Ktr1p is an alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Comparison of the enzymic properties of soluble recombinant Ktr1p and Kre2p/Mnt1p produced in Pichia pastoris.
ABSTRACT: The yeast genome contains a KRE2/MNT1 family of nine related genes with amino acid similarity to the alpha 1,2-mannosyltransferase Kre2p/Mnt1p, the only member of this family whose enzymic properties have been studied. In this study, the enzymic properties of Ktr1p, another member of this family, were studied and compared to those of Kre2p/Mnt1p. Recombinant soluble forms of Kre2p/Mnt1p and Ktr1p lacking their N-terminal regions were expressed as secreted proteins from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. After induction with methanol, the medium contained approx, 40 and 400 mg/l of soluble recombinant Kre2p/Mnt1p and Ktr1p respectively. Both recombinant proteins were shown to exhibit alpha 1,2-mannosyltransferase activity. The enzymes have an absolute requirement for Mn2+ and a similar K(m) for mannose (280-350 mM), methyl-alpha-mannoside (60-90 mM) and GDP-mannose (50-90 microM), but the Vmax was approx. 10 times higher for Kre2p/Mnt1p than for Ktr1p. The enzymes have similar substrate specificities and utilize mannose, methyl-alpha-mannoside, alpha-1,2-mannobiose and methyl-alpha-1,2-mannobiose, as well as Man15-30GlcNAc, derived from mnn2 mutant glycoproteins, as substrates. The enzymes do not utilize alpha-1,6-mannobiose, alpha-1,6-mannotriose, alpha-1,6-mannotetraose, mammalian Man9GlcNAc or yeast Man9-10GlcNAc. These results indicate that Kre2p/ Mnt1p and Ktr1p are capable of participating in both N-glycan and O-glycan biosynthesis.
Project description:We characterized Teth514_1788 and Teth514_1789, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 130, from Thermoanaerobacter sp. X-514. These two enzymes catalyzed the synthesis of 1,2-?-oligomannan using ?-1,2-mannobiose and d-mannose as the optimal acceptors, respectively, in the presence of the donor ?-d-mannose 1-phosphate. Kinetic analysis of the phosphorolytic reaction toward 1,2-?-oligomannan revealed that these enzymes followed a typical sequential Bi Bi mechanism. The kinetic parameters of the phosphorolysis of 1,2-?-oligomannan indicate that Teth514_1788 and Teth514_1789 prefer 1,2-?-oligomannans containing a DP ?3 and ?-1,2-Man2, respectively. These results indicate that the two enzymes are novel inverting phosphorylases that exhibit distinct chain-length specificities toward 1,2-?-oligomannan. Here, we propose 1,2-?-oligomannan:phosphate ?-d-mannosyltransferase as the systematic name and 1,2-?-oligomannan phosphorylase as the short name for Teth514_1788 and ?-1,2-mannobiose:phosphate ?-d-mannosyltransferase as the systematic name and ?-1,2-mannobiose phosphorylase as the short name for Teth514_1789.
Project description:The structure of the cell-wall mannan from the J-1012 (serotype A) strain of the polymorphic yeast Candida albicans was determined by acetolysis under mild conditions followed by HPLC and sequential NMR experiments. The serotype A mannan contained beta-1,2-linked mannose residues attached to alpha-1,3-linked mannose residues and alpha-1,6-linked branching mannose residues. Using a beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase, we synthesized a three-beta-1,2-linkage-containing mannoheptaose and used it as a reference oligosaccharide for 1H-NMR assignment. On the basis of the results obtained, we derived an additivity rule for the 1H-NMR chemical shifts of the beta-1,2-linked mannose residues. The morphological transformation of Candida cells from the yeast form to the hyphal form induced a significant decrease in the phosphodiesterified acid-labile beta-1,2-linked manno-oligosaccharides, whereas the amount of acid-stable beta-1,2 linkage-containing side chains did not change. These results suggest that the Candida mannan in candidiasis patients contains beta-1,2-linked mannose residues and that they behave as a target of the immune system.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the Kre2/Mnt1 protein family have been shown to be ?-1,2-mannosyltransferases or ?-1,2-mannosylphosphate transferases, utilising an Mn2+-coordinated GDP-mannose as the sugar donor and a variety of mannose derivatives as acceptors. Enzymes in this family are localised to the Golgi apparatus, and have been shown to be involved in both N- and O-linked glycosylation of newly-synthesised proteins, including cell wall glycoproteins. Our knowledge of the nine proteins in this family is however very incomplete at present. Only one family member, Kre2p/Mnt1p, has been studied by structural methods, and three (Ktr4p, Ktr5p, Ktr7p) are completely uncharacterised and remain classified only as putative glycosyltransferases. Here we use in vitro enzyme activity assays to provide experimental confirmation of the predicted glycosyltransferase activity of Ktr4p. Using GDP-mannose as the donor, we observe activity towards the acceptor methyl-?-mannoside, but little or no activity towards mannose or ?-1,2-mannobiose. We also present the structure of the lumenal catalytic domain of S. cerevisiae Ktr4p, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.2 Å, and the complex of the enzyme with GDP to 1.9 Å resolution.
