Sheep mast cell proteinase-1: characterization as a member of a new class of dual-specific ruminant chymases.
ABSTRACT: Sheep mast cell proteinase 1 (SMCP-1), which is abundantly expressed in gastrointestinal but not skin mast cells, was isolated and its substrate specificity was investigated. Peptide substrates, including angiotensin I, substance P, bradykinin and oxidized insulin B chain were hydrolysed at P1 Phe, Leu or Tyr residues, conforming to the known chymotrypsin-like properties of the enzyme. However, SMCP-1 was found to hydrolyse some chromogenic substrates with P1 Lys and Arg residues. The enzyme also demonstrated trypsin-like activity against protein substrates, cleaving BSA at Lys114-Leu115, Lys238-Val239, Lys260-Tyr261 and Lys376-His377. Bovine fibrinogen beta-chain was cleaved at Lys28-Lys29. To ensure homogeneity of the enzyme, the ratio of chymotrypsin-like to trypsin-like activity was observed; it was found to be constant during purification and between different preparations of SMCP-1. Treatment of SMCP-1 with a range of inhibitors decreased chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like activities by similar extents, supporting the assertion that both activities are the property of a single enzyme. In terms of activity, and by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, SMCP-1 strongly resembles the similarly dual-specific bovine duodenal proteinase, duodenase. It is proposed that SMCP-1 and duodenase represent a new class of ruminant chymases with unusual dual specificities.
Project description:Sheep mast cell proteinase-1 (sMCP-1), a serine proteinase with dual chymase/tryptase activity, is expressed in gastrointestinal mast cells, and released systemically and on to the mucosal surface during gastrointestinal nematode infection. The potential for native plasma proteinase inhibitors to control sMCP-1 activity was investigated. Sheep alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1PI) inhibited sMCP-1 slowly, with second-order association rate constant (kass) 1. 1x10(3) M-1.s-1, whereas sheep contrapsin inhibited trypsin (kass 2.2x10(6) M-1.s-1) but not sMCP-1. Western-blot analysis and gel filtration showed that when added to serum or plasma, sMCP-1 was partitioned between alpha1PI and alpha2-macroglobulin. The possibility that significant cleavage of plasma proteins could occur before sMCP-1 was inhibited was investigated using gel filtration and SDS/PAGE after adding sMCP-1 to plasma. Cleavage of ovine fibrinogen occurred in the presence of excess alpha1PI and alpha2-macroglobulin, the alpha-chain being cleaved C-terminally and the beta-chain at the putative Lys-27. In addition, sMCP-1 was found to be mitogenic for bovine pulmonary artery fibroblasts, but was not mitogenic in the presence of soya-bean trypsin inhibitor. In terms of fibrinogen cleavage and fibroblast stimulation, sMCP-1 shows functional similarities to mast cell tryptase.
Project description:Sheep mast-cell proteinase-1 (sMCP-1) is a serine proteinase expressed predominantly by mucosal mast cells, with specificity for cleavage C-terminal to basic and hydrophobic amino acid residues. A cDNA encoding sMCP-1 has been cloned using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. It appears to be translated as a pre-proenzyme with a 17-amino-acid signal peptide, a basic 2-amino-acid propeptide and a 226-amino-acid catalytic domain. A second cDNA, encoding a serine proteinase 90% identical with sMCP-1, was also cloned and named sMCP-3. Molecular models were constructed for both enzymes using coordinates for the refined X-ray structures of human cathepsin G, chymase and rat mast-cell proteinase-2. The model for sMCP-1 suggests that the acidic Asp-226 side chain extends into the substrate-binding pocket, hydrogen-bonding with Ser-190 on the opposite side and bisecting the pocket. The location of an acidic moiety in this position would favour interaction with basic substrate residues and binding of aromatic residues is rationalized by interaction of the positively charged equatorial plane with Asp-226. The balance between chymotryptic and tryptic activities of sMCP-1 was found to be sensitive to salt concentration, with increasing univalent cation concentration favouring chymotryptic activity relative to the tryptic. Using a peptide substrate representing residues 36-59 of the human thrombin receptor, increasing salt concentration favoured cleavage at Phe-43 rather than at Arg-41.
Project description:Two primary serine proteinase inhibitors in goat plasma have been isolated and characterized. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the purified proteins revealed that they are closely related to each other and are highly homologous to human alpha 1-anti-chymotrypsin rather than alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. However, despite structural similarities the inhibitory specificity of the goat inhibitors differed from each other and from that of anti-chymotrypsin. In contrast with human anti-chymotrypsin, one of the goat inhibitors was shown to be a strong and specific inhibitor of trypsin (k(ass.) = 1.9 x 10(6) M-1.s-1), whereas the other was an efficient inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (k(ass.) = 1.5 x 10(6) M-1.S-1). Differences in the inhibitory specificity of each protein could readily be attributed to the amino acid sequence within the reactive site region. The trypsin inhibitor with an assumed arginine residue at the P1 position of the reactive-site peptide bond is referred to as 'contrapsin', and indicates that the occurrence of contrapsins is not restricted to rodents. In contrast, the inhibitory specificity, resistance to oxidative and proteolytic inactivation and the presence of a P1 leucine residue in the elastase inhibitor is unique among inhibitory serpins that have been characterized to date. Because this serpin is apparently the major elastase inhibitor in goat plasma, it is likely to be involved in the control of goat neutrophil elastase. Therefore, we suggest the name 'elastasin', and extend it to any other anti-chymotrypsin related serpins possessing neutrophil-elastase- inhibitory activity.
Project description:Trypsin is the most used enzyme in proteomics. Nevertheless, proteases with complementary cleavage specificity have been applied in special circumstances. In this work, we analyzed the characteristics of five protease alternatives to trypsin for protein identification and sequence coverage when applied to S. pombe whole cell lysates. The specificity of the protease heavily impacted the number of proteins identified. Proteases with higher specificity led to the identification of more proteins than proteases with lower specificity. However, AspN, GluC, chymotrypsin, and proteinase K largely benefited from being paired with trypsin in sequential digestion, as had been shown by us for elastase before. In the most extreme case, predigesting with trypsin improves the number of identified proteins for proteinase K by 731%. Trypsin predigestion also improved the protein identifications of other proteases, AspN (+62%), GluC (+80%), and chymotrypsin (+21%). Interestingly, the sequential digest with trypsin and AspN yielded even a higher number of protein identifications than digesting with trypsin alone.
Project description:Three different serine proteinase inhibitors were isolated from rat serum and purified to apparent homogeneity. One of the inhibitors appears to be homologous to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor isolated from man and other species, but the other two, designated rat proteinase inhibitor I and rat proteinase inhibitor II, seem to have no human counterpart. alpha 1-Proteinase inhibitor (Mr 55000) inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase, the three serine proteinases tested. Rat proteinase inhibitor I (Mr 66000) is active towards trypsin and chymotrypsin, but is inactive towards elastase. Rat proteinase inhibitor II (Mr 65000) is an effective inhibitor of trypsin only. Their contributions to the trypsin-inhibitory capacity of rat serum are about 68, 14 and 18% for alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, rat proteinase inhibitor I and rat proteinase inhibitor II respectively.
Project description:The human tissue kallikrein (KLK) family contains 15 secreted serine proteases that are expressed in a wide range of tissues and have been implicated in different physiological functions and disease states. Of these, KLK1 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of multiple physiological processes such as blood pressure, smooth muscle contraction, and vascular cell growth. KLK6 is overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancer tissues and has been shown to cleave peptide derived from human myelin protein and Abeta amyloid peptide in vitro. Here we analyzed the substrate specificity of KLK1 and KLK6, by substrate phage display using a random octapeptide library. Consistent with earlier biochemical data, KLK1 was shown to exhibit both trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like selectivities with Tyr/Arg preferred at site P1, Ser/Arg strongly preferred at P1', and Phe/Leu at P2. KLK6 displayed trypsin-like activity, with the P1 position occupied only by Arg and a strong preference for Ser in P1'. Docking simulations of consensus peptide provide information on the identity of the enzyme residues that are responsible for substrate binding. Bioinformatic analysis suggested several putative KLK6 protein substrates, such as ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR) and synphilin.
Project description:The capacity for self-polymerization and shape of the tubulin polymers assembled after digestion with trypsin, Pronase, chymotrypsin, subtilisin, Staphylococcus aureus proteinase V8 and proteinase K were investigated. Digestion with trypsin, Pronase or chymotrypsin resulted in a decrease in the ability of tubulin for self-assembly, whereas limited proteolysis with subtilisin, S. aureus proteinase V8 or proteinase K resulted in an increase in such ability. The shape of the assembled polymers varied from typical microtubules (after the treatment with trypsin or Pronase) to sheets (after the treatment with chymotrypsin) and from hooked microtubules with a constant polarity (after the treatment with subtilisin) to the disappearance of a defined polarity of such polymers (after the treatment with S. aureus V8 proteinase or proteinase K). These results indicate that the tubulin C-terminal regions are involved in the regulation of microtubule polymerization, shape, directional growth and lateral interactions between tubulin protofilaments.
Project description:1. The specificity of cathepsin G, a neutral proteinase from human spleen, was examined by use of low-molecular-weight substrates. The enzyme was found to hydrolyse several synthetic substrates also hydrolysed by chymotrypsin, but with different kinetic constants. 2. Maximal activity against benzoyl-DL-phenylalanine 2-naphthol ester and azo-casein was in the range pH 7.5-8.0. 3. The sensitivity of cathepsin G to the action of potential inhibitors was determined, and compared with those of bovine chymotrypsin and subtilisin. Cathepsin G showed the characteristics of a serine proteinase, but was less affected by the chloromethyl ketone of tosylphenylalanine than was chymotrypsin. 4. A rabbit anti-(human cathepsin G) serum was raised, and precipitin lines formed in agarose gel were stained for activity of the enzyme. 5. Cathepsin G was shown to be immunologically identical with the chymotrypsin-like enzyme of the azurophil granules of the neutrophil granulocytes.
Project description:The alpha 1-macroglobulin-proteinase complex endocytosed into rat liver lysosomes was purified by a series of column chromatographic steps on concanavalin A-Sepharose, Sephacryl S-300, DEAE-cellulose and TSK gel DEAE-5PW columns. The complex contained no detectable alpha 2-macroglobulin. Studies on the substrate specificity indicated that the complex had tryptase-like activities towards various synthetic substrates, but no elastase, chymotrypsin, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-L activities. The proteinase activity was completely inhibited by di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, leupeptin and antipain, indicating that the proteinase bound to alpha 1-macroglobulin is a serine proteinase. Two protein bands (62 and 59 kDa) of the complex were labelled with [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate and both bands cross-reacted with anti-(mast-cell tryptase)antibody. These results suggest that mast-cell tryptase is a major targeting proteinase for alpha 1-macroglobulin in vivo. The main alpha-macroglobulin-proteinase complex in the adjuvant-treated rats was also the alpha 1-macroglobulin-tryptase complex, even though the plasma level of alpha 2-macroglobulin was elevated.
Project description:The crystal structures of the inhibitor domain of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein precursor (APPI) complexed to bovine chymotrypsin (C-APPI) and trypsin (T-APPI) and basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) bound to chymotrypsin (C-BPTI) have been solved and analyzed at 2.1 A, 1.8 A, and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. APPI and BPTI belong to the Kunitz family of inhibitors, which is characterized by a distinctive tertiary fold with three conserved disulfide bonds. At the specificity-determining site of these inhibitors (P1), residue 15(I)4 is an arginine in APPI and a lysine in BPTI, residue types that are counter to the chymotryptic hydrophobic specificity. In the chymotrypsin complexes, the Arg and Lys P1 side chains of the inhibitors adopt conformations that bend away from the bottom of the binding pocket to interact productively with elements of the binding pocket other than those observed for specificity-matched P1 side chains. The stereochemistry of the nucleophilic hydroxyl of Ser 195 in chymotrypsin relative to the scissile P1 bond of the inhibitors is identical to that observed for these groups in the trypsin-APPI complex, where Arg 15(I) is an optimal side chain for tryptic specificity. To further evaluate the diversity of sequences that can be accommodated by one of these inhibitors, APPI, we used phage display to randomly mutate residues 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19, which are major binding determinants. Inhibitors variants were selected that bound to either trypsin or chymotrypsin. As expected, trypsin specificity was principally directed by having a basic side chain at P1 (position 15); however, the P1 residues that were selected for chymotrypsin binding were His and Asn, rather than the expected large hydrophobic types. This can be rationalized by modeling these hydrophilic side chains to have similar H-bonding interactions to those observed in the structures of the described complexes. The specificity, or lack thereof, for the other individual subsites is discussed in the context of the "allowed" residues determined from a phage display mutagenesis selection experiment.