity decreases in vitro when ethanol is added to supernatants of rat liver tissue in 100 mM concentration. According to the results of molecular docking, ethanol at high concentrations can be bound by adenine-binding pocket of the allosteric ADP-binding site of liver phosphofructokinase (Asp543, Phe308, Phe538, and Phe671) and its activation by ADP can be blocked by C2H5OH molecule. Direct inhibition of muscle phosphofructokinase activity, probably due to the binding of ethanol to the similar ADP-binding site, is possible when the concentration of ethanol (500 mM) is much higher than the level which can be established in living cells. So, inhibition of muscle phosphofructokinase activity after a single 5.0 g per kg intake is indirect and probably linked with the inhibition of the enzyme by elevated citrate and phosphoenolpyruvate levels.
Project description:Yeast phosphofructokinase is an oligomeric enzyme whose detectable activity in vitro depends on its hetero-octameric structure. Here we provide data demonstrating that an alanine residue at positions 874 (for the PFK1-encoded alpha-subunit) or 868 (for the PFK2-encoded beta-subunit) is crucial to achieve this structure. Thus subunits carrying substitutions by either aspartate or lysine of this residue cause a lack of phosphofructokinase activity in vitro and signals of the subunits are poorly detectable in Western blots. Size-exclusion HPLC in conjunction with ELISA detection of the enzyme protein confirmed that no functional octamer is produced in such mutants. Our data suggest that the mutant subunits, not being assembled, tend to aggregate and subsequently become degraded. Substitution of the alanine by valine in either subunit leads to a reduction in specific activities, as expected from a conservative exchange. The kinetic data of the latter mutant revealed a higher affinity to the substrate fructose 6-phosphate, a lower extent of ATP inhibition and a lower degree of activation by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. In addition, the affinity of mutants carrying a valine instead of an alanine in either the alpha- or the beta-subunit to fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate was increased. As no X-ray data on eukaryotic phosphofructokinases are available yet, our data provide the first evidence that a non-charge amino acid at position 874 or 868 is essential for the formation of the functional oligomer. This conclusion is substantiated by comparison with the structure of the well-known prokaryotic enzyme.
Project description:1. Phosphofructokinase was isolated, and partially purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation, from the fat body and flight muscle of the desert locust. 2. Ammonium sulphate appears to stabilize the enzymes, but does not activate them. 3. Both flight-muscle and fat-body enzymes give sigmoidal hexose monophosphate concentration-activity curves, which are characteristic of regulatory enzymes. 4. At low ATP concentrations both the enzyme activities increase rapidly with increasing ATP concentrations, but above an optimum concentration ATP becomes inhibitory. This optimum concentration is 0.2mm for the fat-body enzyme and 0.1mm for the flight-muscle enzyme. 5. AMP activates both the enzymes; half-maximal activation occurs at 10mum in each case, the effect being independent of substrate concentration. 6. 3',5'-(cyclic)-AMP (0.5mm) and P(i) (1mm) activate the flight-muscle enzyme, but have no effect on the fat-body enzyme. 7. FDP (1mm) inhibits both enzymes, and with the flight-muscle enzyme this inhibition is increased by increasing the ATP concentration. 8. Citrate, phosphoenolpyruvate and alpha-glycerophosphate have no effect on either enzyme under the assay conditions used. 9. The properties of phosphofructokinases from the locust are compared with those of phosphofructokinases from other sources.
Project description:Eukaryotic ATP-dependent phosphofructokinases (PFKs) are often considered unidirectional enzymes catalysing the transfer of a phospho moiety from ATP to fructose 6-phosphate to produce ADP and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The reverse reaction is not generally considered to occur under normal conditions and has never been demonstrated for any eukaryotic ATP-dependent PFKs, though it does occur in inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent PFKs and has been experimentally shown for bacterial ATP-dependent PFKs. The evidence is provided via two orthogonal assays that all three human PFK isoforms can catalyse the reverse reaction in vitro, allowing determination of kinetic properties. Additionally, the reverse reaction was shown possible for PFKs from three clinically important trypanosomatids; these enzymes are contained within glycosomes in vivo This compartmentalisation may facilitate reversal, given the potential for trypanosomatids to have an altered ATP/ADP ratio in glycosomes compared with the cytosol. The kinetic properties of each trypanosomatid PFK were determined, including the response to natural and artificial modulators of enzyme activity. The possible physiological relevance of the reverse reaction in trypanosomatid and human PFKs is discussed.
