Diphospho-myo-inositol phosphates from Dictyostelium identified as D-6-diphospho-myo-inositol pentakisphosphate and D-5,6-bisdiphospho-myo-inositol tetrakisphosphate.
ABSTRACT: Two diphospho-myo-inositol phosphates from Dictyostelium were recently investigated by two-dimensional 1H/31P NMR analysis and assigned to be either D-4-diphospho-myo-inositol pentakisphosphate (D-4-PP-InsP5) and D-4,5-bisdiphospho-myo-inositol tetrakisphosphate (D-4,5-bis-PP-InsP4) or their corresponding enantiomers D-6-PP-InsP5 and D-5,6-bis-PP-InsP4. In the present study the naturally occurring enantiomers were identified by using defined synthetic PP-InsP5 isomers as substrates for a partially purified PP-InsP5 5-kinase from Dictyostelium. This enzyme specifically phosphorylates the naturally occurring PP-InsP5 and the synthetic D-6-PP-InsP5, leading to D-5,6-bis-PP-InsP4. In contrast, neither D-4-PP-InsP5 nor D-1-PP-InsP5 or D-3-PP-InsP5 are converted by the enzyme.
Project description:Diphospho-myo-inositol phosphates (PP-InsP5 and bis-PP-InsP4) were isolated from Dictyostelium in order to clarify the precise positional isomerism by two-dimensional 1H/31P-NMR analysis. The diphosphorylated inositol phosphates are 4-PP-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P5 and 4,5-bis-PP-Ins(1,2,3,6)P4 or their corresponding enantiomers. The vicinal arrangement of the diphospho groups with its steric and electrostatic constraints possibly qualifies bis-PP-InsP4 as a metabolite with high phosphate-group-transfer potential in phosphotransferase reactions.
Project description:The ubiquitous mammalian signaling molecule bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate (1,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 , or InsP8 ) displays the most congested three-dimensional array of phosphate groups found in nature. The high charge density, the accumulation of unstable P-anhydrides and P-esters, the lack of UV?absorbance, and low levels of optical rotation constitute severe obstacles to its synthesis, characterization, and purification. Herein, we describe the first procedure for the synthesis of enantiopure 1,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 and 3,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 utilizing a C2 -symmetric P-amidite for desymmetrization and concomitant phosphitylation followed by a one-pot bidirectional P-anhydride-forming reaction that combines sixteen chemical transformations with high efficiency. The configuration of these materials is unambiguously shown by subsequent X-ray analyses of both enantiomers after being individually soaked into crystals of the kinase domain of human diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase?2.
Project description:Inositol poly- and pyrophosphates (InsPs and PP-InsPs) are an important group of metabolites and mediate a wide range of processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of these molecules, robust techniques for the characterization of inositol phosphate metabolism are required, both at the biochemical and the cellular level. Here, a new tool-set is reported, which employs uniformly 13C-labeled compounds ([13C6]myo-inositol, [13C6]InsP5, [13C6]InsP6, and [13C6]5PP-InsP5), in combination with commonly accessible NMR technology. This approach permitted the detection and quantification of InsPs and PP-InsPs within complex mixtures and at physiological concentrations. Specifically, the enzymatic activity of IP6K1 could be monitored in vitro in real time. Metabolic labeling of mammalian cells with [13C6]myo-inositol enabled the analysis of cellular pools of InsPs and PP-InsPs, and uncovered high concentrations of 5PP-InsP5 in HCT116 cells, especially in response to genetic and pharmacological perturbation. The reported method greatly facilitates the analysis of this otherwise spectroscopically silent group of molecules, and holds great promise to comprehensively analyze inositol-based signaling molecules under normal and pathological conditions.
Project description:Syntheses of a metabolite of the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, and an analogue, the 1,4-bisphosphorothioate, are reported, by using phosphite chemistry on (+/-)-1,2:4,5-di-isopropylidene-myo-inositol. The synthesis of (+/-)-1,2:4,5-di-isopropylidene 3,6-bis[di-(2-cyanoethyl)]phosphite provides an intermediate that can be oxidized to either the corresponding bisphosphate or bisphosphorothioate. myo-Inositol phosphorothioates are proposed as novel analogues of myo-inositol phosphates; their resistance to phosphatase-catalysed breakdown is reported.
