Utilization of troponin C as a model calcium-binding protein for mapping of the calmodulin-binding sites of caldesmon.
ABSTRACT: Troponin C, a structural analogue of calmodulin, was used for mapping the calmodulin-binding sites of caldesmon. The apparent Kd values for the formation of the caldesmon-calcium-binding-protein complex as determined by native gel electrophoresis were 0.5, 1.2 and 3.9 microM for calmodulin, rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C and bovine cardiac troponin C respectively. Troponin C induced a 4-6 nm blue shift of the Trp fluorescence of caldesmon without affecting the amplitude of fluorescence. In the presence of Ca2+, troponin C induced partial displacement of caldesmon from actin tropomyosin complexes. Addition of 5,5'-dithiobis(nitrobenzoic) acid to an equimolar complex of caldesmon and troponin C induced disulphide cross-linking between Cys-98 of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C and the single Cys residue of duck gizzard caldesmon, located in a position analogous to Cys-580 of the chicken gizzard protein. The cross-linked caldesmon-troponin C complex was ineffective in inhibiting actomyosin ATPase activity. It is concluded that Cys-580 of caldesmon can be located close to both the central helix of calcium-binding proteins and the C-terminal domain of actin. This may be important for the regulation of actomyosin ATPase activity by caldesmon.
Project description:It was reported that chicken gizzard smooth-muscle caldesmon Cys-580 can be disulphide-cross-linked to the C-terminal pen-ultimate residue (Cys-374) of actin, indicating that these residues are close in the protein complex [Graceffa, P. and Jancso, A. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 20305-20310]. Since the possibility that the cross-link involves a cysteine residue other than actin Cys-374 was not absolutely excluded, more direct evidence was sought for the identify of the cysteine residues involved in the cross-link. We show here that caldesmon could not be disulphide-cross-linked to actin which had Cys-374 removed by carboxypeptidase A digestion, providing direct support for the participation of actin Cys-374 in the cross-link to caldesmon. In order to assign the caldesmon cysteine residue involved in the cross-link, use was made of caldesmon from porcine stomach muscle, which is shown to contain one cysteine residue close to, or at, position 580, in contrast with chicken gizzard caldesmon, which has an additional cysteine residue at position 153. The porcine stomach caldesmon also formed a disulphide-cross-link to actin, further supporting the original conclusion that Cys-580 of the chicken gizzard caldesmon had been cross-linked to actin. Disulphide-cross-linking with similar yield was also observed in native chicken gizzard muscle thin filaments, indicating that the interaction between actin and the C-terminal domain of caldesmon is the same in native and reconstituted thin filaments. The much smaller non-muscle isoform of caldesmon, from rabbit liver, could be similarly cross-linked to actin, consistent with the sequence similarity between the C-terminal domain of muscle and non-muscle caldesmon. The ability to cross-link caldesmon Cys-580 to actin Cys-374 suggests the possibility that the Cys-580 region of caldesmon and the C-terminus of actin form part of the actin-caldesmon binding interface.
Project description:We studied the effects of caldesmon, a major actin- and calmodulin-binding protein found in a variety of muscle and non-muscle tissues, on the various ATPase activities of skeletal-muscle myosin. Caldesmon inhibited the actin-activated myosin Mg2+-ATPase, and this inhibition was enhanced by tropomyosin. In the presence of the troponin complex and tropomyosin, caldesmon inhibited the Ca2+-dependent actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase; this inhibition could be partly overcome by Ca2+/calmodulin. Caldesmon, phosphorylated to the extent of approximately 4 mol of Pi/mol of caldesmon, inhibited the actin-activated myosin Mg2+-ATPase to the same extent as did non-phosphorylated caldesmon. Both inhibitions could be overcome by Ca2+/calmodulin. Caldesmon also inhibited the Mg2+-ATPase activity of skeletal-muscle myosin in the absence of actin; this inhibition also could be overcome by Ca2+/calmodulin. Caldesmon inhibited the Ca2+-ATPase activity of skeletal-muscle myosin in the presence or absence of actin, at both low (0.1 M-KCl) and high (0.3 M-KCl) ionic strength. Finally, caldesmon inhibited the skeletal-muscle myosin K+/EDTA-ATPase at 0.1 M-KCl, but not at 0.3 M-KCl. Addition of actin resulted in no inhibition of this ATPase by caldesmon at either 0.1 M- or 0.3 M-KCl. These observations suggest that caldesmon may function in the regulation of actin-myosin interactions in striated muscle and thereby modulate the contractile state of the muscle. The demonstration that caldesmon inhibits a variety of myosin ATPase activities in the absence of actin indicates a direct effect of caldesmon on myosin. The inhibition of the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of myosin (the physiological activity) may not be due therefore simply to the binding of caldesmon to the actin filament causing blockage of myosin-cross-bridge-actin interaction.
