Differential regulation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by Ca2+ and protein kinase C in endothelin-stimulated Rat-1 cells.
ABSTRACT: The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling cascades transduce signals from the cell cytoplasm to the nucleus, where they regulate gene expression. The activation of ERK1 by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and endothelin 1 (Et-1) was compared in Rat-1 cells. Both stimulated DNA synthesis to a similar degree but, in contrast with LPA, Et-1 did not stimulate sustained ERK1 activation, a signal that is thought to be important for the proliferation of fibroblasts. Et-1, but not LPA, was able to activate JNK1; pharmacological analysis revealed that the same EtA receptor mediates DNA synthesis, ERK1 and JNK1 activation. However, activation of JNK1 required higher concentrations of Et-1 than was required for stimulation of ERK1 or DNA synthesis. Signalling to ERK1 and JNK1 was partly inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting that both pathways are regulated in part by Gi or G0 proteins. Activation of JNK1 by Et-1 lagged behind ERK1 activation but was not dependent on it because PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (or ERK) kinase, was without effect on JNK1 activation. In contrast with recent studies, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) or Ca2+ fluxes inhibited activation of JNK1 but not ERK1; furthermore inhibition of PKC or sequestration of Ca2+ potentiated JNK1 activation by Et-1 but not by anisomycin, and again had little effect on ERK1 activation. These results demonstrate that the same G-protein-coupled receptor can activate both the ERK and JNK signal pathways but the two kinase cascades seem to be separate, parallel pathways that are differentially regulated by PKC and Ca2+. The results are discussed in terms of the role of ERK and JNK in proliferative signalling.
Project description:Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs, or stress-activated protein kinases) are activated by diverse extracellular signals and mediate a variety of cellular responses, including mitogenesis, differentiation, hypertrophy, inflammatory reactions and apoptosis. We have examined the involvement of Ca2+ and protein kinase C (PKC) in ERK and JNK activation by the human G-protein-coupled m2 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We show that the Ca2+-mobilizing m3 AChR is efficiently coupled to JNK and ERK activation, whereas the m2 AChR activates ERK but not JNK. Activation of JNK in CHO-m3 cells by the agonist methacholine (MCh) was delayed in onset and more sustained relative to that of ERK in either CHO-m2 or CHO-m3 cells. The EC50 values for MCh-induced ERK activation in both cell types were essentially identical and similar to that for JNK activation in CHO-m3 cells, suggesting little amplification of the response. Agonist-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation in CHO-m3 cells was insensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), consistent with a Gq/phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta mediated pathway, whereas a significant component of ERK and JNK activation in CHO-m3 cells was PTX-sensitive, indicating Gi/o involvement. Using manipulations that prevent receptor-mediated extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+-store release, we also show that ERK activation by m2 and m3 receptors is Ca2+-independent. In contrast, a significant component (>50%) of JNK activation mediated by the m3 AChR was dependent on Ca2+, mainly derived from extracellular influx. PKC inhibition and down-regulation studies suggested that JNK activation was negatively regulated by PKC. Conversely, ERK activation by both m2 and m3 AChRs required PKC, suggesting a novel mechanism for PKC activation by PTX-sensitive m2 AChRs. In summary, mAChRs activate JNK and ERK via divergent mechanisms involving either Ca2+ or PKC respectively.
Project description:UNLABELLED: muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigate the ETA and ETB receptor intracellular signaling in human VSMCs and used phosphorylation (activation) of ERK1/2 as a functional signal molecule for endothelin receptor activity. RESULTS: Subconfluent human VSMCs were stimulated by ET-1 at different concentrations (1 nM-1 microM). The activation of ERK1/2 was examined by immunofluorescence, Western blot and phosphoELISA using specific antibody against phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. ET-1 induced a concentration- and time- dependent activation of ERK1/2 with a maximal effect at 10 min. It declined to baseline level at 30 min. The ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 was completely abolished by MEK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and SL327, and partially inhibited by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. A dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan or the ETA antagonist BQ123 blocked the ET-1 effect, while the ETB antagonist BQ788 had no significant effect. However, a selective ETB receptor agonist, Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) caused a time-dependent ERK1/2 activation with a maximal effect by less than 20% of the ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2. Increase in bosentan concentration up to 10 microM further inhibited ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 and had a stronger inhibitory effect than BQ123 or the combined use of BQ123 and BQ788. To further explore ET-1 intracellular signaling, PKC inhibitors (staurosporin and GF109203X), PKC-delta inhibitor (rottlerin), PKA inhibitor (H-89), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (wortmannin) were applied. The inhibitors showed significant inhibitory effects on ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2. However, blockage of L-type Ca2+ channels or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, chelating extracellular Ca2+ or emptying internal Ca2+ stores, did not affect ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2. CONCLUSION: The ETA receptors predominate in the ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 in human VSMCs, which associates with increments in intracellular PKC, PKA and PI3K activities, but not Ca2+ signalling.
