Separate upstream and convergent downstream pathways of G-protein- and phorbol ester-mediated Ca2+ sensitization of myosin light chain phosphorylation in smooth muscle.
ABSTRACT: The effect of phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) on diacylglycerol (sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, diC8)- and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization and on the relationship between phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chains (MLC20) and force during Ca2+ sensitization were investigated in rabbit portal vein (PV), femoral artery (FA) and ileum smooth muscle. The effects of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and agonists on the membrane versus cytosolic distribution of PKC isoenzymes were also determined. Down-regulation of PKC abolished Ca2+ sensitization of force and the accompanying increases in MLC20 phosphorylation induced by PDBu, as well as Ca2+ sensitization of force by diC8, but not that by GTP[S], aluminum fluoride (AIF4-) or agonists (phenylephrine, endothelin or carbachol). Down-regulation also inhibited the PDBu-, but not the GTP[S]-induced increase in force under Ca(2+)-free conditions. In ileum, PDBu translocated PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta to the membrane fraction, and GTP[S] caused a small translocation of PKC-epsilon. Carbachol- and GTP[S]-induced Ca2+ sensitization remained unaffected in down-regulated ileum in which no cytosolic PKC-epsilon was detectable. We conclude that, although both phorbol ester-induced and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization of force are mediated by increased MLC20 phosphorylation, it is likely that PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta do not play an essential role in, although they may contribute to, the G-protein-coupled mechanism.
Project description:1. To investigate the role of protein kinase C in the increase mediated by guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the sensitivity of the contractile proteins to Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle, the effect of a novel peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC19-36) on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was studied in the presence and absence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) in beta-escin-skinned smooth muscle strips of rabbit mesenteric artery. For comparison, the effects were also observed of PKC19-36 on the action of phorbol 12,13-dibutylate (PDBu, an activator of PKC) on the two Ca(2+)-induced responses. 2. In beta-escin-skinned strips treated with ionomycin, Ca2+ (0.1-3 microM) concentration-dependently produced contraction in parallel with an increase in MLC-phosphorylation. GTP gamma S (10 microM) and PDBu (0.1 microM) each shifted both the Ca(2+)-force and Ca(2+)-MLC-phosphorylation relationships to the left without a significant change in either maximum response. The relationship between force and MLC-phosphorylation was not modified by either GTP gamma S or PDBu, indicating that the sensitivity of MLC-phosphorylation to Ca2+ is enhanced by both GTP gamma S and PDBu. 3. PKC19-36 itself modified neither the contraction nor MLC-phosphorylation induced by Ca2+ but it did block the PDBu-induced enhancement of these two Ca(2+)-induced responses. By contrast, PKC19-36 did not modify the GTP gamma S-induced enhancement of the two Ca(2+)-induced responses. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP Beta S) attenuated the GTP gamma S-induced enhancement of the Ca2+-induced contraction.4. These results suggest that GTP gamma S increases Ca2+-induced MLC-phosphorylation through the activation of a PKC-independent mechanism and thus causes an increase in the sensitivity of the contractile proteins to Ca2+ in Beta-escin-skinned smooth muscle of rabbit mesenteric artery.
Project description:Adrenaline or UK 14304 (a specific alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) and phorbol ester (phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate; PdBu) or bioactive diacylglycerols (sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol; DiC8) synergistically induced platelet aggregation and ATP secretion. The effect on aggregation was more pronounced than the effect on secretion, and it was observed in aspirinized, platelet-rich plasma or suspensions of washed aspirinized platelets containing ADP scavengers. No prior shape change was found. In the presence of adrenaline, DiC8 induced reversible aggregation and PdBu evoked irreversible aggregation that correlated with the different kinetics of DiC8- and PdBu-induced protein kinase C activation. Adrenaline and UK 14304 did not induce or enhance phosphorylation induced by DiC8 or PdBu of myosin light chain (20 kDa), the substrate of protein kinase C (47 kDa), or a 38 kDa protein. Immunoprecipitation studies using a Gcommon alpha antiserum or a Gi alpha antiserum showed that Gi alpha is not phosphorylated after exposure of platelets to PdBu or PdBu plus adrenaline. Adrenaline, PdBu or adrenaline plus PdBu did not cause stimulation of phospholipase C as reflected in production of [32P]phosphatidic acid. Adrenaline caused a small increase of Ca2+ in the platelet cytosol of platelets loaded with Indo-1; this effect was also observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. However, under conditions of maximal aggregation induced by adrenaline plus PdBu, no increase of cytosolic Ca2+ was observed. Platelet aggregation induced by PdBu plus adrenaline was not inhibited by a high intracellular concentration of the calcium chelator Quin-2. These experiments indicate that alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, known to interact with Gi, and protein kinase C activators synergistically induced platelet aggregation through a novel mechanism. The synergism occurs distally to Gi protein activation and protein kinase C-dependent protein phosphorylation and does not involve phospholipase C activation or Ca2+ mobilization.