Project description:Caldesmon is a major calmodulin- and actin-binding protein of smooth muscle which interacts with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner or with actin in a Ca2+-independent manner. Isolated caldesmon is capable of inhibiting the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase of smooth-muscle myosin, suggesting a possible physiological role for caldesmon in regulating the contractile state of smooth-muscle. Caldesmon can be phosphorylated in vitro by a co-purifying Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by a protein phosphatase, both of which are present in smooth muscle. We investigated further the phosphorylation of caldesmon and the effects which phosphorylation has on the functional properties of the protein. The kinetics of caldesmon phosphorylation were similar whether the caldesmon substrate was free or bound to actin, actin/tropomyosin or thin filaments. Caldesmon containing endogenous kinase activity was rapidly phosphorylated (to approx. 1 mol of Pi/mol of caldesmon in 5 min) when reconstituted with actin, myosin, tropomyosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase in the presence of Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Under conditions in which unphosphorylated caldesmon showed substantial inhibition of the actin-activated myosin Mg2+-ATPase, no inhibition was observed with phosphorylated caldesmon. This was the case whether caldesmon was phosphorylated before addition to the actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase system, or phosphorylation was allowed to take place during the ATPase reaction. Binding studies revealed maximal binding of 1 mol of unphosphorylated caldesmon/9.5 mol of actin and 1 mol of phosphorylated caldesmon/11.7 mol of actin. All the bound phosphorylated caldesmon could be released by Ca2+/calmodulin, with half-maximal release at 0.11 microM-Ca2+, whereas only 62% of the bound unphosphorylated caldesmon could be removed, with half-maximal release at 0.16 microM-Ca2+. However, under conditions in which inhibition of actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity by non-phosphorylated but not by phosphorylated caldesmon was observed, both forms of caldesmon would remain bound to the thin filament. These observations suggest a possible mechanism whereby caldesmon phosphorylation may prevent its inhibitory action on the actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase.
Project description:Caldesmon, a major actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, has been implicated in regulation of the contractile state of smooth muscle. The isolated protein can be phosphorylated by a co-purifying Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and phosphorylation blocks inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase by caldesmon [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have examined the phosphorylation of caldesmon in more detail. Several lines of evidence indicate that caldesmon itself is a kinase and the reaction is an intermolecular autophosphorylation: (1) caldesmon (141 kDa) and a 93 kDa proteolytic fragment of caldesmon can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography: both retain caldesmon kinase activity, which is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent; (2) chymotryptic digestion of caldesmon generates a Ca2+/calmodulin-independent form of caldesmon kinase; (3) caldesmon purified to electrophoretic homogeneity retains caldesmon kinase activity, and elution of enzymic activity from a fast-performance-liquid-chromatography ion-exchange column correlates with caldesmon of Mr 141,000; (4) caldesmon is photoaffinity-labelled with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP; labelling is inhibited by ATP, GTP and CTP, indicating a lack of nucleotide specificity; (5) caldesmon binds tightly to Affi-Gel Blue resin, which recognizes proteins having a dinucleotide fold. Autophosphorylation of caldesmon occurs predominantly on serine residues (83.3%), with some threonine (16.7%) and no tyrosine phosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is site-specific: 98% of the phosphate incorporated is recovered in a 26 kDa chymotryptic peptide. Complete tryptic/chymotryptic digestion of this phosphopeptide followed by h.p.l.c. indicates three major phosphorylation sites. Caldesmon exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity: apart from autophosphorylation, brain synapsin I is the only good substrate among many potential substrates examined. These observations indicate that caldesmon may regulate its own function (inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Furthermore, caldesmon may regulate other cellular processes, e.g. neurotransmitter release, through the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of other proteins such as synapsin I.
