A rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6) expresses specific adrenomedullin binding sites but activates adenylate cyclase via calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors.
ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated specific binding sites for adrenomedullin, a novel member of the calcitonin family of peptides, in rat muscles. It is unclear whether these receptors are vascular or muscular. Receptors for the structurally similar calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are present on myocytes and might be involved in the regulation of myocyte glucose metabolism and control by motor neurons. We investigated whether adrenomedullin binding sites were present on L6 myocytes. Specific [125I]adrenomedullin binding sites were demonstrated where adrenomedullin competed with an IC50 of 0.22 +/- 0.04 nM (mean +/- S.E.M.) and a concentration of binding sites (Bmax) of 0.95 +/- 0.19 pmol/mg of protein (mean +/- S.E.M.). CGRP and the specific CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37) competed weakly at this site (IC50 > 10 and 601 +/- 298 nM respectively). Binding studies with [125I]CGRP revealed a binding site for CGRP (IC50 = 0.13 +/- 0.01 nM; Bmax = 0.83 +/- 0.10 pmol/mg of protein) where both CGRP(8-37) and adrenomedullin competed with [125I]CGRP with IC50 values of 1.15 +/- 0.12 and 8.68 +/- 0.98 nM respectively. Chemical cross-linking showed the CGRP and adrenomedullin binding site-ligand complexes to have approximate molecular masses of 82 and 76 kDa respectively. Both CGRP and adrenomedullin increased adenylate cyclase activity with similar potencies. In both cases adenylate cyclase activation was blocked by CGRP(8-37). Stimulation with 10 nM adrenomedullin or CGRP caused an increase in the percentage of total activated cellular cAMP-dependent protein kinase from 38% in resting cells to 100% and 98% respectively. Therefore in L6 cells adrenomedullin can bind to CGRP receptors, activating adenylate cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
Project description:Rat-2 fibroblasts demonstrate specific binding of 125I-labelled rat adrenomedullin (KD=0.43 nM; Bmax=50 fmol/mg of protein) in the absence of 125I-labelled calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding. Therefore Rat-2 cells were used to examine the pharmacology and signal transduction pathways of adrenomedullin receptors. We examined the effects of adrenomedullin, the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP-(8-37) and the amylin antagonists AC187 and AC253 on receptor binding and cAMP production. AC253, AC187 and CGRP-(8-37) inhibited 125I-adrenomedullin binding, with respective IC50 values of 25+/-8, 129+/-39 and 214+/-56 nM. Adrenomedullin dose-dependently increased intracellular cAMP (approximate EC50=1.0 nM). CGRP-(8-37), AC253 and AC187 antagonized adrenomedullin-stimulated cAMP production at micromolar concentrations. Using kinase-substrate assays, Mono Q FPLC and 'phospho-specific' Western blotting, we found that adrenomedullin alone abolished basal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and dose-dependently inhibited platelet-derived-growth-factor-stimulated MAPK activity. Radioimmunoassay for adrenomedullin of media from Rat-2 cells showed a linear release of adrenomedullin-like immunoreactivity of 3.1 fmol/h per 2x10(6) cells. Gel-filtration chromatography showed that this adrenomedullin-like immunoreactivity co-eluted with synthetic rat adrenomedullin. Northern blotting with a rat adrenomedullin cDNA probe was used to confirm the presence of adrenomedullin mRNA. However, neither Northern blotting nor reverse transcriptase-PCR showed the presence of the cloned adrenomedullin receptor (L1). We conclude that the Rat-2 cell line expresses a specific adrenomedullin receptor (coupled to cAMP production and regulation of MAPK) and secretes adrenomedullin, which may participate in a regulatory control loop.
Project description:This study examines whether the high degree of sequence identity between amylin and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) is reflected in their cross-reactivity at the level of membrane receptor binding. Rat liver plasma membranes contain a specific saturable binding site for 125I-labelled human CGRP-1. Binding reached equilibrium within 30 min and was rapidly reversed by re-incubating membranes in the presence of 1 microM human CGRP. In addition, the presence of 50 mM- or 500 mM-NaCl lowered specific binding by 30% and 77% respectively. Scatchard analysis was consistent with a single high-affinity site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.125 nM and binding capacity (Bmax.) of 580 fmol/mg of membrane protein. Specific binding of 125I-labelled human CGRP-1 to both liver and skeletal muscle membranes was inhibited by human CGRP-1 [IC50 (concn. causing half-maximal inhibition of binding) 0.1-0.3 nM], and rat amylin (IC50 10 nM), but not by human calcitonin. Covalent cross-linking of 125I-CGRP to its binding site in rat skeletal muscle and liver membranes resulted in labelling of a major species of about 70 kDa under reducing conditions and about 55 kDa under alkylating conditions, as visualized on SDS/PAGE. These radiolabelled species were absent in the presence of CGRP or amylin at 1 microM. These results are indicative of a common binding site for both CGRP and amylin in liver and skeletal muscle, and it is suggested that both peptides mediate their actions through the same effector system. The normal physiological importance and the relevance to the pathology of type 2 diabetes of these data are discussed.