Project description:The protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes expressed by bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) were identified at the protein and mRNA levels. Western immunoblot analyses reliably identified PKCalpha, PKCbetaI and PKCbetaII. In some experiments immunoreactive bands corresponding to PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCTheta were also labelled, whereas the gamma, eta and zeta isoforms of PKC were never detected. Reverse transcriptase PCR of RNA extracted from BTSM using oligonucleotide primer pairs designed to recognize unique sequences in the PKC genes for which protein was absent or not reproducibly identified by immunoblotting, amplified cDNA fragments that corresponded to the predicted sizes of PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, which was confirmed by Southern blotting. Anion-exchange chromatography of the soluble fraction of BTSM following homogenization in Ca2+-free buffer resolved two major peaks of activity. Using epsilon-peptide as the substrate, the first peak of activity was dependent upon Ca2+ and 4beta-PDBu (PDBu=phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate), and represented a mixture of PKCs alpha, betaI and betaII. In contrast, the second peak of activity, which eluted at much higher ionic strength, also appeared to comprise a combination of conventional PKCs that were arbitrarily denoted PKCalpha', PKCbetaI' and PKCbetaII'. However, these novel enzymes were cofactor-independent and did not bind [3H]PDBu, but were equally sensitive to the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X compared with bona fide conventional PKCs, and migrated on SDS/polyacrylamide gels as 81 kDa polypeptides. Taken together, these data suggest that PKCs alpha', betaI' and betaII' represent modified, but not proteolysed, forms of their respective native enzymes that retain antibody immunoreactivity and sensitivity to PKC inhibitors, but have lost their sensitivity to Ca2+ and PDBu when epsilon-peptide is used as the substrate.
Project description:In this paper, we demonstrate that low concentrations (0.5-2.5 microM) of 1,2-sn-dioctanoylglycerol (DiC8), a potent diacylglycerol used in many previous studies to probe the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in cell activation, cause cytosolic alkalinization of human, mouse and pig T lymphocytes through PKC-mediated activation of the Na+/H+ antiport. However, at higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 12.5 microM), the effect on cytosolic pH (pHi) is reversed, resulting in a marked cytosolic acidification, followed by a gradual return of pHi to baseline values. DiC8 also induces marked changes in cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i), initially by releasing calcium from intracellular stores, followed by a net transmembrane influx of calcium. The DiC8-induced cytosolic acidification, the resultant return to baseline pH and the increase in [Ca2+]i are independent of activation of PKC. Unlike many other agents which increase [Ca2+]i, DiC8 does not induce phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis with the resultant production of inositol phosphates. Other compounds known to activate PKC, including the closely related diacylglycerol analogues, 1,2-sn-dihexanoylglycerol and 1,2-sn-didecanoylglycerol, phorbol esters and mezerein, did not induce changes in [Ca2+]i or cytosolic acidification in T lymphocytes. Thus the action of DiC8 on intact lymphocytes is different from that of phorbol esters and other diacylglycerols, and is specific to the length of the acyl chains. Because changes in [Ca2+]i are often associated with cell proliferation and cell differentiation, some effects of DiC8 on intact cells may be a consequence of changes in [Ca2+]i.