Project description:OVERVIEW:The use of pro-osteogenic growth factors, such as BMP2, in human adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) osteogenesis is well described. Because these growth factors work via signal transduction pathways, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, a study of the relationship between MAPK signaling and ASC osteogenesis was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS:ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK activation were measured in ASCs osteo-induced using either dexamethasone or vitamin D3 and correlated with mineralization. Activation and mineralization were also measured without dexamethasone or using the glucocorticoid, cortisone. The expression of the MAPK phosphatase, MKP1, and its relationship to mineralization was also assessed. The effect of decreasing MAPK activation on mineralization through the use of exogenous inhibitors was examined along with siRNA-knockdown and adenoviral overexpression of ERK1/2. Finally, the effect of ERK1/2 overexpression on ASCs induced on PLGA scaffolds was assessed. RESULTS:ASC mineralization in dexamethasone or vitamin D3-induced ASCs correlated with both increased ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 activation. ASCs induced without dexamethasone also mineralized, with JNK1/2 signaling possibly mediating this event. No link between cortisone induction and MAPK signaling could be ascertained. ASCs treated with ERK, JNK, or p38MAPK inhibitors showed decreased osteogenic gene expression and diminished mineralization. Mineralization levels were also affected by viruses designed to inhibit or augment ERK1/2 expression and activity. Finally, ASC mineralization appeared to be a balance between the MAPK kinase activity and MKP1. CONCLUSIONS:It is likely that MAPK signaling plays a significant role in ASC osteogenesis, affecting differentiation in kinase- and stage-specific manners.
Project description:The proinflammatory mediator bradykinin stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and subsequently prostaglandin E2 synthesis in dermal fibroblasts. The involvement of B2 receptors and G?q in the role of bradykinin was suggested by using pharmacological inhibitors. The PKC activator PMA stimulated COX-2 mRNA expression. Bradykinin failed to induce COX-2 mRNA expression in the presence of PKC inhibitors, whereas the effect of bradykinin was observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Bradykinin-induced COX-2 mRNA expression was inhibited in cells transfected with PKC? siRNA. These observations suggest that the novel PKC? is concerned with bradykinin-induced COX-2 expression. Bradykinin-induced PKC? phosphorylation and COX-2 mRNA expression were inhibited by an inhibitor of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), and bradykinin-induced PDK-1 phosphorylation was inhibited by phospholipase D (PLD) inhibitors, suggesting that PLD/PDK-1 pathway contributes to bradykinin-induced PKC? activation. Pharmacological and knockdown studies suggest that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) MAPK signaling is involved in bradykinin-induced COX-2 expression. Bradykinin-induced ERK phosphorylation was attenuated in the cells pretreated with PKC inhibitors or transfected with PKC? siRNA. We observed the interaction between PKC? and ERK by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. These observations suggest that PKC? activation contributes to the regulation of ERK1 activation. Bradykinin stimulated the accumulation of phosphorylated ERK in the nuclear fraction, that was inhibited in the cells treated with PKC inhibitors or transfected with PKC? siRNA. Consequently, we concluded that bradykinin activates PKC? via the PLD/PDK-1 pathway, which subsequently induces activation and translocation of ERK1 into the nucleus, and contributes to COX-2 expression for prostaglandin E2 synthesis in dermal fibroblasts.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling drives aneurysm progression in multiple disorders, including Marfan syndrome (MFS), and therapies that inhibit this signaling cascade are in clinical trials. TGF? can stimulate multiple intracellular signaling pathways, but it is unclear which of these pathways drives aortic disease and, when inhibited, which result in disease amelioration. Here we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 and Smad2 are activated in a mouse model of MFS, and both are inhibited by therapies directed against TGF?. Whereas selective inhibition of ERK1/2 activation ameliorated aortic growth, Smad4 deficiency exacerbated aortic disease and caused premature death in MFS mice. Smad4-deficient MFS mice uniquely showed activation of Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1), and a JNK antagonist ameliorated aortic growth in MFS mice that lacked or retained full Smad4 expression. Thus, noncanonical (Smad-independent) TGF? signaling is a prominent driver of aortic disease in MFS mice, and inhibition of the ERK1/2 or JNK1 pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for the disease.
Project description:2-Chloroethanol (2-CE) is one of the reactive metabolites of 1,2-DCE in vivo, which might contribute to brain edema formation induced by 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) poisoning. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways in upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in 2-CE exposed rat astrocytes. Expression of p38 MAPK (p38), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and MMP-9 at both protein and gene levels in rat astrocytes were determined using western blot and real-time RT-PCR methods. The results showed that both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes significantly increased. Meanwhile, protein levels of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2) in 2-CE exposed astrocytes also significantly increased. In addition, both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 significantly decreased in response to reduced protein levels of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 achieved by supplement with their specific inhibitors, indicating that activation of MAPK signal pathways might play an important role in upregulation of MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level in 2-CE exposed astrocytes. Furthermore, since pretreatment of n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a powerful antioxidant amino acid, could attenuate the elevated levels of MMP-9, p-p38, p-ERK2 and p-JNK1/2 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes, activation of MAPK signal pathways in 2-CE exposed astrocytes could be mediated partially by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was most likely generated in the metabolism of 2-CE.