Project description:Calponin and caldesmon, constituents of smooth-muscle thin filaments, are considered to be potential modulators of smooth-muscle contraction. Both of them interact with actin and inhibit ATPase activity of smooth- and skeletal-muscle actomyosin. Here we show that calponin and caldesmon could bind simultaneously to F-actin when used in subsaturating amounts, whereas each one used in excess caused displacement of the other from the complex with F-actin. Calponin was more effective than caldesmon in this competition: when F-actin was saturated with calponin the binding of caldesmon was eliminated almost completely, whereas even at high molar excess of caldesmon one-third of calponin (relative to the saturation level) always remained bound to actin. The inhibitory effects of low concentrations of calponin and caldesmon on skeletal-muscle actomyosin ATPase were additive, whereas the maximum inhibition of the ATPase attained at high concentration of each of them was practically unaffected by the other one. These data suggest that calponin and caldesmon cannot operate on the same thin filaments. CA(2+)-calmodulin competed with actin for calponin binding, and at high molar excess dissociated the calponin-actin complex and reversed the calponin-induced inhibition of actomyosin ATPase activity.
Project description:Thin-filament preparations from four smooth muscle types (gizzard, stomach, trachea, aorta) all activate myosin MgATPase activity, are regulated by Ca2+, and contain actin, tropomyosin and a 120000-140000-Mr protein in the molar proportions 1:1/7:1/26. The 120000-140000-Mr protein from all sources is a potent inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase activity. Peptide-mapping and immunological evidence is presented showing that it is identical with caldesmon. Quantitative immunological data suggest that caldesmon is a component of all the thin filaments and that the thin-filament-bound caldesmon accounts for all the caldesmon in intact tissue. The myosin light-chain kinase content of thin-filament preparations was found to be negligible. We propose that caldesmon-based thin-filament Ca2+ regulation is a physiological mechanism in all smooth muscles.
Project description:Caldesmon, an actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, is a protein serine/threonine kinase capable of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation [Scott-Woo & Walsh (1988) Biochem. J. 252, 463-472]. Phosphorylation nullifies the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of smooth-muscle myosin [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have characterized the kinase activity of caldesmon of chicken gizzard smooth muscle. Autophosphorylation requires Ca2+/calmodulin, but is unaffected by other second messengers (Ca2+/phospholipid/diacylglycerol, cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP), and is inhibited by the calmodulin antagonists chlorpromazine and compound 48/80, with 50% inhibition at 39.8 microM and 12.0 ng/ml respectively. Half-maximal activation of autophosphorylation occurs at 60-80 nM-Ca2+ and 0.14 microM-calmodulin, and maximal activity at 0.14-0.18 microM-Ca2+ and 1 microM-calmodulin; activation is gradually lost at higher Ca2+ and calmodulin concentrations. Autophosphorylation is pH-dependent, with maximal activity over the range pH 7-9, and requires free Mg2+ in addition to the MgATP2- substrate. The Km for ATP is 15.6 +/- 4.1 microM (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), and kinase activity is inhibited by increasing ionic strength [half-maximal inhibition at I = 0.094 +/- 0.009 M (mean +/- S.D., n = 4)]. Autophosphorylation does not affect the rate of hydrolysis of caldesmon (free or bound to calmodulin) by alpha-chymotrypsin. However, a slight difference in peptides generated from phospho- and dephospho-forms of caldesmon is observed. The binding of phospho- or dephospho-caldesmon to F-actin protects the protein against chymotryptic digestion, but does not alter the pattern of peptide generation. Characterization of proteolytic fragments of caldesmon generated by alpha-chymotrypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease enables localization of the phosphorylation sites and the kinase active site within the caldesmon molecule.