Project description:The control enzyme phosphofructokinase is of regulatory significance in the metabolism of glucose by the malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. (1) The enzyme was partially purified from erythrocytic stages of P. berghei by precipitation with poly(ethylene glycol) and chromatography on 2',5'-bisphosphoadenosine-Sepharose 4B. (2) Similarly to various other phosphofructokinases, the enzyme from P. berghei shows an allosteric behaviour. It is activated by fructose 6-phosphate and inhibited by ATP. (3) The effects of Mg2(+)-complexed ATP, free ATP and Mg2+ were studied by keeping constant the concentration of one of these and varying the concentrations of the other two. (4) The enzyme is shown to be allosterically inhibited by free ATP and by higher concentrations of Mg2+. Compared with phosphofructokinase of erythrocytes, inhibition by ATP is weaker by two orders of magnitude. Mg2(+)-complexed ATP has no effect on allosteric regulation. (5) The proposed kinetic model provides an adequate description of the data.
Project description:Pieces of rat epididymal adipose tissue were incubated in medium containing [32P]phosphate for 2 h to achieve steady-state labelling of intracellular phosphoproteins and then with or without hormones for a further 15 min. Phosphofructokinase was rapidly isolated from the tissue by use of either Blue Dextran-Sepharose chromatography or immunoprecipitation with antisera raised against phosphofructokinase purified from rat interscapular brown adipose tissue. Similar extents of incorporation of 32P into phosphofructokinase were measured by both techniques. Exposure of the tissue to adrenaline or the beta-agonist isoprenaline increased phosphorylation by about 5-fold (to about 1.4 mol of phosphate/mol of enzyme tetramer). No change in phosphorylation was detected with the alpha-agonist phenylephrine, but exposure to insulin resulted in an approx. 2-fold increase. The increased phosphorylation observed with isoprenaline was found to be associated with a decrease in the apparent Ka for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate similar to that observed on phosphorylation of phosphofructokinase purified from rat epididymal white adipose tissue with the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. These results support the view [Sale & Denton (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 897-904] that an increase in cyclic AMP in adipose tissue may result in an increase in glycolysis through the phosphorylation of phosphofructokinase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.
Project description:Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a key enzyme of the glycolytic pathway in all domains of life. Two related PFKs, ATP-dependent and PP(i)-dependent PFK, have been distinguished in bacteria and eucarya, as well as in some archaea. Hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Thermococcales, including Pyrococcus and Thermococcus spp., have recently been demonstrated to possess a unique ADP-dependent PFK (ADP-PFK) that appears to be phylogenetically distinct. Here, we report the presence of ADP-PFKs in glycogen-producing members of the orders Methanococcales and Methanosarcinales, including both mesophilic and thermophilic representatives. To verify the substrate specificities of the methanogenic kinases, the gene encoding the ADP-PFK from Methanococcus jannaschii was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the produced enzyme was purified and characterized in detail. Compared to its counterparts from the two members of the order Thermococcales, the M. jannaschii ADP-PFK has an extremely low K(m) for fructose 6-phosphate (9.6 microM), and it accepts both ADP and acetyl-phosphate as phosphoryl donors. Phylogenetic analysis of the ADP-PFK reveals it to be a key enzyme of the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway of heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic archaea. Interestingly, uncharacterized homologs of this unusual kinase are present in several eucarya.
