Cell-surface ADP-ribosylation of fibroblast growth factor-2 by an arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase.
ABSTRACT: Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) appeared to be ADP-ribosylated on the surface of adult bovine aortic arch endothelial and human hepatoma cells. Further characterization of this reaction with cells expressing an arginine-specific, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase demonstrated that FGF-2 is ADP-ribosylated on arginine. Incubation of transformed cells with FGF-2 and [adenylate-32P]nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) resulted in the rapid incorporation of [32P]ADP-ribose into FGF-2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with labelling averaging 3 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of FGF-2. Excess ADP-ribose had no effect on these reactions, whereas excess NAD inhibited the ADP-ribosylation of FGF-2, consistent with an enzymic rather than a non-enzymic ADP-ribosylation reaction. Heparin also inhibited the ADP-ribosylation reaction, whereas a neutralizing polyclonal anti-peptide antibody had no effect. Furthermore, the addition of putative receptor binding domain peptide analogues of FGF-2 reduced the maximal ADP-ribosylation of FGF-2. These results identify the cell-surface ADP-ribosylation of FGF-2 as a potentially ubiquitous event.
Project description:NAD+ glycohydrolase (NADase) and non-enzymic ADP-ribosylation have been thought to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes. In this study it was found that several conditions (5 mM nicotinamide, 5 mM 3-aminobenzamide, 2 mM EDTA, 1 mM ATP, 10 mM dithiothreitol) known to strongly inhibit the NADase decreased ADP-ribosylation in bovine liver mitochondrial membranes with [32P]NAD+ as substrate to only a limited extent, if at all. The reaction led to the specific modification of two proteins with apparent molecular masses of approx. 26 and 53 kDa. An excess of added free ADP-ribose diminished the incorporation of label from [32P]NAD+ only slightly. Dithiothreitol inactivated the NADase, whereas ADP-ribosylation was unaffected. At low concentrations (25 microM) ADP-ribosylation was efficient with NAD+, but not ADP-ribose, as substrate. Under these conditions mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation seems to occur as an enzymic reaction rather than a non-enzymic transfer of ADP-ribose previously liberated from NAD+ by NAD+ glycohydrolase. The chemical stability of the protein-ADP-ribose bonds in the mitochondrial membranes indicated that cysteine residues are the predominant acceptors. Moreover, yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase, known to be a substrate for thiol-associated ADP-ribosylation, was efficiently ADP-ribosylated by using the mitochondrial activity and NAD+ as substrate. The modification of a cysteine residue in the aldehyde dehydrogenase was verified by the observation that pretreatment of this acceptor protein with N-ethylmaleimide substantially decreased its modification. It is therefore concluded that bovine liver mitochondria contain a cysteine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase.
Project description:NAD+ glycohydrolase (NADase; EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that catalyses hydrolysis of NAD+ to produce ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. Its physiological role and the regulation of its enzymic activity have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the mechanism of self-inactivation of NADase by its substrate, NAD+, was investigated by using intact rabbit erythrocytes and purified NADase. Our results suggest that inactivation of NADase was due an auto-ADP-ribosylation reaction. ADP-ribosylated NADase of rabbit erythrocytes was deADP-ribosylated when incubated without NAD+, and thus enzyme activity was simultaneously restored. These findings suggest that reversible auto-ADP-ribosylation of NADase might regulate the enzyme's activity in vivo.
Project description:RNA 2'-phosphotransferase Tpt1 converts an internal RNA 2'-monophosphate to a 2'-OH via a two-step NAD+-dependent mechanism in which: (i) the 2'-phosphate attacks the C1? of NAD+ to expel nicotinamide and form a 2'-phospho-ADP-ribosylated RNA intermediate; and (ii) the ADP-ribose O2? attacks the phosphate of the RNA 2'-phospho-ADPR intermediate to expel the RNA 2'-OH and generate ADP-ribose 1?-2? cyclic phosphate. Tpt1 is an essential component of the fungal tRNA splicing pathway that generates a unique 2'-PO4, 3'-5' phosphodiester splice junction during tRNA ligation. The wide distribution of Tpt1 enzymes in taxa that have no fungal-type RNA ligase raises the prospect that Tpt1 might catalyze reactions other than RNA 2'-phosphate removal. A survey of Tpt1 enzymes from diverse sources reveals that whereas all of the Tpt1 enzymes are capable of NAD+-dependent conversion of an internal RNA 2'-PO4 to a 2'-OH (the canonical Tpt1 reaction), a subset of Tpt1 enzymes also catalyzed NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosylation of an RNA or DNA 5'-monophosphate terminus. Aeropyrum pernix Tpt1 (ApeTpt1) is particularly adept in this respect. One-step synthesis of a 5'-phospho-ADP-ribosylated cap structure by ApeTpt1 (with no subsequent 5'-phosphotransferase step) extends the repertoire of the Tpt1 enzyme family and the catalogue of ADP-ribosylation reactions involving nucleic acid acceptors.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation of proteins occurs in many eukaryotes, and it is also the mechanism of action of a growing number of important bacterial toxins. To date, however, there is only one well-characterized ADP-ribosylation system where the ADP-ribosyltransferase and the substrate protein are both bacterial in origin, namely within the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. The present paper demonstrates the endogenous ADP-ribosylation of two proteins of Mr 32,000 and 20,000 within Pseudomonas maltophilia, a Gram-negative aerobe. The proteins have been partially purified: two apparently separate species of modified protein can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration (V0 and Mr 158,000 - Vi). The substrate protein(s) either has, or is co-eluted with, NAD+ glycohydrolase activity. The modification is mono-ADP-ribosyl in nature. The linkage between the acceptor amino acid and the ADP-ribose moiety is alkali-labile and stable to hydroxylamine, possibly indicating an S-glycosidic bond. The activity appears to be a true ADP-ribosylation reaction and not an NAD+ glycohydrolase activity followed by non-enzymic addition of ADP-ribose to protein. The results presented here indicate that ADP-ribosylation may have a wider significance within prokaryotic systems than previously thought.
Project description:Mono-ADP-ribosylation of an (arginine) protein catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 (ART1) - i.e., transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to arginine - is reversed by ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase 1 (ARH1) cleavage of the ADP-ribose-arginine bond. ARH1-deficient mice developed cardiomyopathy with myocardial fibrosis, decreased myocardial function under dobutamine stress, and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The membrane repair protein TRIM72 was identified as a substrate for ART1 and ARH1; ADP-ribosylated TRIM72 levels were greater in ARH1-deficient mice following ischemia/reperfusion injury. To understand better the role of TRIM72 and ADP-ribosylation, we used C2C12 myocytes. ARH1 knockdown in C2C12 myocytes increased ADP-ribosylation of TRIM72 and delayed wound healing in a scratch assay. Mutant TRIM72 (R207K, R260K) that is not ADP-ribosylated interfered with assembly of TRIM72 repair complexes at a site of laser-induced injury. The regulatory enzymes ART1 and ARH1 and their substrate TRIM72 were found in multiple complexes, which were coimmunoprecipitated from mouse heart lysates. In addition, the mono-ADP-ribosylation inhibitors vitamin K1 and novobiocin inhibited oligomerization of TRIM72, the mechanism by which TRIM72 is recruited to the site of injury. We propose that a mono-ADP-ribosylation cycle involving recruitment of TRIM72 and other regulatory factors to sites of membrane damage is critical for membrane repair and wound healing following myocardial injury.
Project description:UNLABELLED:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD(+) to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains. Here, we report that the macro domain from hepatitis E virus (HEV) serves as an ADP-ribose-protein hydrolase for mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain removal (de-MARylation and de-PARylation, respectively) from mono- and poly(ADP)-ribosylated proteins, respectively. The presence of the HEV helicase in cis dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to poly(ADP-ribose) and stimulates the de-PARylation activity. Abrogation of the latter dramatically decreases replication of an HEV subgenomic replicon. The de-MARylation activity is present in all three pathogenic positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus families which carry a macro domain: Coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E), Togaviridae (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), and Hepeviridae (HEV), indicating that it might be a significant tropism and/or pathogenic determinant. IMPORTANCE:Protein ADP-ribosylation is a covalent posttranslational modification regulating cellular protein activities in a dynamic fashion to modulate and coordinate a variety of cellular processes. Three viral families, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, possess macro domains embedded in their polyproteins. Here, we show that viral macro domains reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation, potentially cutting the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Various poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases which are notorious guardians of cellular integrity are demodified by macro domains from members of these virus families. In the case of hepatitis E virus, the adjacent viral helicase domain dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to PAR and simulates the demodification activity.
