Flux control exerted by mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase over beta-oxidation, ketogenesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in hepatocytes isolated from rats in different metabolic states.
ABSTRACT: The Flux Control Coefficients of mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) with respect to the overall rates of beta-oxidation, ketogenesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity were measured in hepatocytes isolated from rats in different metabolic states (fed, 24 h-starved, starved-refed and starved/insulin-treated). These conditions were chosen because there is controversy as to whether, when significant control ceases to be exerted by CPT I over the rate of fatty oxidation [Moir and Zammit (1994) Trends Biochem. Sci. 19, 313-317], this is transferred to one or more steps proximal to acylcarnitine synthesis (e.g. decreased delivery of fatty acids to the liver) or to the reaction catalysed by mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase [Hegardt (1995) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 23, 486-490]. Therefore isolated hepatocytes were used in the present study to exclude the involvement of changes in the rate of delivery of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) to the liver, such as occur in vivo, and to ascertain whether, under conditions of constant supply of NEFA, CPT I retains control over the relevant fluxes of fatty acid oxidation to ketones and carbon dioxide, or whether control is transferred to another (intrahepatocytic) site. The results clearly show that the Flux Control Coefficients of CPT I with respect to overall beta-oxidation and ketogenesis are very high under all conditions investigated, indicating that control is not lost to another intrahepatic site during the metabolic transitions studied. The control of CPT I over tricarboxylic acid cycle activity was always very low. The significance of these findings for the integration of fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver is discussed.
Project description:The relationships between the increase in blood ketone-body concentrations and several parameters that can potentially influence the rate of hepatic fatty acid oxidation were studied during progressive starvation (up to 24 h) in the rat in order to discover whether the sensitivity of mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to malonyl-CoA plays an important part in determining the intrahepatic potential for fatty acid oxidation during the onset of ketogenic conditions. A rapid increase in blood ketone-body concentration occurred between 12 and 16 h of starvation, several hours after the marked fall in hepatic malonyl-CoA and in serum insulin concentrations and doubling of plasma non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Consequently, both the changes in hepatic malonyl-CoA and serum NEFA preceded the increase in blood ketone-body concentration by several hours. The maximal activity of CPT I increased gradually throughout the 24 h period of starvation, but the increases did not become significant before 18 h of starvation. By contrast, the sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA and the increase in blood ketone-body concentration followed an identical time course, demonstrating the central importance of this parameter in determining the ketogenic response of the liver to the onset of the starved state.
Project description:The development of fatty acid metabolism was studied in isolated hepatocytes from newborn rats. Ketone-body production from oleate is increased 6-fold between 0 and 16 h after birth. This increase is related to an enhanced beta-oxidation rather than to a channeling of acetyl-CoA from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to ketone-body synthesis. The increase in oleate oxidation is not related to a decreased esterification rate, as the latter is already low at birth and does not decrease further. At birth, lipogenic rate is 2-3-fold lower than in fed adult rats and it decreases to undetectable values in 16 h-old rats. A 90% inhibition of lipogenesis in hepatocytes of newborn rats (0 h) by glucagon and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid does not lead to an increased oxidation of non-esterified fatty acids. This suggests that the inverse relationship between lipogenesis and ketogenesis in the starved newborn rat is not responsible for the switch-on of fatty acid oxidation at birth. Moreover, ketogenesis from octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid the oxidation of which is independent of carnitine acyltransferase, follows the same developmental pattern at birth as that from oleate.
Project description:In newborn-pig hepatocytes, the rate of oleate oxidation is extremely low, despite a very low malonyl-CoA concentration. By contrast, the sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I to malonyl-CoA inhibition is high, as suggested by the very low concentration of malonyl-CoA required for 50% inhibition of CPT I (IC50). The rates of oleate oxidation and ketogenesis are respectively 70 and 80% lower in mitochondria isolated from newborn-pig liver than from starved-adult-rat liver mitochondria. Using polarographic measurements, we showed that the oxidation of oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-L-carnitine is very low when the acetyl-CoA produced is channelled into the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway by addition of malonate. In contrast, the oxidation of the same substrates is high when the acetyl-CoA produced is directed towards the citric acid cycle by addition of malate. We demonstrate that the limitation of ketogenesis in newborn-pig liver is due to a very low amount and activity of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase as compared with rat liver mitochondria, and suggest that this could promote the accumulation of acetyl-CoA and/or beta-oxidation products that in turn would decrease the overall rate of fatty acid oxidation in newborn- and adult-pig livers.
Project description:In hepatocytes isolated from 48 h-old starved of suckling newborn pigs or from 15-day-old starved piglets, the rate of ketogenesis from oleate or from octanoate is very low. This is not due to an inappropriate fatty acid uptake by the isolated liver cells, but results from a limited capacity for fatty acid oxidation. Some 80-95% of oleate taken up is converted into esterified fats, whatever the age or the nutritional conditions. Three lines of indirect evidences suggest that fatty acid oxidation is not controlled primarily by malonyl-CoA concentration in newborn pig liver. Firstly, the addition of glucagon does not increase fatty acid oxidation or ketogenesis. Secondly, the rate of lipogenesis is very low in isolated hepatocytes from newborn pigs. Thirdly, the rates of oxidation and ketogenesis from octanoate are also decreased in isolated hepatocytes from newborn and young piglets. The huge rate of esterification of fatty acids in the liver of the newborn pigs probably represents a species-specific difference in intrahepatic fatty acid metabolism.
