Studies of the esterase activity of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase with resorufin acetate as substrate.
ABSTRACT: Resorufin acetate is a very good substrate for sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase, both from the point of view of practical spectrophotometry and in terms of information provided about the nature of the catalysis shown by this enzyme. p-Nitrophenyl (PNP) acetate competes against resorufin acetate for the enzyme's active site (although relatively weakly as the latter substrate has the lower Michaelis constant), but acetaldehyde (in the presence of NAD+) inhibits the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate only at very high aldehyde concentration. In the absence of cofactor, the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate and of PNP acetate is hydrolysis of the common acetyl-enzyme, as shown by the observation of bursts of chromophoric product and very similar values of kcat. In the presence of NAD+ or NADH, however, the deacylation step with resorufin acetate is greatly accelerated until acylation seems to become rate-limiting, because no burst is seen under these conditions. Millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ activate the hydrolyis of resorufin acetate both in the presence and absence of cofactors. With both Mg2+ and cofactor the kcat for hydrolysis of resorufin acetate is 30-35 s-1; this is three orders of magnitude higher than the kcat for aldehyde oxidation in the presence of Mg2+, showing that the enzyme's potential catalytic efficency is very much hampered by the slowness with which NADH dissociates from its binding site. The pH profile for the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate in the presence of NAD+ or NADH fits well to a theoretical ionization curve of pKa approx. 8.2; it is suggested that this might belong to the enzyme's putative catalytic residue (Cys-302).
Project description:Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase catalyses the hydrolysis of methyl p-nitrophenyl (PNP) carbonate at an appreciable rate that is markedly stimualted by NAD+ or NADH. The nuleotides accelerate the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate while slowing the observed burst of p-nitrophenoxide production. With PNP dimethylcarbamate the enzyme catalyses the slow release of approx. 1 molecule of p-nitrophenoxide per tetrameric enzyme molecule; during the reaction the enzyme becomes effectively inactivated, as the rate of hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme is virtually zero. The presence of NAD+, NADH, propionaldehyde, chloral hydrate, diethylstilboestrol or disulfiram slows the reaction of enzyme with PNP dimethylcarbamate. The reaction appears to be dependent on a group of pKa 7.6, possibly a cysteine residue. The effect of PNP dimethylcarbamate on the dehydrogenase activity of the enzyme is consistent with there being a single type of active site for the enzyme's dehydrogenase and esterase activities. Steric and electronic factors that govern reaction of the enzyme with PNP substrates are discussed.
Project description:The effects of modifiers (NAD+, NADH, propionaldehyde, chloral hydrate, diethylstilboestrol and p-nitrobenzaldehyde) on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl (PNP) pivalate (PNP trimethylacetate) catalysed by cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase are reported. In each case a different inhibition pattern is obtained to that observed when the substrate is PNP acetate; for example, propionaldehyde and chloral hydrate competitively inhibit the hydrolysis of PNP acetate, but are mixed inhibitors with PNP pivalate. The kinetic results can be rationalized in terms of different rate-determining steps: acylation of the enzyme in the case of the pivalate but acyl-enzyme hydrolysis for the acetate. This is confirmed by stopped-flow studies, in which a burst of p-nitrophenoxide is observed when the substrate is PNP acetate, but not when it is the pivalate. PNP pivalate inhibits the dehydrogenase activity of the enzyme competitively with the aldehyde substrate; this is most simply explained if the esterase and dehydrogenase reactions occur at a common enzymic site.
Project description:1. p-Nitrophenyl (PNP) acetate and propionate show a burst of p-nitrophenoxide release when their hydrolysis is catalysed by sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase. This is not seen in the presence of NAD+ or NADH, implying a change in ratedetermining step. 2. 6-Nitrodihydrocoumarin (6-NDC) shows no burst of absorbance in the visible region. We propose that the pKa of the transient "reporter group' produced during the hydrolysis of this lactone is high (approx. 10) and that the incipient covalently linked p-nitrophenoxide moiety is protonated immediately on formation. The small burst seen in the hydrolysis of 5-nitro-2-coumaranone (5-NC) suggests that the pKa of its reporter group is about 8.5. 3. NADH markedly enhances the steady-state rate with the lactones. 5-NC shows a large rapid burst of colour development in the presence of NADH; this implies that NADH decreases the pKa of the reporter group to 7-7.5. 4. In the presence of NAD+, 5-NC and 6-NDC give an unusual "negative burst' in the stopped-flow traces. We propose that, under these circumstances, acylation of the enzyme is extremely fast and that the first event seen in the stopped-flow traces is protonation of the reporter group. NAD+ also greatly increases the steady-state rate. 5. With the lactones in the presence of NADH, the kcat value (nearly 6 s-1), a measure of the deacylation rate, is compatible with the single-site model for dehydrogenase and esterase activities.
Project description:The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate catalysed by cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) from sheep liver was studied by steady-state and transient kinetic techniques. NAD+ and NADH stimulated the steady-state rate of ester hydrolysis at concentrations expected on the basis of their Michaelis constants from the dehydrogenase reaction. At higher concentrations of the coenzymes, both NAD+ and NADH inhibited the reaction competitively with respect to 4-nitrophenyl acetate, with inhibition constants of 104 and 197 micron respectively. Propionaldehyde and chloral hydrate are competitive inhibitors of the esterase reaction. A burst in the production of 4-nitrophenoxide ion was observed, with a rate constant of 12 +/- 2s-1 and a burst amplitude that was 30% of that expected on the basis of the known NADH-binding site concentration. The rate-limiting step for the esterase reaction occurs after the formation of 4-nitrophenoxide ion. Arguments are presented for the existence of distinct ester- and aldehyde-binding sites.
