Role of an aprotinin-sensitive protease in the activation of Ca(2+)-ATPase by superoxide radical (O2-.) in microsomes of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.
ABSTRACT: We have investigated the role of an aprotinin-sensitive protease in regulating Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Ca2+ uptake (ATP-dependent and Na(+)-dependent) in microsomes of bovine pulmonary vascular smooth muscle during treatment with the O2(-.)-generating system hypoxanthine plus xanthine oxidase. Treatment of the smooth muscle microsomes with the O2(-.)-generating system produced a protease in a gelatin-containing zymogram with an apparent molecular mass of 16 kDa. This 16 kDa proteolytic protein was found to be inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and aprotinin but not by PMSF. Using polyclonal antiserum to aprotinin, we found that it is an ambient antiprotease of the smooth muscle microsomes. Treatment of the microsomes with the O2(-.)-generating system stimulated protease activity tested with a synthetic substrate N-benzoyl-DL-arginine p-nitroanilide and also enhanced Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. It also stimulated ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. In contrast, Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ uptake was found to be inhibited by the O2(-.)-generating system. Pretreatment of the microsomes with SOD and aprotinin preserved the increase in protease activity, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. In addition, O2(-.)-caused inhibition of the Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ uptake which was reversed by SOD and aprotinin. Pretreatment with PMSF did not cause any discernible alteration in the protease activity, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ uptake in the microsomes caused by the O2(-.)-generating system. These results suggest that an aprotinin-sensitive protease plays a pivotal role in regulating Ca(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-uptake activities in microsomes of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle under oxidant O2(-.)-triggered conditions.
Project description:In chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla, heterogeneity of Ca2+ stores has been suggested with respect to the mechanisms of Ca2+ uptake and release. We have examined Ca(2+)-ATPases responsible for loading of Ca2+ stores in these cells for their sensitivity to thapsigargin, a highly selective inhibitor of the SERCA [sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase] family of intracellular Ca2+ pumps. Using immunostaining, we studied the distribution of Ca(2+)-ATPases, and of receptors for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and ryanodine, in the density-gradient fractions of microsomes from bovine adrenal medulla. In parallel, we examined distribution profiles of ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake in the same fractions, along with subcellular markers for plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two Ca(2+)-ATPase-like proteins (116 and 100 kDa) were detected, consistent with the presence of SERCA 2b and SERCA 3 isoenzymes of Ca2+ pumps. The distribution of these putative Ca(2+)-ATPase iso-enzymes paralleled that of InsP3 and ryanodine receptors. This distribution of ER Ca(2+)-ATPases, as determined immunologically, was consistent with that of thapsigargin-sensitive, but not of thapsigargin-insensitive, ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. In contrast, the distribution profile of the thapsigargin-insensitive Ca2+ uptake was strongly correlated to that of plasma membranes, and co-distributed with plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase detected immunologically. In isolated, permeabilized chromaffin cells, InsP3 and caffeine induced Ca2+ release following an ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation to the stores. This accumulation was abolished by thapsigargin. Together, these data strongly indicate that the thapsigargin-sensitive, presumably SERCA-type Ca(2+)-ATPases account for Ca2+ uptake to InsP3-sensitive, as well as to caffeine-sensitive, Ca2+ stores in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.
Project description:The Ca2+ uptake and the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase of the porcine coronary-artery smooth-muscle microsomal fraction ('microsomes') are only slightly stimulated by calmodulin. The Ca2+ uptake after 2 min in the absence of oxalate, corrected for the ATP-independent binding, increased by a factor of 1.44, whereas the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase is stimulated 1.39 times. These findings contrast with the effect observed in human erythrocyte 'inside-out' microsomes. In these vesicles calmodulin increases the Ca2+ uptake after 20 min in an oxalate-free medium and the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase respectively by a factor of 3.82 and 6.18. The magnitude of the calmodulin stimulation of the Ca2+ transport in coronary-artery microsomes is similar to that observed in heart microsomes.