Project description:Fungal-type galactomannan (FTGM) is a polysaccharide composed of ?-(1???2)-/?-(1???6)-mannosyl and ?-(1???5)-/?-(1???6)-galactofuranosyl residues located at the outer cell wall of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. FTGM contains a linear ?-mannan structure called core-mannan composed of 9 or 10 ?-(1???2)-mannotetraose units jointed by ?-(1???6)-linkages. However, the enzymes involved in core-mannan biosynthesis remain unknown. We speculated that two putative ?-1,2-mannosyltransferase genes in A. fumigatus, Afu5g02740/AFUB_051270 (here termed core-mannan synthase A [CmsA]) and Afu5g12160/AFUB_059750 (CmsB) are involved in FTGM core-mannan biosynthesis. We constructed recombinant proteins for CmsA and detected robust mannosyltransferase activity using the chemically synthesized substrate p-nitrophenyl ?-D-mannopyranoside as an acceptor. Analyses of CmsA enzymatic product revealed that CmsA possesses the capacity to transfer a mannopyranoside to the C-2 position of ?-mannose. CmsA could also transfer a mannose residue to ?-(1???2)-mannobiose and ?-(1???6)-mannobiose and showed a 31-fold higher specific activity toward ?-(1???6)-mannobiose than toward ?-(1???2)-mannobiose. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and gel filtration chromatography of isolated FTGM revealed that core-mannan structures were drastically altered and shortened in disruptant A. fumigatus strains ?cmsA, ?cmsB, and ?cmsA?cmsB. Disruption of cmsA or cmsB resulted in severely repressed hyphal extension, abnormal branching hyphae, formation of a balloon structure in hyphae, and decreased conidia formation. The normal wild type core-mannan structure and developmental phenotype were restored by the complementation of cmsA and cmsB in the corresponding disruptant strains. These findings indicate that both CmsA, an ?-1,2-mannosyltransferase, and CmsB, a putative mannosyltransferase, are involved in FTGM biosynthesis.
Project description:Glycosylation can affect various protein properties such as stability, biological activity, and immunogenicity. To produce human therapeutic proteins, a host that can produce glycoproteins with correct glycan structures is required. Microbial expression systems offer economical, rapid and serum-free production and are more amenable to genetic manipulation. In this study, we developed a protocol for CRISPR/Cas9 multiple gene knockouts and knockins in Kluyveromyces marxianus, a probiotic yeast with a rapid growth rate. As hyper-mannosylation is a common problem in yeast, we first knocked out the ?-1,3-mannosyltransferase (ALG3) and ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase (OCH1) genes to reduce mannosylation. We also knocked out the subunit of the telomeric Ku domain (KU70) to increase the homologous recombination efficiency of K. marxianus. In addition, we knocked in the MdsI (?-1,2-mannosidase) gene to reduce mannosylation and the GnTI (?-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I) and GnTII genes to produce human N-glycan structures. We finally obtained two strains that can produce low amounts of the core N-glycan Man3GlcNAc2 and the human complex N-glycan Man3GlcNAc4, where Man is mannose and GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine. This study lays a cornerstone of glycosylation engineering in K. marxianus toward producing human glycoproteins.
Project description:The secretory pathway of Pichia pastoris was genetically re-engineered to perform sequential glycosylation reactions that mimic early processing of N-glycans in humans and other higher mammals. After eliminating nonhuman glycosylation by deleting the initiating alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase gene from P. pastoris, several combinatorial genetic libraries were constructed to localize active alpha-1,2-mannosidase and human beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI) in the secretory pathway. First, >32 N-terminal leader sequences of fungal type II membrane proteins were cloned to generate a leader library. Two additional libraries encoding catalytic domains of alpha-1,2-mannosidases and GnTI from mammals, insects, amphibians, worms, and fungi were cloned to generate catalytic domain libraries. In-frame fusions of the respective leader and catalytic domain libraries resulted in several hundred chimeric fusions of fungal targeting domains and catalytic domains. Although the majority of strains transformed with the mannosidase/leader library displayed only modest in vivo [i.e., low levels of mannose (Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2)] activity, we were able to isolate several yeast strains that produce almost homogeneous N-glycans of the (Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2) type. Transformation of these strains with a UDP-GlcNAc transporter and screening of a GnTI leader fusion library allowed for the isolation of strains that produce GlcNAc-(Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2) in high yield. Recombinant expression of a human reporter protein in these engineered strains led to the formation of a glycoprotein with GlcNAc-(Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2) as the primary N-glycan. Here we report a yeast able to synthesize hybrid glycans in high yield and open the door for engineering yeast to perform complex human-like glycosylation.