Project description:Stopped-flow experiments in spectrophotometric and fluorescence modes reveal different aspects of the aldehyde dehydrogenase mechanism. Spectrophotometric experiments show a rapid burst of NADH production whose course is not affected by Mg2+. The slower burst seen in the fluorescence mode is markedly accelerated by Mg2+. It is argued that the fluorescence burst accompanies acyl-enzyme hydrolysis and, therefore, that Mg2+ increases the rate of this process. Experiments on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl propionate indicate that acyl-enzyme hydrolysis is indeed accelerated by Mg2+ and a combination of Mg2+ and NADH. Vmax. values for p-nitrophenyl propionate hydrolysis in the presence of NADH and NADH and Mg2+ agree closely with the specific rates of acyl hydrolysis from the E . NADH . acyl and E . NADH . acyl . Mg2+ complexes seen in the dehydrogenase reaction with propionaldehyde. These observations support the view that esterase and dehydrogenase activities occur at the same site on the enzyme. Other evidence is presented to support this conclusion.
Project description:An aldehyde dehydrogenase from rabbit liver, a homogeneous protein on three distinct polyacrylamide-gel systems, has an associated 4-nitrophenyl esterase activity. At pH 7.0 in the presence of 80 micrometer-NADH and 800 micrometer-4-nitrophenyl acetate the enzyme produces NAD+ and a stoicheiometric amount of an aldehyde, as well as hydrolysing the ester. On this and other evidence it is proposed that ester hydrolysis occurs at the usual active site of the enzyme.
Project description:The displacement of NADH from the aldehyde dehydrogenase X NADH complex by NAD+ was followed at pH 7.0, and the data were fitted by a non-linear least-squares iterative procedure. At pH 7.0 the decay constants for the dissociation of NADH from aldehyde dehydrogenase X NADH complexes (1.62 +/- 0.09 s-1 and 0.25 +/- 0.004 s-1) were similar to the values previously determined by MacGibbon, Buckley & Blackwell [(1977) Biochem. J. 165, 455-462] at pH 7.6, and apparent differences between these values and those reported by Dickinson [(1985) Biochem. J. 225, 159-165] are resolved. Experiments at low concentrations of propionaldehyde show that isomerization of a binary E X NADH complex is part of the normal catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. Evidence is presented that the active-site concentration of aldehyde dehydrogenase is halved when enzyme is pre-diluted to low concentrations before addition of NAD+ and substrate. The consequences of this for the reported values of kcat. are discussed. A general mechanism for the aldehyde dehydrogenase-catalysed oxidation of propionaldehyde which accounts for the published kinetic data, at concentrations of aldehyde which bind only at the active site, is presented.
Project description:Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase may be modified by reaction with p-nitrophenyl dimethylcarbamate to give a stable E-X-CO-NMe2 species that is an analogue of the usual labile acyl-enzyme involved in the enzyme's reactions. [X is derived from an enzymic nucleophilic group.] This species still contains the tightly bound NADH that is present in the native enzyme. When further NADH binds to E-X-CO-NMe2 its fluorescence is enhanced over 4 times more than when it binds to unmodified enzyme; this fluorescence is completely unaffected by high propionaldehyde concentration and only slightly affected by p-nitrobenzaldehyde. The modified species has 1.0 NADH binding site in the absence of Mg2+ and 1.67 sites in its presence. The rate of dissociation of E-X-CO-NMe2.NADH is biphasic (k 3.4 and 1.8 min-1) and is considerably lower than that of E.NADH; the presence of Mg2+ slows the process even more (k 0.47 and 0.37 min-1). The implications of these studies towards a greater understanding of the nature of aldehyde dehydrogenase-catalysed reactions are discussed.
Project description:The dissociation of the aldehyde dehydrogenase X NADH complex was studied by displacement with NAD+. The association reaction of enzyme and NADH was also studied. These processes are biphasic, as shown by McGibbon, Buckley & Blackwell [(1977) Biochem. J. 165, 455-462], but the details of the dissociation reaction are significantly different from those given by those authors. Spectral and kinetic experiments provide evidence for the formation of abortive complexes of the type enzyme X NADH X aldehyde. Kinetic studies at different wavelengths with transcinnamaldehyde as substrate provide evidence for the formation of an enzyme X NADH X cinnamoyl complex. Hydrolysis of the thioester relieves a severe quenching effect on the fluorescence of enzyme-bound NADH.
Project description:Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain reliable results for the liberation of NADH during the initial-rate phase, the reaction was measured with a sensitive recording filter fluorimeter, and the complexes formed with the different dead-end and product inhibitors have been interpreted on the basis of a full dismutation reaction. The results are only consistent with a compulsory ordered reaction mechanism, with the formation of a dead-end binary enzyme-aldehyde complex. Under initial-velocity conditions, the rate of acetate release was calculated to be larger than 2.5 s-1, which is more than ten times that of NADH. The substrate specificity constant (kcat/Km or 1/phiB) with respect to the oxidation of substrates was propan-2-ol>ethanol>acetaldehyde>trimethylacetaldehyde.