Project description:Thimerosal inhibits calcium uptake in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and rat cerebellar microsomes by inhibiting the Ca(2+)-ATPase. In the presence of 5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), Ca2+ uptake and ATPase activity were not inhibited by thimerosal, indicating that thimerosal modifies cysteine residues of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. Low thimerosal concentrations (2 microM) sensitize the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive Ca2+ channel, making it open at lower InsP3 concentrations. Higher concentrations of thimerosal, however, cause inhibition of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release. Both sensitization and inhibition of the InsP3 receptor by thimerosal can be prevented by DTT. The binding and metabolism of InsP3 by cerebellar microsomes is not affected by thimerosal. The amount of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release is co-operatively linked to the InsP3 concentration with a Hill coefficient of 2.0 +/- 0.3. This is decreased to 1.0 +/- 0.2 at inhibitory concentrations of thimerosal. Under our experimental conditions, we observed no dependence of quantal Ca2+ release on intraluminal Ca2+ concentration.
Project description:The accumulation of covalently modified proteins is an important hallmark of biological aging, but relatively few studies have addressed the detailed molecular-chemical changes and processes responsible for the modification of specific protein targets. Recently, Narayanan et al. [Narayanan, Jones, Xu and Yu (1996) Am. J. Physiol. 271, C1032-C1040] reported that the effects of aging on skeletal-muscle function are muscle-specific, with a significant age-dependent change in ATP-supported Ca2+-uptake activity for slow-twitch but not for fast-twitch muscle. Here we have characterized in detail the age-dependent functional and chemical modifications of the rat skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase isoforms SERCA1 and SERCA2a from fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle respectively. We find a significant age-dependent loss in the Ca2+-ATPase activity (26% relative to Ca2+-ATPase content) and Ca2+-uptake rate specifically in SR isolated from predominantly slow-twitch, but not from fast-twitch, muscles. Western immunoblotting and amino acid analysis demonstrate that, selectively, the SERCA2a isoform progressively accumulates a significant amount of nitrotyrosine with age (approximately 3.5+/-0. 7 mol/mol of SR Ca2+-ATPase). Both Ca2+-ATPase isoforms suffer an age-dependent loss of reduced cysteine which is, however, functionally insignificant. In vitro, the incubation of fast- and slow-twitch muscle SR with peroxynitrite (ONOO-) (but not NO/O2) results in the selective nitration only of the SERCA2a, suggesting that ONOO- may be the source of the nitrating agent in vivo. A correlation of the SR Ca2+-ATPase activity and covalent protein modifications in vitro and in vivo suggests that tyrosine nitration may affect the Ca2+-ATPase activity. By means of partial and complete proteolytic digestion of purified SERCA2a with trypsin or Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, followed by Western-blot, amino acid and HPLC-electrospray-MS (ESI-MS) analysis, we localized a large part of the age-dependent tyrosine nitration to the sequence Tyr294-Tyr295 in the M4-M8 transmembrane domain of the SERCA2a, close to sites essential for Ca2+ translocation.
Project description:1. By using Ca-EGTA buffers, the Km for Ca2+ uptake into rat liver heavy microsomes (microsomal fraction) was found to be 0.2 microM free Ca2+. 2. In the absence of oxalate, these vesicles accumulate about 20 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. Efflux of Ca2+ from the vesicles is much faster at pH 7.6 than at pH 6.8, but does not apparently show saturation kinetics or any stringent requirement for external ions. 3. The steady-state distribution of Ca2+ between the microsomes and the medium in the presence of ATP and the absence of oxalate is dependent on Ca2+ load. When the vesicles are loaded to 50% capacity, the external free Ca2+ concentration is 70 nM. 4. The affinity of heavy microsomes for Ca2+ is such that is seems likely that they has a dominant role in the determination of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:The activities of Mg2+-ATPase (Mg2+-activated ATPase), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase and (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase have been determined in microsomes (microsomal fractions) obtained from rat myometrium under different hormonal conditions. Animals were either ovariectomized and treated for a prolonged period of time with 17 beta-oestradiol or progesterone, or myometria were obtained at day 21 of pregnancy. In each case the endometrium was carefully removed. The Mg2+-ATPase consists of two components: an inactivating labile component and a second constant component. The rate of ATP hydrolysis by the labile component of the Mg2+-ATPase declines exponentially as a function of time after adding the membranes to the assay medium; this inactivation is caused by the presence of ATP in the medium. This ATPase activity inhibited by ATP is catalysed by a labile enzyme and hence it gradually diminishes within a few hours, even when the microsomes are kept on ice. This labile component has the highest activity in microsomes from pregnant rats, a lower activity in progesterone-treated rats, and the lowest in 17 beta-oestradiol-treated rats. This component of the Mg2+-ATPase is not affected by 90 nM-oxytocin. The constant component of the Mg2+-ATPase must be ascribed to a different enzyme, which, in contrast with the labile component, is very stable and not affected by the hormonal status of the animal. This constant component of the Mg2+-ATPase is inhibited both by Ca2+-calmodulin, and by oxytocin in microsomes from pregnant and from progesterone-treated animals, whereas such inhibition does not occur in microsomes from 17 beta-oestradiol-treated animals. The activity of the (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase is not dependent on the hormonal status of the animal. Myometrial microsomes present an ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport, irrespective of the hormonal condition, but only in microsomes obtained from rats treated with 17 beta-oestradiol, can a (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase activity be demonstrated. This activity can be stimulated by calmodulin.
Project description:Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 induced a rapid sequestration of Ca2+ into both secretory vesicles and microsomes of bovine adrenal medulla. The Ca(2+)-sequestering role of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 contrasts with the Ca(2+)-releasing role of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in adrenal-medullary secretory vesicles and microsomes. The Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-induced Ca2+ sequestration into secretory vesicles was not inhibited by heparin (50 micrograms/ml), whereas Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was completely inhibited, indicating two different receptors for Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. Furthermore, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was as effective at 4 degrees C as at 24 degrees C in sequestering Ca2+ into secretory vesicles, implying Ca2+ sequestration through receptor-operated Ca2+ channels or activation of the Ca(2+)-exchange mechanism by Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The Ca(2+)-sequestering activity of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 has also been demonstrated with 45Ca2+; 10 microM-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 induced rapid uptake of 45Ca2+ into secretory vesicles optimized for Ca2+ uptake, whereas 10 microM-Ins(1,4,5)P3 induced 45Ca2+ release from secretory vesicles in similar experiments.
Project description:O2-dependent CA2+ uptake by rat duodenal discs has been characterized and used in a revised assay for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-induced intestinal Ca2+ transport. Although both muscle and mucosal surfaces are exposed in this free-floating-disc assay, the Ca2+ influx across the muscle surface is small, not O2- or vitamin D-dependent, and can be subtracted out. Depriving the animals of food for 9-14 h before assay increases the O2-dependent uptake by about 75%. Half-saturation values for O2-dependent Ca2+ uptake as determined with this assay are: 0.8mM-Ca2+ (fed) and 0.5mM-Ca2+ (food-deprived) for vitamin D-deficient rats, and 0.9mM-Ca2+ (fed) and 1.5mM-Ca2+ (food-deprived) for rats dosed with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The maximum velocity of uptake varies from 6.7nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (fed) to 7.0nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (food-deprived) for vitamin D-deficient rats and 16.7nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (fed) to 29 nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (food-deprived) for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-treated rats. By using a 5 min preincubation and 15 min incubation with 1.0mM-Ca2+, duodenal tissue taken from vitamin D-treated rats shows about a 3-fold increase in O2-dependent Ca2+ uptake when compared with tissue taken from vitamin D-deficient animals. The calcium ionophore A23187, depending on concentration, either has no significant effect on or inhibits the O2-dependent uptake, rather than increasing it. Actinomycin D, at a dose of 2 micrograms/g, inhibits the O2-dependent uptake in intestinal discs from both vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-treated rats by 58 and 80% respectively, when administered in vivo 3 1/2 h before assay.