Project description:The effects of the ingestion of a meal on the partitioning of hepatic fatty acids between oxidation and esterification were studied in vivo for meal-fed rats. The time course for the reversal of the starved state was extremely rapid and the process was complete within 2 h, in marked contrast with the reversal of the effects of starvation in rats fed ad libitum [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 49-55]. This rapid reversal occurred in spite of the fact that, in the liver of the meal-fed animals before feeding, a similar degree of partitioning of fatty acids in favour of oxidation was observed as in 24 h-starved rats (previously fed ad libitum). This suggested that the lower degree of ketonaemia observed in meal-fed rats before a meal is not due to the inability of acylcarnitine formation to compete successfully with esterification of fatty acids to the glycerol moiety. Investigation of the possible mechanisms that could contribute towards the rapid switching-off of fatty acid oxidation revealed that this was correlated with a very rapid rise and overshoot in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, but not with any change in the activity, or sensitivity to malonyl-CoA, of the mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I). The role of these two parameters in the reversal of fasting-induced hepatic fatty acid oxidation was thus the inverse of that observed previously for refed 24 h-starved rats. The rapid increase in [malonyl-CoA] was accompanied by an immediate and complete reversion of the kinetic characteristics (Ka for citrate, expressed/total activity ratio) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to those found in the post-meal animals, again in contrast with the time course observed in refed 24 h-starved rats [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1990) Biochem. J. 272, 511-517]. The rapidity with which these changes occurred was specific to the partitioning of acyl-CoA; the meal-induced diversion of glycerolipids towards phospholipid synthesis and the acute inhibition of the fractional rate of triacylglycerol secretion occurred with very similar time courses to those observed upon refeeding of 24 h-starved rats. The results confirm the central role played by differences in the dynamics of changes in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, and CPT I sensitivity to it, in determining the route through which ingested glucose is converted into hepatic glycogen upon refeeding of starved rats which had previously been meal-fed or fed ad libitum.
Project description:The effects of pancreatic hormones and cyclic AMP on the induction of ketogenesis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation were studied in primary cultures of hepatocytes from fetal and newborn rabbits. Hepatocytes were cultivated during 4 days in the presence of glucagon (10(-6) M), forskolin (2 x 10(-5) M), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-4) M), 8-bromo cyclic AMP (10(-4) M) or insulin (10(-7) M). Ketogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were measured using [1-14C]oleate (0.5 mM). In hepatocytes from fetuses at term, the rate of ketogenesis remained very low during the 4 days of culture. In hepatocytes from 24-h-old newborn, the rate of ketogenesis was high during the first 48 h of culture and then rapidly decreased to reach a low value similar to that measured in cultured hepatocytes from term fetuses. A 48 h exposure to glucagon, forskolin or cyclic AMP derivatives is necessary to induce ketone body production in cultured fetal hepatocytes at a rate similar to that found in cultured hepatocytes from newborn rabbits. In fetal liver cells, the induction of ketogenesis by glucagon or cyclic AMP results from changes in the partitioning of long-chain fatty acid from esterification towards oxidation. Indeed, glucagon, forskolin and cyclic AMP enhance oleate oxidation (basal, 12.7 +/- 1.6; glucagon, 50.0 +/- 5.5; forskolin, 70.6 +/- 5.4; cyclic AMP, 77.5 +/- 3.4% of oleate metabolized) at the expense of oleate esterification. In cultured fetal hepatocytes, the rate of fatty acid oxidation in the presence of cyclic AMP is similar to the rate of oleate oxidation present at the time of plating (85.1 +/- 2.6% of oleate metabolized) in newborn rabbit hepatocytes. In hepatocytes from term fetuses, the presence of insulin antagonizes in a dose-dependent fashion the glucagon-induced oleate oxidation. Neither glucagon nor cyclic AMP affect the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I). The malonyl-CoA concentration inducing 50% inhibition of CPT I (IC50) is 14-fold higher in mitochondria isolated from cultured newborn hepatocytes (0.95 microM) compared with fetal hepatocytes (0.07 microM), indicating that the sensitivity of CPT I decreases markedly in the first 24 h after birth. The addition of glucagon or cyclic AMP into cultured fetal hepatocytes decreased by 80% and 90% respectively the sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA inhibition. In the presence of cyclic AMP, the sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA inhibition in cultured fetal hepatocytes is very similar to that measured in cultured hepatocytes from 24-h-old newborns.
Project description:Fatty acid oxidation was studied in the presence of inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), in normal and in peroxisome-proliferated rat hepatocytes. The oxidation decreased in mitochondria, as expected, but in peroxisomes it increased. These two effects were seen, in variable proportions, with (+)-decanoylcarnitine, 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA) and etomoxir. The decrease in mitochondrial oxidation (ketogenesis) affected saturated fatty acids with 12 or more carbon atoms, whereas the increase in peroxisomal oxidation (H2O2 production) affected saturated fatty acids with 8 or more carbon atoms. The peroxisomal increase was sensitive to chlorpromazine, a peroxisomal inhibitor. To study possible mechanisms, palmitoyl-, octanoyl- and acetyl-carnitine acyltransferase activities were measured, in homogenates and in subcellular fractions from control and TDGA-treated cells. The palmitoylcarnitine acyltransferase was inhibited, as expected, but the octanoyltransferase activity also decreased. The CoA derivative of TDGA was synthesized and tentatively identified as being responsible for inhibition of the octanoylcarnitine acyltransferase. These results show that inhibitors of the mitochondrial CPT I may also inhibit the peroxisomal octanoyl transferase; they also support the hypothesis that the octanoyltransferase has the capacity to control or regulate peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation.
Project description:We examined the potential of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to control the hepatic catabolism of palmitoyl-CoA in suckling and adult rats, using a conceptually simplified model of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. By applying top-down control analysis, we quantified the control exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux from palmitoyl-CoA to ketone bodies and carbon dioxide. Our results show that in both suckling and adult rat, CPT I exerts very significant control over the pathways under investigation. However, under the sets of conditions we studied, less control is exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux in mitochondria isolated from suckling rats than in those isolated from adult rats. Furthermore the flux control coefficient of CPT I changes with malonyl-CoA concentration and ATP turnover rate.
Project description:1. The technique of selective labelling of hepatic fatty acids in vivo [Moir and Zammit (1992) Biochem. J. 283, 145-149] has been used to monitor non-invasively the metabolism of fatty acids in the livers of awake unrestrained rats during the starved-to-refed transition. Values for the incorporation of labelled fatty acid into liver and plasma glycerolipids and into exhaled carbon dioxide after injection of labelled lipoprotein and Triton WR 1339 into rats with chronically cannulated jugular veins were obtained for successive 1 h periods from the start of refeeding of 24 h-starved rats. 2. Starvation for 24 h resulted in marked and reciprocal changes in the incorporation of label into glycerolipids and exhaled 14CO2, such that a 4-fold higher value was obtained for the oxidation/esterification ratio in livers of starved rats compared with fed animals. 3. Refeeding of starved rats did not return this ratio to the value observed for fed animals for at least 7 h; during the first 3 h of refeeding the ratio was at least as high as that for starved rats. Between 4 h and 6 h of refeeding the ratio was still approx. 70% of that in starved animals, and 2.5-fold higher than in fed rats. 4. These data support the hypothesis that the capacity of the liver to oxidize fatty acids is maintained at a high level during the initial stages of refeeding [Grantham and Zammit (1986) Biochem. J. 239, 485-488] and that control of the flux of hepatic fatty acids into the oxidative pathway is largely lost from the reaction catalysed by mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) during this phase of recovery from the starved state. 5. Refeeding also resulted in a rapid (< 1 h) increase in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentrations to values intermediate between those in livers of fed and starved animals. The sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA inhibition in isolated liver mitochondria was only partially reversed even after 5 h of refeeding. 6. Refeeding resulted in an acute 35% inhibition of the fraction of synthesized triacylglycerol that was secreted into the plasma; the maximal effect occurred 2-3 h after the start of refeeding. The inhibition of the fractional secretion rate was fully reversed after 5 h of refeeding. 7. The amount of 14C label that was incorporated into phospholipids as a fraction of total glycerolipid synthesis was doubled within 2 h of the start of refeeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Isolated liver cells prepared from starved sheep converted palmitate into ketone bodies at twice the rate seen with cells from fed animals. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation only in liver cells from fed sheep, and completely abolished the difference between fed and starved animals in palmitate oxidation. The rates of palmitate oxidation to CO2 and of octanoate oxidation to ketone bodies and CO2 were not affected by starvation or carnitine. Neither starvation nor carnitine altered the ratio of 3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate or the rate of esterification of [1-14C]palmitate. Propionate, lactate, pyruvate and fructose inhibited ketogenesis from palmitate in cells from fed sheep. Starvation or the addition of carnitine decreased the antiketogenic effectiveness of gluconeogenic precursors. Propionate was the most potent inhibitor of ketogenesis, 0.8 mM producing 50% inhibition. Propionate, lactate, fructose and glycerol increased palmitate esterification under all conditions examined. Lactate, pyruvate and fructose stimulated oxidation of palmitate and octanoate to CO2. Starvation and the addition of gluconeogenic precursors stimulated apparent palmitate utilization by cells. Propionate, lactate and pyruvate decreased cellular long-chain acylcarnitine concentrations. Propionate decreased cell contents of CoA and acyl-CoA. It is suggested that propionate may control hepatic ketogenesis by acting at some point in the beta-oxidation sequence. The results are discussed in relation to the differences in the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism between sheep and rats.