Project description:Physiological concentrations of glucose that lead to Ca2+ entry and insulin secretion activate extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) in the MIN6 pancreatic beta-cell line. Here we show that this activation is inhibited by the down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and by genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases. In contrast with results obtained in other cell types, neither the epidermal growth factor activity nor the Src family protein tyrosine kinases seem to be involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ERKs. inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases by vanadate leads to the activation of ERKs. As observed in the response to glucose, this activation is dependent on Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Thus the activation of ERKs in response to glucose depends on PKC and possibly on a tyrosine kinase/tyrosine phosphatase couple. To define the role of ERK activation by glucose we studied the regulation of transcription of the insulin gene. We found that this transcription is regulated in the MIN6 cells in the same range of glucose concentration as in primary islets, and that specific inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, the direct activator of ERK, impaired the response of the insulin gene to glucose. This was observed by analysis of the transfected rat insulin I gene promoter activity and a Northern blot of endogenous insulin mRNA.
Project description:The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO) are important host defense mechanisms against pathogens in mononuclear phagocytes. The objectives of this study were to examine the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and transcription factors (nuclear factor-?B [NF-?B] and activating protein 1 [AP-1]) in peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced iNOS expression and NO production in macrophages. PGN is a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammatory responses both ex vivo and in vivo. PGN stimulates the activation of all three classes of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38(mapk) in macrophages, albeit with differential activation kinetics. Using a selective inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) and JNK1/2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) knocked-down macrophages, it was observed that PGN-induced iNOS and NO expression is significantly inhibited. This suggested that JNK MAPK plays an essential role in PGN-induced iNOS expression and NO production. In contrast, inhibition of the ERK pathway using PD98059 dose dependently enhanced PGN-induced iNOS expression and NO production. PGN-induced ERK activation was attenuated in ERK1/2 siRNA knocked-down macrophages; however, NO and iNOS expression were significantly enhanced. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that SP600125 inhibited PGN-induced NF-?B and AP-1 activation, whereas inhibition of the ERK pathway enhanced NF-?B activation, but with no effect on AP-1. These results indicate that the JNK MAPK positively regulate PGN-induced iNOS and NO expression by activating NF-?B and AP-1 transcription factors, whereas the ERK pathway plays a negative regulatory role via affecting NF-?B activity.
Project description:Normal functioning of the nervous system requires precise regulation of dendritic shape and synaptic connectivity. Here, we report a severe impairment of dendritic structures in the cerebellum and motor cortex of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1)-deficient mice. Using an unbiased screen for candidate mediators, we identify the dendrite-specific high-molecular-weight microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) as a JNK substrate in the brain. We subsequently show that MAP2 is phosphorylated by JNK in intact cells and that MAP2 proline-rich domain phosphorylation is decreased in JNK1-/- brain. We developed compartment-targeted JNK inhibitors to define whether a functional relationship exists between the physiologically active, cytosolic pool of JNK and dendritic architecture. Using these, we demonstrate that cytosolic, but not nuclear, JNK determines dendritic length and arbor complexity in cultured neurons. Moreover, we confirm that MAP2-dependent process elongation is enhanced after activation of JNK. Using JNK1-/- neurons, we reveal a dominant role for JNK1 over ERK in regulating dendritic arborization, whereas ERK only regulates dendrite shape under conditions in which JNK activity is low (JNK1-/- neurons). These results reveal a novel antagonism between JNK and ERK, potentially providing a mechanism for fine-tuning the dendritic arbor. Together, these data suggest that JNK phosphorylation of MAP2 plays an important role in defining dendritic architecture in the brain.
Project description:Increased activation of ERK signaling has been reported in breast cancer models of acquired tamoxifen resistance. Here, we examined the expression of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases (MKPs) 1 and 2 following tamoxifen treatment and the effects of MKP-1/MKP-2 overexpression on tamoxifen sensitivity. Treatment of MCF7 breast cancer cells with tamoxifen increased MKP-2, but not MKP-1, protein levels. Overexpression of MKP-1 or MKP-2 inhibited estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation compared to vector controls. MCF7-MKP-2 cells displayed significantly increased sensitivity to tamoxifen as compared to vector control or MCF7-MKP-1 cells. MKP-1 or MKP-2 overexpression eliminated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that decreases in estrogen-induced proliferation of MKP-1 and MKP-2 overexpressing cells are due to ERK1/2 dephosphorylation. JNK1/2 activation was not detectable in any of these cells. These data suggest that tamoxifen-induced death of these cells is not dependent upon JNK signaling, but rather that ERK is the major MAPK driving their proliferation. MCF7-TAMR cells express higher levels of MKP-2 mRNA and protein than MCF7 cells. MKP-2 and phospho-ERK1/2 proteins are constitutively expressed in MCF7-TAMR cells, and activated JNK1/2 is not detectable. These data suggest that MKP-2 rather than MKP-1 is tamoxifen-regulated and that the elevated expression of MKP-2 in MCF7-TAMR cells potentially functions to restore tamoxifen sensitivity.