Protein kinase C isoenzymes in airway smooth muscle.
ABSTRACT: The protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes expressed by bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) were identified at the protein and mRNA levels. Western immunoblot analyses reliably identified PKCalpha, PKCbetaI and PKCbetaII. In some experiments immunoreactive bands corresponding to PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCTheta were also labelled, whereas the gamma, eta and zeta isoforms of PKC were never detected. Reverse transcriptase PCR of RNA extracted from BTSM using oligonucleotide primer pairs designed to recognize unique sequences in the PKC genes for which protein was absent or not reproducibly identified by immunoblotting, amplified cDNA fragments that corresponded to the predicted sizes of PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, which was confirmed by Southern blotting. Anion-exchange chromatography of the soluble fraction of BTSM following homogenization in Ca2+-free buffer resolved two major peaks of activity. Using epsilon-peptide as the substrate, the first peak of activity was dependent upon Ca2+ and 4beta-PDBu (PDBu=phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate), and represented a mixture of PKCs alpha, betaI and betaII. In contrast, the second peak of activity, which eluted at much higher ionic strength, also appeared to comprise a combination of conventional PKCs that were arbitrarily denoted PKCalpha', PKCbetaI' and PKCbetaII'. However, these novel enzymes were cofactor-independent and did not bind [3H]PDBu, but were equally sensitive to the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X compared with bona fide conventional PKCs, and migrated on SDS/polyacrylamide gels as 81 kDa polypeptides. Taken together, these data suggest that PKCs alpha', betaI' and betaII' represent modified, but not proteolysed, forms of their respective native enzymes that retain antibody immunoreactivity and sensitivity to PKC inhibitors, but have lost their sensitivity to Ca2+ and PDBu when epsilon-peptide is used as the substrate.
Project description:In pituitary GH3B6 cells, signaling involving the protein kinase C (PKC) multigene family can self-organize into a spatiotemporally coordinated cascade of isoform activation. Indeed, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor activation sequentially activated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged or endogenous PKCbeta1, PKCalpha, PKCepsilon, and PKCdelta, resulting in their accumulation at the entire plasma membrane (PKCbeta and -delta) or selectively at the cell-cell contacts (PKCalpha and -epsilon). The duration of activation ranged from 20 s for PKCalpha to 20 min for PKCepsilon. PKCalpha and -epsilon selective localization was lost in the presence of Gö6976, suggesting that accumulation at cell-cell contacts is dependent on the activity of a conventional PKC. Constitutively active, dominant-negative PKCs and small interfering RNAs showed that PKCalpha localization is controlled by PKCbeta1 activity and is calcium independent, while PKCepsilon localization is dependent on PKCalpha activity. PKCdelta was independent of the cascade linking PKCbeta1, -alpha, and -epsilon. Furthermore, PKCalpha, but not PKCepsilon, is involved in the TRH-induced beta-catenin relocation at cell-cell contacts, suggesting that PKCepsilon is not the unique functional effector of the cascade. Thus, TRH receptor activation results in PKCbeta1 activation, which in turn initiates a calcium-independent but PKCbeta1 activity-dependent sequential translocation of PKCalpha and -epsilon. These results challenge the current understanding of PKC signaling and raise the question of a functional dependence between isoforms.
Project description:Alterations in PKC isozyme expression and aberrant induction of cyclin D1 are early events in intestinal tumorigenesis. Previous studies have identified cyclin D1 as a major target in the antiproliferative effects of PKCalpha in non-transformed intestinal cells; however, a link between PKC signaling and cyclin D1 in colon cancer remained to be established. The current study further characterized PKC isozyme expression in intestinal neoplasms and explored the consequences of restoring PKCalpha or PKCdelta in a panel of colon carcinoma cell lines. Consistent with patterns of PKC expression in primary tumors, PKCalpha and delta levels were generally reduced in colon carcinoma cell lines, PKCbetaII was elevated and PKCepsilon showed variable expression, thus establishing the suitability of these models for analysis of PKC signaling. While colon cancer cells were insensitive to the effects of PKC agonists on cyclin D1 levels, restoration of PKCalpha downregulated cyclin D1 by two independent mechanisms. PKCalpha expression consistently (a) reduced steady-state levels of cyclin D1 by a novel transcriptional mechanism not previously seen in non-transformed cells, and (b) re-established the ability of PKC agonists to activate the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and inhibit cyclin D1 translation. In contrast, PKCdelta had modest and variable effects on cyclin D1 steady-state levels and failed to restore responsiveness to PKC agonists. Notably, PKCalpha expression blocked anchorage-independent growth in colon cancer cells via a mechanism partially dependent on cyclin D1 deficiency, while PKCdelta had only minor effects. Loss of PKCalpha and effects of its re-expression were independent of the status of the APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway or known genetic alterations, indicating that they are a general characteristic of colon tumors. Thus, PKCalpha is a potent negative regulator of cyclin D1 expression and anchorage-independent cell growth in colon tumor cells, findings that offer important perspectives on the frequent loss of this isozyme during intestinal carcinogenesis.
Project description:ATP-competitive inhibitors of PKC (protein kinase C) such as the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X, which interact with the ATP-binding site in the PKC molecule, have also been shown to affect several redistribution events of PKC. However, the reason why these inhibitors affect the redistribution is still controversial. In the present study, using immunoblot analysis and GFP (green fluorescent protein)-tagged PKC, we showed that, at commonly used concentrations, these ATP-competitive inhibitors alone induced redistribution of DAG (diacylglycerol)-sensitive PKCalpha, PKCbetaII, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, but not atypical PKCzeta, to the endomembrane or the plasma membrane. Studies with deletion and point mutants showed that the DAG-sensitive C1 domain of PKC was required for membrane redistribution by these inhibitors. Furthermore, membrane redistribution was prevented by the aminosteroid PLC (phospholipase C) inhibitor U-73122, although an ATP-competitive inhibitor had no significant effect on acute DAG generation. Immunoblot analysis showed that an ATP-competitive inhibitor enhanced cell-permeable DAG analogue- or phorbol-ester-induced translocation of endogenous PKC. Furthermore, these inhibitors also enhanced [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding to the cytosolic fractions from PKCalpha-GFP-overexpressing cells. These results clearly demonstrate that ATP-competitive inhibitors cause redistribution of DAG-sensitive PKCs to membranes containing endogenous DAG by altering the DAG sensitivity of PKC and support the idea that the inhibitors destabilize the closed conformation of PKC and make the C1 domain accessible to DAG. Most importantly, our findings provide novel insights for the interpretation of studies using ATP-competitive inhibitors, and, especially, suggest caution about the interpretation of the relationship between the redistribution and kinase activity of PKC.
Project description:In contrast with protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and PKCepsilon, which are better known for promoting cell survival, PKCdelta is known for its pro-apoptotic function, which is exerted mainly through a caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation pathway. In the present study, we used the rat GH3B6 pituitary adenoma cell line to show that PKCalpha and PKCepsilon are activated and relocalized together with PKCdelta when apoptosis is induced by a genotoxic stress. Proteolytic activation is a crucial step used by the three isoforms since: (1) the catalytic domains of the PKCalpha, PKCepsilon or PKCdelta isoforms (CDalpha, CDepsilon and CDdelta respectively) accumulated, and this accumulation was dependent on the activity of both calpain and caspase; and (2) transient expression of CDalpha, CDepsilon or CDdelta sufficed to induce apoptosis. However, following this initial step of proteolytic activation, the pathways diverge; cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation are induced by CDepsilon and CDdelta, but not by CDalpha. Another interesting finding of the present study is the proteolysis of PKCdelta induced by CDepsilon expression that revealed the existence of a cross-talk between PKC isoforms during apoptosis. Hence the PKC family may participate in the apoptotic process of pituitary adenoma cells at two levels: downstream of caspase and calpain, and via retro-activation of caspase-3, resulting in the amplification of its own proteolytic activation.