Project description:Both amylin and calcitonin-gene-related neuropeptide (CGRP) activated adenylate cyclase activity in hepatocyte membranes around 5-fold in a dose-dependent fashion, with EC50 values of 120 +/- 14 and 0.3 +/- 0.14 nM respectively. Whereas amylin exhibited normal activation kinetics (Hill coefficient, h approximately 1), CGRP showed kinetics indicative of either multiple sites/receptor species having different affinities for this ligand or a single receptor species exhibiting apparent negative co-operativity (h approximately 0.21). The CGRP antagonist CGRP-(8-37)-peptide inhibited adenylate cyclase stimulated by EC50 concentrations of either amylin or CGRP. Inhibition by CGRP-(8-37) was selective in that markedly lower concentrations were required to block the action of amylin (IC50 = 3 +/- 1 nM) compared with that of CGRP itself (IC50 = 120 +/- 11 nM). Dose-effect data for inhibition of CGRP action by CGRP-(8-37) showed normal saturation kinetics (h approximately 1), whereas CGRP-(8-37) inhibited amylin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a fashion which was indicative of either multiple sites or apparent negative co-operativity (h approximately 0.24). Observed changes in the kinetics of inhibition by CGRP-(8-37) of CGRP, but not amylin-stimulated adenylate cyclase, at concentrations of agonists below their EC50 values militated against a model of two distinct populations of non-interacting receptors each able to bind both amylin and CGRP. A kinetic model is proposed whereby a single receptor, capable of being activated by both CGRP and amylin, obeys either a mnemonical kinetic mechanism or one of negative co-operativity with respect to CGRP but not to amylin. The relative merits of these two models are discussed together with a proposal suggesting that the activation of adenylate cyclase by various G-protein-linked receptors may be described by a mnemonical model mechanism.
Project description:The effect of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) on adenylate cyclase activity was studied in rat platelet membranes. ANF-(99-126)-, -(101-126)-, -(103-126)- and -(103-123)-peptide inhibited adenylate cyclase activity in a concentration-dependent manner with an order of potency of ANF-(103-123)-peptide greater than ANF-(99-126)-peptide greater than ANF-(101-126)-peptide greater than ANF-(103-126)-peptide. ANF-(103-123)-peptide and ANF-(99-126)-peptide inhibited the enzyme activity by about 50-55%, with an apparent Ki between 0.1 and 0.5 nM, and ANF-(101-126)-peptide inhibited the enzyme activity by about 35%, with an apparent Ki between 1 and 3 nM. On the other hand, ANF-(103-126)-peptide was the least potent and inhibited the adenylate cyclase activity by about 30% (Ki approximately 10 nM). The inhibitory effect of ANF on adenylate cyclase was also dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotides and was attenuated by amiloride and pertussis toxin. The stimulatory effects of various agonists such as N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine, prostaglandin E1, isoprenaline and forskolin on adenylate cyclase were also inhibited by ANF to various extents; however, the stimulations were not completely abolished. In addition, 125I-labelled ANF-(99-126)-peptide bound specifically to rat platelet membranes. The binding of 125I-ANF was competitively inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the unlabelled peptides which were used for adenylate cyclase inhibition. ANF-(103-123)-peptide, ANF-(99-126)-peptide and ANF-(101-126)-peptide were almost equipotent [IC50 (median inhibitory concentration) = 0.1-1 nM], and ANF-(103-126)-peptide was the least potent (IC50 approximately 10 nM). Scatchard analysis of the data revealed the presence of a single class of binding sites of high affinity (Kd approximately 120 pM). Affinity cross-linking of 125I-ANF-(99-126)-peptide to its binding sites in rat platelet membranes and analysis by SDS/PAGE followed by autoradiography showed a predominant labelling of a protein band with an apparent Mr of 66,000. These data indicate the presence of only ANF-R2 (low-Mr) receptors in platelets and suggest that these receptors may be coupled to the adenylate cyclase system.