Project description:Sirtuins comprise a family of enzymes found in all organisms, where they play a role in diverse processes including transcriptional silencing, aging, regulation of transcription, and metabolism. The predominant reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacetylation, although some sirtuins exhibit a weaker ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Although the Sir2 deacetylation mechanism is well established, much less is known about the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction. We have studied the ADP-ribosylation activity of a bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, and show that acetylated peptides containing arginine or lysine 2 residues C-terminal to the acetyl lysine, the +2 position, are preferentially ADP-ribosylated at the +2 residue. A structure of Sir2Tm bound to the acetylated +2 arginine peptide shows how this arginine could enter the active site and react with a deacetylation reaction intermediate to yield an ADP-ribosylated peptide. The new biochemical and structural studies presented here provide mechanistic insights into the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction and will aid in identifying substrates of this reaction.
Project description:The present investigation identifies bovine liver mitochondrial NADase (NAD+ glycohydrolase) as a member of the class of bifunctional ADP-ribosyl cyclases/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolases, known to be potential second messenger enzymes. These enzymes catalyse the synthesis and degradation of cyclic ADP-ribose, a potent intracellular calcium-mobilizing agent. The mitochondrial enzyme utilized the NAD+ analogues nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD+) and nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide (NHD+) to form fluorescent cyclic purine nucleoside diphosphoriboses. ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was also demonstrated using 32P-labelled NAD+ as substrate. The identity of NADase and ADP-ribosyl cyclase was supported by their co-migration in SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Cyclase activity was visualized directly within the gel by detecting the formation of fluorescent cyclic IDP-ribose from NHD+. The enzyme catalysed the hydrolysis of cyclic ADP-ribose to ADP-ribose. Moreover, in the presence of nicotinamide and cyclic ADP-ribose the enzyme synthesized NAD+. Both the ADP-ribosyl cyclase and NADase activities of the enzyme were strongly inhibited by reducing agents. Treatment of the NADase with dithiothreitol caused the apparent inactivation of the enzyme. Subsequent removal of the reducing agent and addition of oxidized glutathione led to a partial recovery of enzymic activity. The results support a model for pro-oxidant-induced calcium release from mitochondria involving cyclic ADP-ribose as a specific messenger, rather than the non-enzymic modification of proteins by ADP-ribose.
Project description:Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin (Ia) mono-ADP ribosylates Arg177 of actin, leading to cytoskeletal disorganization and cell death. To fully understand the reaction mechanism of arginine-specific mono-ADP ribosyl transferase, the structure of the toxin-substrate protein complex must be characterized. Recently, we solved the crystal structure of Ia in complex with actin and the nonhydrolyzable NAD(+) analog ?TAD (thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide); however, the structures of the NAD(+)-bound form (NAD(+)-Ia-actin) and the ADP ribosylated form [Ia-ADP ribosylated (ADPR)-actin] remain unclear. Accidentally, we found that ethylene glycol as cryo-protectant inhibits ADP ribosylation and crystallized the NAD(+)-Ia-actin complex. Here we report high-resolution structures of NAD(+)-Ia-actin and Ia-ADPR-actin obtained by soaking apo-Ia-actin crystal with NAD(+) under different conditions. The structures of NAD(+)-Ia-actin and Ia-ADPR-actin represent the pre- and postreaction states, respectively. By assigning the ?TAD-Ia-actin structure to the transition state, the strain-alleviation model of ADP ribosylation, which we proposed previously, is experimentally confirmed and improved. Moreover, this reaction mechanism appears to be applicable not only to Ia but also to other ADP ribosyltransferases.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a reversible post-translational modification with wide-ranging biological functions in all kingdoms of life. A variety of enzymes use NAD(+) to transfer either single or multiple ADP-ribose (ADPr) moieties onto distinct amino acid substrates, often in response to DNA damage or other stresses. Poly-ADPr-glycohydrolase readily reverses poly-ADP-ribosylation induced by the DNA-damage sensor PARP1 and other enzymes, but it does not remove the most proximal ADPr linked to the target amino acid. Searches for enzymes capable of fully reversing cellular mono-ADP-ribosylation back to the unmodified state have proved elusive, which leaves a gap in the understanding of this modification. Here, we identify a family of macrodomain enzymes present in viruses, yeast and animals that reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation by acting on mono-ADP-ribosylated substrates. Our discoveries establish the complete reversibility of PARP-catalyzed cellular ADP-ribosylation as a regulatory modification.