Project description:Anp1p, Van1p and Mnn9p constitute a family of membrane proteins required for proper Golgi function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that these proteins colocalize within the cis Golgi, and that they are physically associated in two distinct complexes, both of which contain Mnn9p. Furthermore, we identify two new proteins in the Anp1p-Mnn9p-containing complex which have homology to known glycosyltransferases. Both protein complexes have alpha-1, 6-mannosyltransferase activity, forming a series of poly-mannose structures. These reaction products also contain some alpha-1, 2-linked mannose residues. Our data suggest that these two multi-protein complexes are responsible for the synthesis and initial branching of the long alpha-1,6-linked backbone of the hypermannose structure attached to many yeast glycoproteins.
Project description:Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated basidiomycete causing cryptococcosis in immunocompromised humans. The cell surface mannoproteins of C. neoformans were reported to stimulate the host T-cell response and to be involved in fungal pathogenicity; however, their O-glycan structure is uncharacterized. In this study, we performed a detailed structural analysis of the O-glycans attached to cryptococcal mannoproteins using HPLC combined with exoglycosidase treatment and showed that the major C. neoformans O-glycans were short manno-oligosaccharides that were connected mostly by ?1,2-linkages but connected by an ?1,6-linkage at the third mannose residue. Comparison of the O-glycan profiles from wild-type and uxs1? mutant strains strongly supports the presence of minor O-glycans carrying a xylose residue. Further analyses of C. neoformans mutant strains identified three mannosyltransferase genes involved in O-glycan extensions in the Golgi. C. neoformans KTR3, the only homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRE2/MNT1 family genes, was shown to encode an ?1,2-mannosyltransferase responsible for the addition of the second mannose residue via an ?1,2-linkage to the major O-glycans. C. neoformans HOC1 and HOC3, homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae OCH1 family genes, were shown to encode ?1,6-mannosyltransferases that can transfer the third mannose residue, via an ?1,6-linkage, to minor O-glycans containing xylose and to major O-glycans without xylose, respectively. Moreover, the C. neoformans ktr3? mutant strain, which displayed increased sensitivity to SDS, high salt, and high temperature, showed attenuated virulence in a mouse model of cryptococcosis, suggesting that the extended structure of O-glycans is required for cell integrity and full pathogenicity of C. neoformans.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causitive agent of tuberculosis (TB), possesses a complex cell wall containing mannose-rich glycophospholids termed phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs), lipomannan (LM), and lipoarabinomannan (LAM). These glycophospholipids play important roles in cell wall function and host-pathogen interactions. Synthetic PIM/LM/LAM substructures are useful biochemical tools to delineate and dissect the fine details of mannose glycophospholipid biosynthesis and their interactions with host cells. We report the efficient synthesis of a series of azidooctyl di- and trimannosides possessing the following glycan structures: ?-Man-1,6-?-Man, ?-Man-1,6-?-Man-1,6-?-Man, ?-Man-1,2-?-Man-1,6-?-Man and 2,6-di-(?-Man)-?-Man. The synthesis includes the use of non-benzyl protecting groups compatible with the azido group and preparation of the branched trisaccharide structure 2,6-di-(?-Man)-?-Man through a double glycosylation of a 3,4-butanediacetal-protected mannoside. The azidooctyl groups of these synthetic mannans were elaborated to fluorescent glycoconjugates and squaric ester derivatives useful for further conjugation studies.
Project description:Flo1p and Lg-Flo1p are two cell-wall adhesins belonging to the Flo (flocculation) protein family from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pastorianus. The main function of these modular proteins endowed with calcium-dependent lectin activity is to mediate cell-cell adhesion events during yeast flocculation, a process which is well known at the cellular level but still not fully characterized from a molecular perspective. Recently, structural features of the N-terminal Flo lectin domains, including the N-terminal domain of Lg-Flo1p (N-Lg-Flo1p), and their interactions with carbohydrate molecules have been investigated. However, structural data concerning the N-terminal domain of Flo1p (N-Flo1p), which is the most specific among the Flo proteins, are missing and information about the N-Lg-Flo1p-carbohydrate interaction still lacks detailed structural insight. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the apo form and the mannose complex of N-Flo1p and X-ray analysis of N-Lg-Flo1p crystals soaked in α-1,2-mannobiose are reported. The N-Flo1p crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.43 Å in the case of the apo form and to 2.12 Å resolution for the mannose complex. Both crystals were orthorhombic and belonged to space group P212121, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The N-Lg-Flo1p-α-1,2-mannobiose complex crystal diffracted to 1.73 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P1211 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit.