High specificity of human secretory class II phospholipase A2 for phosphatidic acid.
ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid second messenger which stimulates platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and smooth-muscle contraction. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid (PA) is thought to be a primary synthetic route for LPA. Of the multiple forms of PLA2 present in human tissues, human secretory class-II PLA2 (hs-PLA2) has been implicated in the production of LPA from platelets and whole blood cells challenged with inflammatory stimuli. To explore further the possibility that hs-PLA2 is involved in the production of LPA, we rigorously measured the phospholipid head group specificity of hs-PLA2 by a novel PLA2 kinetic system using polymerized mixed liposomes. Kinetic analysis of recombinant hs-PLA2 demonstrates that hs-PLA2 strongly prefers PA as substrate over other phospholipids found in the mammalian plasma membrane including phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The order of preference is PA >> PE approximately PS > PC. To identify amino acid residues of hs-PLA2 that are involved in its unique substrate specificity, we mutated two residues, Glu-56 and Lys-69, which were shown to interact with the phospholipid head group in the X-ray-crystallographic structure of the hs-PLA2-transition-state-analogue complex. The K69Y mutant showed selective inactivation toward PA whereas the E56K mutant displayed a most pronounced inactivation to PE. Thus it appears that Lys-69 is at least partially involved in the PA specificity of hs-PLA2 and Glu-56 in the distinction between PE and PC. In conjunction with a recent cell study [Fourcade, Simon, Viode, Rugani, Leballe, Ragab, Fournie, Sarda and Chap (1995) Cell 80, 919-927], these studies suggest that hs-PLA2 can rapidly hydrolyse PA molecules exposed to the outer layer of cell-derived microvesicles and thereby produce LPA.
Project description:We examined effects of graded doses of thyroid hormones 3,3', 5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine (T3) and L-thyroxine (T4) on the lipid composition of rat brain mitochondria. Neither hormone significantly affected the mitochondrial cholesterol or total phospholipid content, but did increase phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) at the expense of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The phosphatidic acid (PA) content was also elevated, suggesting enhanced phospholipid turnover. Changes in sphingomyelin (SPM) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) were minimal. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity also increased after thyroid-hormone treatment, and the increase was closely correlated with PC/PE and SPM/PE molar ratios.
Project description:The human hepatoblastoma cell line, HepG2, has been used for investigating a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, less information is available about the phospholipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. In the present report, to clarify the relationship between cell growth and phospholipid metabolism in HepG2 cells, we examined the phospholipid class compositions of the cells and their intracellular organelles by using enzymatic fluorometric methods. In HepG2 cells, the ratios of all phospholipid classes, but not the ratio of cholesterol, markedly changed with cell growth. Of note, depending on cell growth, the phosphatidic acid (PA) ratio increased and phosphatidylcholine (PC) ratio decreased in the nuclear membranes, the sphingomyelin (SM) ratio increased in the microsomal membranes, and the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio increased and the phosphatidylserine (PS) ratio decreased in the mitochondrial membranes. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of enzymes related to PC, PE, PS, PA, SM and cardiolipin syntheses changed during cell growth. We suggest that the phospholipid class compositions of organellar membranes are tightly regulated by cell growth. These findings provide a basis for future investigations of cancer cell growth and lipid metabolism.
Project description:UV radiation is a well-established environmental risk factor known to cause oxidative stress and disrupt the metabolism of keratinocyte phospholipids. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we examined changes in the keratinocyte phospholipid profile from nude rat skin exposed to UVA and UVB radiation that was also treated topically with CBD. UVA and UVB radiation promoted up-regulation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and down-regulation of sphingomyelin (SM) levels and enhanced the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and sphingomyelinase (SMase). Application of CBD to the skin of control rats led to down-regulation of SM and up-regulation of SMase activity. After CBD treatment of rats irradiated with UVA or UVB, SM was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while ceramide (CER) levels and SMase activity were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively. CBD applied to the skin of UV-irradiated rats down-regulated LPC, up-regulated PE and phosphatidylserines (PS) and reduced PLA2 activity. In conclusion, up-regulation of PS may suggest that CBD inhibits their oxidative modification, while changes in the content of PE and SM may indicate a role of CBD in promoting autophagy and improving the status of the transepidermal barrier.
Project description:Triacylglycerols are stored in eukaryotic cells within lipid droplets (LD). The LD core is enwrapped by a phospholipid monolayer with phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a minor component. We demonstrate that the onset of LD formation is characterized by a change in cellular PC, PE, and phosphatidylserine (PS). With induction of differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes, the cellular PC/PE ratio decreased concomitant with LD formation, with the most pronounced decline between confluency and day 5. The mRNA for PS synthase-1 (forms PS from PC) and PS decarboxylase (forms PE from PS) increased after day 5. Activity and protein of PE N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which produces PC by methylation of PE, are absent in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts but were induced at day 5. High fat challenge induced PEMT expression in mouse adipose tissue. PE, produced via PS decarboxylase, was the preferred substrate for methylation to PC. A PEMT-GFP fusion protein decorated the periphery of LD. PEMT knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes correlated with increased basal triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Pemt(-/-) mice developed desensitization against adenosine-mediated inhibition of basal hydrolysis in adipose tissue, and adipocyte hypotrophy was observed in Pemt(-/-) animals on a high fat diet. Knock-out of PEMT in adipose tissue down-regulated PS synthase-1 mRNA, suggesting coordination between PE supply and converting pathways during LD biosynthesis. We conclude that two consecutive processes not previously related to LD biogenesis, (i) PE production via PS and (ii) PE conversion via PEMT, are implicated in LD formation and stability.
Project description:Our aim is to study selected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glycerophospholipids (GP) that are important in brain pathophysiology. We recruited cognitively healthy (CH), minimally cognitively impaired (MCI), and late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) study participants and collected their CSF. After fractionation into nanometer particles (NP) and supernatant fluids (SF), we studied the lipid composition of these compartments. LC-MS/MS studies reveal that both CSF fractions from CH subjects have N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine, 1-radyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine (PE), 1-radyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine (PC), 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerophosphoserine (PS), platelet-activating factor-like lipids, and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In the NP fraction, GPs are enriched with a mixture of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acid species, while PE and PS in the SF fractions are enriched with PUFA-containing molecular species. PC, PE, and PS levels in CSF fractions decrease progressively in participants from CH to MCI, and then to LOAD. Whereas most PC species decrease equally in LOAD, plasmalogen species account for most of the decrease in PE. A significant increase in the LPC-to-PC ratio and PLA2 activity accompanies the GP decrease in LOAD. These studies reveal that CSF supernatant fluid and nanometer particles have different GP composition, and that PLA2 activity accounts for altered GPs in these fractions as neurodegeneration progresses.
Project description:The conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) into phosphatidylcholine (PC) by a sequence of three transmethylation reactions is shown to be stimulated by the apolipoprotein E-free subclass of high-density lipoprotein (HDL3) in isolated bovine brain capillary (BBC) membranes, HDL3-induced stimulation of BBC membranes pulsed with [methyl-14C]methionine causes a transient increase in each methylated phospholipid, i.e. phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine (PMME), phosphatidyl-NN-dimethylethanolamine (PDME) and PC. PC substrate arising from the activation of PE N-methyltransferase (PEMT) is hydrolysed by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2), as demonstrated by the accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC). When PE containing [14C]arachidonic acid in the sn-2 position ([14C]PAPE) is incorporated into BBC membranes, HDL3 stimulation induces the formation of PMME, PDME, PC and lyso-PC and the release of [14C]arachidonic acid, which correlates with the previous production of lyso-PC, suggesting that HDL3 stimulates a PLA2 that can release polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Both PEMT and PLA2 activities depend on a HDL3 concentration in the range 0-50 micrograms/ml and are strictly dependent on HDL3 binding, because HDL3 modified by tetranitromethane is no longer able to bind to specific receptors and to trigger PEMT and PLA2 activation. Moreover, HDL3 prelabelled with [14C]PAPE can stimulate PDME and lyso-PC synthesis in BBC membranes in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine, suggesting that HDL3 can supply BBC membranes in polyunsaturated PE and can activate enzymes involved in PE N-methylation and PUFA release. The results support the hypothesis of a close relationship between HDL3 binding, PE methylation and PUFA release, and suggest that the PC pool arising from PE could be used as a pathway for the supply of PUFA to the brain.
Project description:The translocation of apocytochrome c (apocyt.c) across large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) constructed from mixtures of anionic and zwitterionic phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), has been studied. It was shown that the import ratio of horse heart apocyt.c in LUVs composed of phosphatidic acid (PA) combined with PE and PC (62+/-10%) was much higher than that in LUVs made of PE and PC plus any other acidic phospholipid species (20+/-5%). This feature was shared by tuna heart and chicken heart apocyt.c. In addition, the greater efficiency of the PA/PE/PC system versus others in facilitating apocyt.c translocation was maintained using synthetic anionic phospholipids with the same acyl chains. Besides, apocyt.c induces more leakage of entrapped fluorescein sulphonate (FS) from the interior of PA/PC/PE vesicles compared with phosphatidylglycerol (PG)/PC/PE ones. By measuring the intrinsic fluorescence emission spectrum and the accessibility of the preprotein to the fluorescence quencher, acrylamide, differences could be detected in the conformational changes of apocyt.c as a consequence of its interaction with PA/PE/PC and PG/PE/PC vesicles, respectively. Particularly notable is that PE is indispensable for the PA/PE/PC system to most efficiently facilitate apocyt.c translocation across the model membranes. With the fraction of PE increasing from 0 to 30 mol%, the translocation efficiency of apocyt.c as well as its ability to induce FS efflux was significantly enhanced in PA-containing LUVs, whereas this was not observed in the case of replacement of PA by PG or phosphatidylserine. It is also interesting to note that in LUVs containing PA, dioleoyl-PE, but not dielaidoyl-PE, can exert such influences, indicative of the role of non-bilayer formation propensity. On the basis of these results it is postulated that PA might increase the bilayer-destabilizing effects of PE, and hence increase the translocation efficiency of apocyt.c and its leakage-induction ability.
Project description:Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) catalyze translocation of phospholipid across a membrane to establish an asymmetric bilayer structure with phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) restricted to the cytosolic leaflet. The mechanism for how P4-ATPases recognize and flip phospholipid is unknown, and is described as the "giant substrate problem" because the canonical substrate binding pockets of homologous cation pumps are too small to accommodate a bulky phospholipid. Here, we identify residues that confer differences in substrate specificity between Drs2 and Dnf1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P4-ATPases that preferentially flip PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. Transplanting transmembrane segments 3 and 4 (TM3-4) of Drs2 into Dnf1 alters the substrate preference of Dnf1 from PC to PS. Acquisition of the PS substrate maps to a Tyr618Phe substitution in TM4 of Dnf1, representing the loss of a single hydroxyl group. The reciprocal Phe511Tyr substitution in Drs2 specifically abrogates PS recognition by this flippase causing PS exposure on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane without disrupting PE asymmetry. TM3 and the adjoining lumenal loop contribute residues important for Dnf1 PC preference, including Phe587. Modeling of residues involved in substrate selection suggests a novel P-type ATPase transport pathway at the protein/lipid interface and a potential solution to the giant substrate problem.
Project description:Membrane fusion without lysis has been reconstituted with purified yeast vacuolar SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors), the SNARE chaperones Sec17p/Sec18p and the multifunctional HOPS complex, which includes a subunit of the SNARE-interactive Sec1-Munc18 family, and vacuolar lipids: phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL), ergosterol (ERG), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). We now report that many of these lipids are required for rapid and efficient fusion of the reconstituted SNARE proteoliposomes in the presence of SNARE chaperones. Omission of either PE, PA, or PI3P from the complete set of lipids strongly reduces fusion, and PC, PE, PA, and PI3P constitute a minimal set of lipids for fusion. PA could neither be replaced by other lipids with small headgroups such as DAG or ERG nor by the acidic lipids PS or PI. PA is needed for full association of HOPS and Sec18p with proteoliposomes having a minimal set of lipids. Strikingly, PA and PE are as essential for SNARE complex assembly as for fusion, suggesting that these lipids facilitate functional interactions among SNAREs and SNARE chaperones.
Project description:Binding of phospholipase C delta 1 (PLC delta) to phospholipid vesicles was studied using large, unilamellar phospholipid vesicles (LUVs). PLC delta bound weakly to vesicles composed of phosphatidylserine (PS) or phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) + PC, and even more weakly to vesicles composed of phosphatidylinositol. The enzyme bound strongly to LUVs composed of PE + PC and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) or sphingomyelin (SM). Binding of 50% of PLC delta occurred at 0.25 nmol/ml PIP2 when LUVs composed of PE + PC (molar ratio of 80:20), plus various amounts of PIP2, were used at a constant phospholipid concentration of 300 nmol/ml. When LUVs composed of PE + PC + PIP2 (molar ratio of 79:20:1) were tested as a function of increasing phospholipid concentration, 50% binding of PLC delta occurred at 1.2 nmol/ml PIP2 and 120 nmol/ml total phospholipid. Similar measurements were conducted with other phospholipids and PIP2 at a molar ratio of 99:1. These showed that 50% binding of PLC delta occurred at a level of 0.9 nmol/ml PIP2 with 80 nmol/ml PC; at 2.2 nmol/ml PIP2 with 170 nmol/ml PS; at 4.2 nmol/ml PIP2 with 320 nmol/ml PI; and at 0.26 nmol/ml PIP2 with 20 nmol/ml total liver phospholipids. Binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate was much weaker. When LUVs composed of PE + PC + SM (molar ratio 48:12:40) were tested as a function of increasing phospholipid concentration, 50% binding of PLC delta occurred at a level of 96 nmol/ml SM. This is well below the concentration of SM that can be calculated to face the cytosol. Binding of PLC delta to LUVs decreased as the temperature was lowered from 37 degrees C to 0 degree C. Thus PLC delta shows a high degree of specificity for binding to PIP2 and SM. Under physiological conditions a considerable fraction of PLC delta may be bound to cellular membranes, either in an inactive form if bound to PIP2 at low resting Ca2+ concentrations, or in the inhibited form if bound to SM.