Project description:We characterized and directly compared the Ca(2+)-releasing actions of two inhibitors of endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) Ca(2+)-ATPase, thapsigargin and 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ), in electropermeabilized insulin-secreting RINm5F cells. Ambient free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) was monitored by Ca(2+)-selective mini-electrodes. After ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake, thapsigargin and tBuBHQ released Ca2+ with and EC50 of approximately 37 nM and approximately 2 microM respectively. Both agents mobilized Ca2+ predominantly from the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool, and in this respect thapsigargin was more specific than tBuBHQ. The total increase in [Ca2+] obtained with thapsigargin and Ins(1,4,5)P3 was, on the average, only 7% greater than that with Ins(1,4,5)P3 alone. In contrast, the total increase in [Ca2+] obtained with tBuBHQ and Ins(1,4,5)P3 was 33% greater than that obtained with only InsP3 (P < 0.05). Although Ca2+ was rapidly mobilized by thapsigargin and tBuBHQ, complete depletion of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool was difficult to achieve. After the release by thapsigargin or tBuBHQ, Ins(1,4,5)P3 induced additional Ca2+ release. The additional Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was not altered by supramaximal concentrations of thapsigargin and tBuBHQ, or by Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of V-type ATPases, but was decreased by prolonged treatment with the ER Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors. These results suggest the existence of distinct uptake and release compartments within the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool. When treated with the inhibitors, the two compartments became distinguishable on the basis of their Ca2+ permeability. Apparently, thapsigargin and tBuBHQ readily mobilized Ca2+ from the uptake compartment, whereas Ca2+ from the release compartment could be mobilized only very slowly, in the absence of Ins(1,4,5)P3.
Project description:1. Microsomes were isolated from rabbit fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle and were separated into heavy and light fractions by centrifugation in a linear (0.3-2m) sucrose density gradient. The membrane origin of microsomal vesicles was investigated by studying biochemical markers of the sarcoplasmic-reticulum membranes and of surface and T-tubular membranes, as well as their freeze-fracture properties. 2. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed differences in the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase/calsequestrin ratio between heavy and light fractions, which were apparently consistent with their respective origin from cisternal and longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum, as well as unrelated differences, such as peptides specific to slow-muscle microsomes (mol.wts. 76000, 60000, 56000 and 45000). 3. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of muscle microsomes demonstrated that vesicles truly derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, with an average density of 9nm particles on the concave face of about 3000/mum(2) for both fast and slow muscle, were admixed with vesicles with particle densities below 1000/mum(2). 4. As determined in the light fractions, the sarcoplasmic-reticulum vesicles accounted for 84% and 57% of the total number of microsomal vesicles, for fast and slow muscle respectively. These values agreed closely with the percentage values of Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase protein obtained by gel densitometry. 5. The T-tubular origin of vesicles with a smooth concave fracture face in slow-muscle microsomes is supported by their relative high content in total phospholipid and cholesterol, compared with the microsomes of fast muscle, and by other correlative data, such as the presence of (Na(+)+K(+))-dependent ATPase activity and of low amounts of Na(+)-dependent membrane phosphorylation. 6. Among intrinsic sarcoplasmic-reticulum membrane proteins, a proteolipid of mol.wt. 12000 is shown to be identical in the microsomes of both fast and slow muscle and the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase to be antigenically and catalytically different, though electrophoretically homogeneous. 7. Basal Mg(2+)-activated ATPase activity was found to be high in light microsomes from slow muscle, but its identification with an enzyme different from the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase is still not conclusive. 8. Enzyme proteins that are suggested to be specific to slow-muscle longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum are the flavoprotein NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductase (mol.wt. 32000), cytochrome b(5) (mol.wt. 17000) and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase, though essentially by criteria of plausibility.