Project description:1. The effect of NH4+, Pi and K+ on phosphofructokinase from muscle and nervous tissues of a large number of animals was investigated. The activation of the enzyme from lobster abdominal muscle by NH4+ was increased synergistically by the presence of Pi or SO4(2-). In the absence of K+, NH4+ plus Pi markedly activated phosphofructokinase from all tissues studied. In the presence of 100 mM-K+, NH4+ plus Pi activated phosphofructokinase from nervous tissue and muscle of invertebrates and the enzyme from brain of vertebrates, but there was no effect of NH4+ plus Pi on the enzyme from the muscles of vertebrates. Nonetheless, NH4+ plus Pi increased the activity of vertebrate muscle phosphofructokinase in the presence of 50 mM-K+ at inhibitory concentrations of ATP, i.e. these ions de-inhibited the enzyme. In the absence of NH4+ plus Pi, K+ activated phosphofructokinase from vertebrate tissues at non-inhibitory ATP concentrations, but the effect was less marked with the enzyme from invertebrate tissues. Indeed, high concentrations of K+ (greater than 50 mM) caused inhibition of invertebrate tissue phosphofructokinase. Of the other alkali-metal ions tested, only Rb+ activated phosphofructokinase from lobster abdominal muscle and rat heart muscle. 2. The properties of lobster abdominal-muscle phosphofructokinase were studied in detail. This muscle was chosen as representative of invertebrate muscle because large quantities of tissue could be obtained from one animal and the enzyme was considerably more stable in tissue extracts than in extracts of insect flight muscle. In general, the properties of the enzyme from this tissue were similar to those of the enzyme from many other tissues: ATP concentrations above an optimum value inhibited the enzyme and this inhibition was decreased by raising the fructose 6-phosphate or the AMP concentration. In particular, NH4+ plus Pi activated the enzyme at noninhibitory concentrations of ATP and they also relieved ATP inhibition (see above). 3. It is suggested that increases in the concentration of NH4+ and Pi, under conditions of increased ATP utilization in certain muscles and/or nervous tissue, may play a part in the stimulation of glycolysis through the effects on phosphofructokinase (the effect may be a direct activation and/or a relief of ATP inhibition). Changes in the concentration of NH4+ and Pi are consistent with this theory in nervous tissue and the anaerobic type of muscles. The role of AMP deaminase in production of NH4+ from AMP in these tissues is discussed in relation to the control of glycolysis.
Project description:The iron-containing hemoglobins (Hbs) are essential proteins to serve as oxygen transporters in the blood. Among various kinds of Hbs, the earthworm Hbs are the champions in carrying oxygen due to not only their large size but also the unusually high cooperativity of ligand binding. However, the cooperative oxygen binding mechanisms are still mostly unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of Lumbricus terrestris Hb in its native, oxygenated state at 9.1 Å resolution, showing remarkable differences from the carbon monoxide-binding X-ray structure. Our structural analysis first indicates that the cooperative ligand binding of L. terrestris Hb requires tertiary and quaternary transitions in the heme pocket and a global subunit movement facilitated by intra-ring and inter-ring contacts. Moreover, the additional sinusoidal bracelet provides the confirmation for the long-standing debate about the additional electron densities absent in the X-ray crystal structure.
Project description:By using oligonucleotide primers derived from regions highly conserved in prokaryotic and eukaryotic phosphofructokinase sequences, a genomic DNA fragment was amplified and used to isolate cDNA and genomic clones coding for PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) of Entamoeba histolytica. The open reading frame consists of 1308 bp and the corresponding protein has a calculated molecular mass of 47.6 kDa. The N-terminal half of the protein shows 27-35% identity with PPi-PFKs or ATP-dependent phosphofructokinases (ATP-PFKs) of various eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The amino acid residues that form the active site of the PPi-PFK from Propionibacterium freudenreichii and the allosteric ATP-PFK from Escherichia coli are conserved within the amoeba sequence. The PPi-PFK was recombinantly expressed by using a prokaryotic expression system. The purified recombinant protein was found to be enzymically active. The K(m) values for PPi and fructose 6-phosphate of the native and the recombinant PPi-PFKs were nearly identical. Various bisphosphonates (synthetic pyrophosphate analogues) were tested for their ability to inhibit PPi-PFK activity or amoebic growth. All bisphosphonates tested were competitive inhibitors for amoeba PPi-PFK activity. The best inhibitors were CGP 48048 and zoledronate, with Ki values of 50 microM. All bisphosphonates inhibited amoebic growth. One of them (risedronate) was inhibitory at a concentration of 10 microM. Bisphosphonates are therefore potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of amoebiasis.