Project description:The effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activation on muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide and Ca2+ signalling were examined in the human neuroblastoma, SH-SY5Y. Carbachol evoked rapid transient elevations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and intracellular [Ca2+] followed by lower sustained elevations. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) preferentially attenuated transient phases. Removal of the transplasmalemmal Ca2+ gradient coupled with depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin also reduced carbachol-mediated Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation. Under these conditions, PDBu virtually abolished Ins(1,4,5)P3 responses to carbachol thereby implicating both Ca(2+)- and PKC-sensitive components. PDBu also reduced agonist-mediated accumulation of inositol phosphates and depletion of lipids, thereby eliminating an effect of PKC on Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism or phosphoinositide synthesis. In electroporated cells, PDBu inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation mediated by carbachol or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate, the latter indicating that some PDBu-sensitive elements were downstream of the receptor. The PKC inhibitor, Ro-318220, protected against PDBu but did not enhance responses to maximal concentrations of carbachol, indicating no feedback inhibition by agonist-activated PKC. Muscarinic antagonist activity of Ro-318220 complicated such assessment at low agonist concentrations. Carbachol or PDBu induced cytosol to membrane translocation of PKC alpha. This was faster and possibly greater with PDBu, which may explain the lack of feedback by agonist-activated PKC. These results indicate that, in SH-SY5Y cells, PDBu activation of PKC preferentially inhibits rapid muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide and Ca2+ responses via suppression of PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. This is at least partially through inhibition of Gq-protein/phosphoinositidase C coupling. However, at least at high agonist concentrations, a major agonist-mediated PKC feedback is not present in these cells.
Project description:The role of Ca2+ was examined in regulating the binding of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) to intact human platelets. Alterations in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concn. [( Ca2+]i), but not extracellular Ca2+, substantially influenced the binding parameters of the phorbol ester. Ca(2+)-depleted platelets demonstrated a significant decline in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax), an increase in equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and a decrease in the Hill coefficient (h), suggesting the presence of Ca(2+)-sensitive and Ca(2+)-insensitive populations of PdBu-binding sites. In 1 mM-Ca2+ buffer, thrombin (0.1 NIH unit/ml) and ionomycin (0.5 microM) evoked a rise in [Ca2+]i to approx. 300-500 nM, associated with a significant decline in Kd, but without an apparent effect on Bmax. No effect of thrombin was observed on PdBu binding in Ca(2+)-depleted platelets. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by H7 was associated with a greater thrombin-evoked [Ca2+]i transient and a decline in Kd. Staurosporine also decreased the Kd for PdBu binding. We propose that this effect of the PKC inhibitors on the Kd was also [Ca2+]i-dependent. These observations in intact platelets indicate that the primary role of agonist- or non-agonist-induced rise in [Ca2+]i is to increase the affinity of PKC for PdBu and, presumably, endogenous diacylglycerol. However, in itself a rise in [Ca2+]i does not increase the Bmax, for PdBu binding.
Project description:Resident mouse peritoneal macrophages synthesized and released prostaglandins (PGs) when challenged with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) or 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8). Both stimuli were found to activate Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC). 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine ('H-7') and D-sphingosine, known to inhibit PKC by different mechanisms, were able to decrease the PKC activity of macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of either PKC inhibitor decreased PG synthesis and also the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from phospholipids induced by TPA or DiC8. Simultaneously TPA or DiC8 also decreased incorporation of free AA into membrane phospholipids of macrophages. AA incorporation could be restored, however, by pretreatment with the PKC inhibitors. Our results demonstrate an involvement of PKC in the regulation of PG synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages and provide further evidence that reacylation of released fatty acids may be an important regulatory step.