Project description:We measured the concentration of calmodulin required to reverse inhibition by caldesmon of actin-activated myosin MgATPase activity, in a model smooth-muscle thin-filament system, reconstituted in vitro from purified vascular smooth-muscle actin, tropomyosin and caldesmon. At 37 degrees C in buffer containing 120 mM-KCl, 4 microM-Ca2+-calmodulin produced a half-maximal reversal of caldesmon inhibition, but more than 300 microM-Ca2+-calmodulin was necessary at 25 degrees C in buffer containing 60 mM-KCl. The binding affinity (K) of caldesmon for Ca2+-calmodulin was measured by a fluorescence-polarization method: K = 2.7 x 10(6) M-1 at 25 degrees C (60 mM-KCl); K = 1.4 x 10(6) M-1 at 37 degrees C in 70 mM-KCl-containing buffer; K = 0.35 x 10(6) M-1 at 37 degrees C in 120 mM-KCl- containing buffer (pH 7.0). At 37 degrees C/120 mM-KCl, but not at 25 degrees C/60 mM-KCl, Ca2+-calmodulin bound to caldesmon bound to actin-tropomyosin (K = 2.9 x 10(6) M-1). Ca2+ regulation in this system does not depend on a simple competition between Ca2+-calmodulin and actin for binding to caldesmon. Under conditions (37 degrees C/120 mM-KCl) where physiologically realistic concentrations of calmodulin can Ca2+-regulate synthetic thin filaments, Ca2+-calmodulin reverses caldesmon inhibition of actomyosin ATPase by forming a non-inhibited complex of Ca2+-calmodulin-caldesmon-(actin-tropomyosin).
Project description:The domain structure of duck gizzard caldesmon was investigated. A single thiol group is located in the vicinity of the C-terminus of the protein. A simple method for the purification of a short (21 kDa) C-terminal peptide formed after chemical cleavage of caldesmon at cysteine residues was evolved. The C-terminal peptide of caldesmon interacts with calmodulin with an affinity one order of magnitude higher than that of native caldesmon. The Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) transfers about 2 mol of phosphate per mol of caldesmon. All sites phosphorylated by protein kinase C are located in the short (21 kDa) C-terminal peptide of caldesmon. Phosphorylation does not affect the interaction of caldesmon with calmodulin.
Project description:Thiosphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin and skeletal muscle myosin, both of which express Ca(2+)-independent actin-activated MgATPase activity, were used to examine the functional effects of calponin and caldesmon separately and together. Separately, calponin and caldesmon inhibited the actin-activated MgATPase activities of thiophosphorylated smooth muscle myosin and skeletal muscle myosin, calponin being significantly more potent in both systems. Calponin-mediated inhibition resulted from the interaction of calponin with actin since it could be reversed by increasing the actin concentration. Caldesmon had no significant influence on the calponin-induced inhibition of the smooth muscle actomyosin ATPase, nor did calponin have a significant effect on caldesmon-induced inhibition. In the skeletal muscle system, however, caldesmon was found to override the inhibitory effect of calponin. This difference probably reflects the lower affinity of skeletal muscle actin for calponin compared with that of smooth muscle actin. Calponin inhibition of skeletal muscle actin-activated myosin MgATPase was not significantly affected by troponin/tropomyosin, suggesting that the thin filament can readily accommodate calponin in addition to the troponin complex, or that calponin may be able to displace troponin. Calponin also inhibited acto-phosphorylated smooth muscle heavy meromyosin and acto-skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin MgATPases. The most appropriate protein preparations for analysis of the regulatory effects of calponin in the actomyosin system therefore would be smooth muscle actin, tropomyosin and thiophosphorylated myosin, and for analysis of the kinetic effects of calponin on the actomyosin ATPase cycle they would be smooth muscle actin, tropomyosin and phosphorylated heavy meromyosin, due to the latter's solubility.