Project description:We describe the status of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in regenerating liver. VIP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was markedly decreased in proliferating liver 3 days after partial (70%) hepatectomy. This was associated with a reduced efficacy of VIP (53% compared with controls), with no change in the potency of the peptide (ED50 0.8 nM). In contrast, forskolin- and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (Gpp[NH]p)-stimulated enzyme activities were not decreased after hepatectomy. The expression of Gs protein subunits (alpha and beta) was studied by cholera toxin-catalysed ADP ribosylation of alpha s and by immunoblotting of alpha s and beta subunits. Both subunits were increased in regenerating liver, further suggesting that the decreased response to VIP was not related to a decreased expression of Gs proteins. In fact, the reduced adenylate cyclase response to VIP in regenerating liver was associated with quantitative and structural changes in VIP receptors. Equilibrium binding data obtained with 125I-VIP indicated the presence of two classes of binding sites, the Kds of which were not altered after hepatectomy. In contrast, changes in binding capacity (Bmax.) were as follows: 0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 pmol/mg of protein for high-affinity sites in control and hepatectomized rats respectively; and 2.3 +/- 0.2 and 0.65 +/- 0.03 pmol/mg of protein for low-affinity sites in control and hepatectomized rats respectively. Moreover, affinity labelling experiments showed that the M(r) value of 125I-VIP-receptor complexes was higher in regenerating liver than in quiescent hepatocytes, e.g. 58,000 and 53,000 respectively. It is concluded that VIP receptors are altered in regenerating liver, resulting in a decreased response of adenylate cyclase to the neuropeptide.
Project description:The adenosine agonist [3H]CGS21680 (2-[4-[[2-carboxyethyl]phenyl]ethylamino]-5'- N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) bound to A2 receptors in human striatal membranes with a Kd of 17.8 +/- 1.1 nM and a Bmax of 313 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein. The addition of 100 microM GTP diminished both the affinity of agonist radioligand for A2 adenosine binding sites and the total binding, resulting in Kd and Bmax values of 28.6 +/- 1.0 nM and 185 +/- 22 fmol/mg of protein. Adenosine ligands competed for [3H]CGS21680 with the expected potency order. The adenosine antagonist [3H]XAC (8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)-amino]carbonyl]methyl] oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropylxanthine), although A1-selective in the rat, binds to human striatal A2 receptors with high affinity. 25 nM CPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), an A1-selective antagonist, was added to the incubation medium and effectively eliminated 91% of [3H]XAC (1 nM) binding to human A1 receptors, yet preserved 90% of binding to A2 receptors. [3H]XAC exhibited saturable, specific binding (50% of total) to A2 sites with a Kd of 2.98 +/- 0.54 nM and a Bmax of 0.71 +/- 0.23 pmol/mg protein (25 degrees C, non-specific binding defined with 100 microM NECA). The potency order for antagonists against 1 nM [3H]XAC was CGS15943A greater than XAC approximately PD115,119 greater than PAPA-XAC greater than CPX greater than HTQZ approximately XCC approximately CP-66,713 greater than theophylline approximately caffeine, indicative of an A2-type binding site. A2a-receptors were found to be present in the human cortex, albeit at a much lower density than in the striatum. Photoaffinity labeling using 125I-PAPA-APEC revealed a molecular weight of 45K, but proteolytic cleavage was observed, resulting in fragments of MW 43K and 37K. In the absence of proteolytic inhibitors the 37K fragment, which still bound 125I-PAPA-APEC, was predominant.
Project description:Binding of 125I-labelled tetanus toxin to rat brain membranes in 25 mM-Tris/acetate, pH 6.0, was saturable and there was a single class of high-affinity site (KD 0.26-1.14 nM) present in high abundance (Bmax. 0.9-1.89 nmol/mg). The sites were largely resistant to proteolysis and heating but were markedly sensitive to neuraminidase. Trisialogangliosides were effective inhibitors of toxin binding (IC50 10 nM) and trisialogangliosides inserted into membranes lacking a toxin receptor were able to bind toxin with high affinity (KD 2.6 nM). The results are consistent with previous studies and the hypothesis that di- and trisialogangliosides act as the primary receptor for tetanus toxin under these conditions. In contrast, when toxin binding was assayed in Krebs-Ringer buffer, pH 7.4, binding was greatly reduced, was non-saturable and competition binding studies showed evidence for a small number of high-affinity sites (KD 0.42 nM, Bmax. 0.90 pmol/mg) and a larger number of low-affinity sites (KD 146 nM, Bmax. 179 pmol/mg). Treatment of membranes with proteinases, heat, and neuraminidase markedly reduced binding. Trisialogangliosides were poor inhibitors of toxin binding (IC50 11.0 microM), and trisialogangliosides inserted into membranes bound toxin with low affinity. The results suggest that in physiological buffers tetanus toxin binds with high affinity to a protein receptor, and that gangliosides represent only a low-affinity site.