Project description:Activation of human T lymphocytes leads to the phosphorylation of the CD3-antigen gamma polypeptide. We have investigated a possible role for protein kinase C (PKC) in mediating this phosphorylation event by using T cells permeabilized with streptolysin-O in the presence of 120 mM-K+ buffers containing Ca2+-EGTA. The gamma-chain was phosphorylated by [gamma-32P]ATP in permeabilized T lymphoblasts in the presence of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (Pdbu) or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Ca2+ alone in the range 0.5-1.0 microM also induced gamma-chain phosphorylation in some T-lymphoblast preparations; that in Jurkat-6 cells occurred at lower concentrations (50-500 nM). Two experimental approaches were used to investigate the possible involvement of PKC. Firstly, when permeabilization was carried out in buffer lacking free Ca2+, PKC was lost from the cells, and gamma-chain phosphorylation could then no longer be induced on subsequent addition of Pdbu or PHA in 400 nM-Ca2+, or 800 nM-Ca2+ alone, to permeabilized cells. However, when permeabilization was carried out in the presence of these three agents, PKC was translocated to intracellular membranes, and subsequent addition of [gamma-32P]ATP to these cells then resulted in gamma-chain phosphorylation. In the second approach, induction of gamma-chain phosphorylation by Pdbu, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, 1,2-diolein, PHA or Ca2+ alone was effectively blocked by permeabilizing T cells in the presence of a PKC pseudosubstrate peptide (50 microM). Pseudosubstrate concentrations in the range 7-20 microM inhibited gamma-chain phosphorylation by 50%. In contrast, addition of four other 'irrelevant' basic peptides (50 microM) did not result in detectable inhibition, and 50 microM-pseudosubstrate did not inhibit the phosphorylation of 17 other polypeptides isolated from permeabilized T cells. These data suggest that Pdbu-, 1,2-diacylglycerol-, PHA- and Ca2+-induced phosphorylation of the CD3-antigen gamma chain in permeabilized T cells is mediated by PKC.
Project description:In cultured glomerular mesangial cells, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) has been shown to induce a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide (NO). In parallel, increased levels of mRNA of an inducible macrophage-type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were observed after incubating mesangial cells with IL-1 beta. Here we report that addition of the biologically active phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), dose-dependently inhibited the IL-1 beta-stimulated increase in iNOS mRNA levels and nitrite production. In contrast, the biologically inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, had no effect on cytokine induction of iNOS and nitrite formation. Incubation of mesangial cells with PMA or PDBu alone, in the absence of IL-1 beta, did not trigger any iNOS expression. Time-course studies indicated that phorbol ester needs to be added for only 1 h in order to maximally inhibit cytokine-induced nitrite production. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and -delta isoenzymes by 8 h PMA or PDBu treatment before stimulation with IL-1 beta still resulted in full inhibition of iNOS induction. In contrast, a 24 h treatment of mesangial cells with PMA or PDBu, a regimen that also causes depletion of PKC-epsilon, abolished inhibition of IL-1 beta-induced iNOS expression and nitrite production. In addition, the selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C potentiated IL-1 beta induction of iNOS activity. In summary these data suggest that IL-1 beta induction of iNOS expression is tonically suppressed by PKC and the epsilon-isoenzyme is the most likely candidate mediating this effect.
Project description:Regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) via protein kinase C (PKC) and the 17 kDa PKC-potentiated inhibitor of myosin light chain phosphatase (CPI-17) has been reported as a Ca(2+) sensitization signaling pathway in smooth muscle (SM), and thus may be involved in tonic vs. phasic contractions. This study examined the protein expression and spatial-temporal distribution of PKC? and CPI-17 in intact SM tissues. KCl or carbachol (CCh) stimulation of tonic stomach fundus SM generates a sustained contraction while the phasic stomach antrum generates a transient contraction. In addition, the tonic fundus generates greater relative force than phasic antrum with 1 µM phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) stimulation which is reported to activate the PKC? - CPI-17 pathway. Western blot analyses demonstrated that this contractile difference was not caused by a difference in the protein expression of PKC? or CPI-17 between these two tissues. Immunohistochemical results show that the distribution of PKC? in the longitudinal and circular layers of the fundus and antrum do not differ, being predominantly localized near the SM cell plasma membrane. Stimulation of either tissue with 1 µM PDBu or 1 µM CCh does not alter this peripheral PKC? distribution. There are no differences between these two tissues for the CPI-17 distribution, but unlike the PKC? distribution, CPI-17 appears to be diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm under relaxed tissue conditions but shifts to a primarily peripheral distribution at the plasma membrane with stimulation of the tissues with 1 µM PDBu or 1 µM CCh. Results from double labeling show that neither PKC? nor CPI-17 co-localize at the adherens junction (vinculin/talin) at the membrane but they do co-localize with each other and with caveoli (caveolin) at the membrane. This lack of difference suggests that the PKC? - CPI-17 pathway is not responsible for the tonic vs. phasic contractions observed in stomach fundus and antrum.