Project description:Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (PP-InsP5 or 'InsP7') and bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate ([PP]2-InsP4 or 'InsP8') are the most highly phosphorylated members of the inositol-based cell signaling family. We have purified a rat hepatic diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase (DIPP) that cleaves a beta-phosphate from the diphosphate groups in PP-InsP5 (Km = 340 nM) and [PP]2-InsP4 (Km = 34 nM). Inositol hexakisphophate (InsP6) was not a substrate, but it inhibited metabolism of both [PP]2-InsP4 and PP-InsP5 (IC50 = 0.2 and 3 microM, respectively). Microsequencing of DIPP revealed a 'MutT' domain, which in other contexts guards cellular integrity by dephosphorylating 8-oxo-dGTP, which causes AT to CG transversion mutations. The MutT domain also metabolizes some nucleoside phosphates that may play roles in signal transduction. The rat DIPP MutT domain is conserved in a novel recombinant human uterine DIPP. The nucleotide sequence of the human DIPP cDNA was aligned to chromosome 6; the candidate gene contains at least four exons. The dependence of DIPP's catalytic activity upon its MutT domain was confirmed by mutagenesis of a conserved glutamate residue. DIPP's low molecular size, Mg2+ dependency and catalytic preference for phosphoanhydride bonds are also features of other MutT-type proteins. Because overlapping substrate specificity is a feature of this class of proteins, our data provide new directions for future studies of higher inositol phosphates.
Project description:Avian erythrocytes were incubated with myo-[3H]inositol for 6-7 h and with [32P]Pi for the final 50-90 min of this period. An acid extract was prepared from the prelabelled erythrocytes, and the specific radioactivities of the gamma-phosphate of ATP and of both the myo-inositol moieties (3H, d.p.m./nmol) and the individual phosphate groups (32P, d.p.m./nmol) of [3H]Ins[32P](1,3,4,6)P4,[3H]Ins[32P](1,3,4,5)P4, [3H]Ins[32P](3,4,5,6)P4 and [3H]Ins[32P](1,3,4,5,6)P5 were determined. The results provide direct confirmation that one of the cellular InsP4 isomers is Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 which is synthesized by sequential phosphorylation of the 1,4,5 and 3 substitution sites of the myo-Ins moiety, precisely as previously deduced [Batty, Nahorski & Irvine (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 211-215; Irvine, Letcher, Heslop & Berridge (1986) Nature (London) 320, 631-634]. This is compatible with the proposed synthetic route from PtdIns via PtdIns4P, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and Ins(1,4,5)P3. The data also suggest that, in avian erythrocytes, the principle precursor of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 is Ins(3,4,5,6)P4. Furthermore, if the gamma- (and/or beta-) phosphate of ATP is the precursor of the phosphate moieties of Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, then this isomer must be derived from the phosphorylation of Ins(3,4,6)P3. If the gamma- (and/or beta-) phosphate of ATP similarly acts as the ultimate precursor to all of the phosphates of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4, then, in intact avian erythrocytes, the main precursor of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 is Ins(1,4,6)P3. This contrasts with the expectation, based on results with cell-free systems, that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 is synthesized by the direct phosphorylation of Ins(1,3,4)P3.
Project description:The effects of Li+ on carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism were examined in rat cerebral-cortex slices labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol. The muscarinic agonist carbachol evoked an enhanced steady-state accumulation of [3H]inositol monophosphate ([3H]InsP1), [3H]inositol bisphosphate ([3H]InsP2), [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3), [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3) and [3H]inositol tetrakisphosphate ([3H]InsP4). Li+ (5 mM), after a 10 min lag, severely attenuated carbachol-stimulated [3H]InsP4 accumulation while simultaneously potentiating accumulation of both [3H]InsP1 and [3H]InsP2 and, at least initially, of [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3. These data are consistent with inhibition of inositol mono-, bis- and 1,3,4-tris-phosphate phosphatases to different degrees by Li+ in brain, but are not considered to be completely accounted for in this way. Potential direct and indirect mechanisms of the inhibitory action of Li+ on [3H]InsP4 accumulation are considered. The present results stress the complex action of Li+ on cerebral inositol metabolism and indicate that more complex mechanisms than are yet evident may regulate this process.