Project description:We used cultured rat lung fibroblasts to evaluate the role of particulate and soluble guanylate cyclase in the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)-induced stimulation of cyclic GMP. ANF receptors were identified by binding of 125I-ANF to confluent cells at 37 degrees C. Specific ANF binding was rapid and saturable with increasing concentrations of ANF. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) was 0.66 +/- 0.077 nM and the Bmax. was 216 +/- 33 fmol bound/10(6) cells, which corresponds to 130,000 +/- 20,000 sites/cell. The molecular characteristics of ANF binding sites were examined by affinity cross-linking of 125I-ANF to intact cells with disuccinimidyl suberate. ANF specifically labelled two sites with molecular sizes of 66 and 130 kDa, which we have identified in other cultured cells. ANF and sodium nitroprusside produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cyclic GMP. An increase in cyclic GMP by ANF was detected at 1 nM, and at 100 nM an approx. 100-fold increase in cyclic GMP was observed. Nitroprusside stimulated cyclic GMP at 10 nM and at 1 mM a 500-600-fold increase in cyclic GMP occurred. The simultaneous addition of 100 nM-ANF and 10 microM-nitroprusside to cells resulted in cyclic GMP levels that were additive. ANF increased the activity of particulate guanylate cyclase by about 10-fold, but had no effect on soluble guanylate cyclase. In contrast, nitroprusside did not alter the activity of particulate guanylate cyclase, but increased the activity of soluble guanylate cyclase by 17-fold. These results demonstrate that rat lung fibroblasts contain ANF receptors and suggest that the ANF-induced stimulation of cyclic GMP is mediated entirely by particulate guanylate cyclase.
Project description:The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 in culture exhibits a cyclic AMP production system highly sensitive to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), making HT-29 cells a unique cultured cell system for studying the mechanism of VIP action [Laburthe, Rousset, Boissard, Chevalier, Zweibaum & Rosselin (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 2772-2775]. The quantitative characteristics of VIP receptors in HT-29 cells and their structural requirement and molecular size were studied. 125I-labeled VIP bound in a time-dependent manner to HT-29 cell homogenates. At equilibrium (60 min incubation at 30 degrees C), unlabelled VIP in the 0.01-10 nM concentration range competed with 125I-VIP for binding to cell homogenates. Scatchard analysis of binding data gave a straight line, indicating that VIP bound to a single population of sites with a KD of 0.12 +/- 0.02 nM and a capacity of 120 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein. The structural requirement of these receptors was studied with peptides structurally related to VIP, either natural or synthetic. Several peptides inhibited 125I-VIP binding to HT-29 cell homogenates with the following order of potency, which is typical of the human VIP receptor: VIP (IC50 = 0.1 nM) greater than VIP-(2-28)-peptide (IC50 = 13 nM) greater than human growth hormone releasing factor (IC50 = 56 nM) greater than peptide histidine isoleucine amide (IC50 = 80 nM) greater than secretin (IC50 greater than 10 000 nM). To characterize the molecular component(s) of the VIP receptor in HT-29 cells, 125I-VIP was covalently bound to cell homogenates by using the cross-linker dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate). Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel autoradiographic studies of affinity-labelled cell homogenates revealed two major bands, corresponding to 125I-VIP-protein complexes of Mr 66 000 and 16 000. The labelling of the Mr-66 000 component was specific, since it was abolished by native VIP, whereas that of the Mr-16 000 component was not. Densitometric scanning of autoradiographs indicated that the labelling of the Mr-66 000 complex was inhibited by low VIP concentrations in the 0.1-10 nM range (IC50 = 0.6 nM), but was unaffected by 1 microM-glucagon or octapeptide of cholecystokinin. It was also decreased by VIP-(2-28)-peptide with a potency 1% that of VIP. Assuming that one molecule of 125I-VIP bound per molecule of protein, one protein of Mr 63 000 was identified as a component of the VIP receptor in HT-29 cells.
Project description:Inhibition of receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase by hormones is proposed to be associated with GTP hydrolysis. Since adenosine inhibits cerebral-cortical adenylate cyclase via A1 adenosine receptors, the present study attempts to verify this mechanism for A1-selective adenosine derivatives. In guinea-pig cortical membranes N6-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA) increased the Vmax. of the low-Km GTPase, with an EC50 (concentration causing 50% of maximal stimulation) of about 0.1 microM, and the stimulatory effect was competitively antagonized by 5 microM-8-phenyltheophylline. The rank order of potency of the stereoisomers of PIA and of 5-(N-ethylcarboxamido)adenosine (NECA) to stimulate GTPase correlated with their ability to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity (R-PIA greater than NECA greater than S-PIA). Competition binding studies with (-)-N6- ([125I]iodo-4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl)adenosine suggest that adenylyl imidodiphosphate (p[NH]ppA), an essential component of the GTPase assay system, is a more potent A1-receptor agonist than ATP, with an IC50 (concentration giving half-maximal displacement of radioligand binding) of 7.9 microM. On the basis of the p[NH]ppA concentration used in the GTPase assay (1.25 mM), enzyme stimulation by adenosine seems to be highly underestimated. Nevertheless, adenosine-induced GTP hydrolysis reflects an increased turnover of guanine nucleotides at the Ni regulatory site and appears to be a crucial step in the sequence of events processing the inhibitory signal to adenylate cyclase.