Project description:When applied extracellularly, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 ) and myo-inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP5 ) can inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumour cells. There is debate about whether these effects result from interactions of InsP6 and InsP5 with intracellular or extracellular targets. We synthesised FAM-InsP5 , a fluorescent conjugate of InsP5 that allows direct visualisation of its interaction with cells. FAM-InsP5 was internalised by H1229 tumour cells, a finding that supports earlier reports that externally applied inositol phosphates can-perhaps surprisingly-enter into cells. Close examination of the process of FAM-InsP5 uptake suggests a mechanism of non-receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is blocked at 4 °C and probably involves interaction of the ligand with the glycocalyx. However, our results are difficult to reconcile with antiproliferative mechanisms that require direct interactions of externally applied InsP5 or InsP6 with cytosolic proteins, because internalised FAM-InsP5 appears in lysosomes and apparently does not enter the cytoplasm. Studies using FAM-InsP5 are less difficult and time-consuming than experiments using InsP5 or InsP6 , a factor that allowed us to analyse cellular uptake across a range of human cell types, identifying strong cell-specific differences.
Project description:1. Standard and high-performance anion-exchange-chromatographic techniques have been used to purify myo-[3H]inositol pentakisphosphates from various myo-[3H]inositol-prelabelled cells. Slime mould (Dictyostelium discoideum) contained 8 microM-myo-[3H]inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, 16 microM-myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,3,4,6-pentakisphosphate and 36 microM-D-myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate [calculated intracellular concentrations; Stephens & Irvine (1990) Nature (London) 346, 580-583]; germinating mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) seedlings contained both D- and L-myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (which was characterized by 31P and two-dimensional proton n.m.r.) and D- and/or L-myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate; HL60 cells contained myo-[3H]inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (in a 500-fold excess over the other species), myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,3,4,6-pentakisphosphate and D- and/or L-myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate; and NG-115-401L-C3 cells contained myo-[3H]inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (in a 100-fold excess over the other species), D- and/or L-myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,3,4,6-pentakisphosphate and D- and/or L-myo-[3H]inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate. 2. Multiple soluble ATP-dependent myo-inositol pentakisphosphate kinase activities have been detected in slime mould, rat brain and germinating mung-bean seedling homogenates. In slime-mould cytosolic fractions, the three myo-inositol pentakisphosphates that were present in intact slime moulds could be phosphorylated to myo-[3H]inositol hexakisphosphate: the relative first-order rate constants for these reactions were, in the order listed above, 1:8:31 respectively (with first-order rate constants in the intact cell of 0.1, 0.8 and 3.1 s-1, assuming a cytosolic protein concentration of 50 mg/ml), and the Km values of the activities for their respective inositol phosphate substrates (in the presence of 5 mM-ATP) were 1.6 microM, 3.8 microM and 1.4 microM. At least two forms of myo-inositol pentakisphosphate kinase activity could be resolved from a slime-mould cytosolic fraction by both pharmacological and chromatographic criteria. Rat brain cytosol and a soluble fraction derived from germinating mung-bean seedlings could phosphorylate myo-inositol D/L-1,2,4,5,6-, D/L-1,2,3,4,5-, 1,2,3,4,6- and 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphates to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate: the relative first-order rate constants were 57:27:77:1 respectively for brain cytosol (with first-order rate constants in the intact cell of 0.0041, 0.0019, 0.0056 and 0.000073 s-1 respectively, assuming a cytosolic protein concentration of 50 mg/ml) and 1:11:12:33 respectively for mung-bean cytosol (with first-order rate constants in a supernatant fraction with a protein concentration of 10 mg/ml of 0.0002, 0.0022, 0.0024 and 0.0066 s-1 respectively).
Project description:Substantial amounts of three [3H]InsP5 isomers were detected in [3H]inositol-labelled human lymphoblastoid (T5-1) cells. Their structures were determined by h.p.l.c. [Phillippy & Bland (1988) Anal. Biochem. 175, 162-166], and by utilizing a stereospecific D-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 3-kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum [Stephens & Irvine (1990) Nature (London) 346, 580-583]. The structures were: inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, D-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate and L-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate. The relative proportions of these isomers (approx. 73:14:14 respectively) were unaffected by cross-linking anti-IgD receptors. The T5-1 cells also contained InsP6 and three Ins P4s, which were identified as the 1,3,4,5, 1,3,4,6 and 3,4,5,6 isomers. In incubations with permeabilized T5-1 cells, both 1,3,4,6 and 3,4,5,6 isomers of InsP4 were phosphorylated solely to Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5. Permeabilized cells also dephosphorylated InsP6, even in the presence of a large excess of glucose 6-phosphate to saturate non-specific phosphatases. In the latter experiments the following isomers of InsP5 accumulated: D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, plus D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5. This demonstration that multiple isomers of InsP5 may be formed in vivo and in vitro by a transformed lymphocyte cell line adds a new level of complexity to the study of inositol polyphosphate metabolism and function.