Project description:The regulation of Ca(2+) influx through the phosphorylation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel, Ca(v)1.2, is important for the modulation of excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in the heart. Ca(v)1.2 is thought to be the target of multiple kinases that mediate the signals of both the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems. Detailed biochemical information regarding the protein phosphorylation reactions involved in the regulation of Ca(v)1.2 is limited. The protein kinase C (PKC) family of kinases can modulate cardiac contractility in a complex manner, such that contractility is either enhanced or depressed and relaxation is either accelerated or slowed. We have previously reported that Ser(1928) in the C-terminus of alpha(1c) was a target for PKCalpha, -zeta, and -epsilon phosphorylation. Here, we report the identification of seven PKC phosphorylation sites within the alpha(1c) subunit. Using phospho-epitope specific antibodies to Ser(1674) and Ser(1928), we demonstrate that both sites within the C-terminus are phosphorylated in HEK cells in response to PMA. Phosphorylation was inhibited with a PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide. In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, both Ser(1674) and Ser(1928) were phosphorylated in response to PMA. Phosphorylation of Ser(1674), but not Ser(1928), is PKC isoform specific, as only PKCalpha, -betaI, -betaII, -gamma, -delta, and -theta, but not PKCepsilon, -zeta, and -eta, were able to phosphorylate this site. Our results identify a molecular mechanism by which PKC isoforms can have different effects on channel activity by phosphorylating different residues.
Project description:Protein kinase C (PKC) family members are allosterically activated following membrane recruitment by specific membrane-targeting modules. Conventional PKC isozymes are recruited to membranes by two such modules: a C1 domain, which binds diacylglycerol (DAG), and a C2 domain, which is a Ca2+-triggered phospholipid-binding module. In contrast, novel PKC isozymes respond only to DAG, despite the presence of a C2 domain. Here, we address the molecular mechanism of membrane recruitment of the novel isozyme PKCdelta. We show that PKCdelta and a conventional isozyme, PKCbetaII, bind membranes with comparable affinities. However, dissection of the contribution of individual domains to this binding revealed that, although the C2 domain is a major determinant in driving the interaction of PKCbetaII with membranes, the C2 domain of PKCdelta does not bind membranes. Instead, the C1B domain is the determinant that drives the interaction of PKCdelta with membranes. The C2 domain also does not play any detectable role in the activity or subcellular location of PKCdelta in cells; in vivo imaging studies revealed that deletion of the C2 domain does not affect the stimulus-dependent translocation or activity of PKCdelta. Thus, the increased affinity of the C1 domain of PKCdelta allows this isozyme to respond to DAG alone, whereas conventional PKC isozymes require the coordinated action of Ca2+ binding to the C2 domain and DAG binding to the C1 domain for activation.
Project description:The A-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP79 co-ordinates the location of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, phosphatase 2B (PP2B/calcineurin) and protein kinase C (PKC) at postsynaptic sites in neurons. In this report we focus on the mechanism of interaction between AKAP79 and PKC. We show that neither lipid activators nor kinase activation are required for association with AKAP79. The anchoring protein binds and inhibits the conserved catalytic core of PKCbetaII. AKAP79 also associates with conventional, novel and atypical isoforms of PKC in vitro and in vivo, and immunofluorescence staining of rat hippocampal neurons demonstrates that the murine anchoring-protein homologue AKAP150 is co-distributed with PKCalpha/beta, PKCepsilon or PKCiota. Binding of the AKAP79(31-52) peptide, which inhibits kinase activity, exposes the pseudosubstrate domain of PKCbetaII, allowing endoproteinase Arg-C proteolysis in the absence of kinase activators. Reciprocal experiments have identified two arginine residues at positions 39 and 40 that are essential for AKAP79(31-52) peptide inhibition of PKCbetaII. Likewise, the same mutations in the full-length anchoring protein reduced inhibition of PKCbetaII. Thus AKAP79 associates with multiple PKC isoforms through a mechanism involving protein-protein interactions at the catalytic core where binding of the anchoring protein inhibits kinase activity through displacement of the pseudosubstrate.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the endothelial distribution and activity of selected PKC isoforms in coronary vessels with respect to their functional impact on endothelial permeability under the experimental conditions relevant to diabetes.En face immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase of PKC(betaII) and decrease of PKCdelta expression in coronary arterial endothelium of Zucker diabetic rats. To test whether changes in PKC expression alter endothelial barrier properties, we measured the transcellular electric resistance in human coronary microvascular endothelial monolayers and found that either PKC(betaII) overexpression or PKCdelta inhibition disrupted the cell-cell adhesive barrier. Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy revealed that hyperpermeability was caused by altered PKC activity in association with distinct translocation of PKC(betaII) to the cell-cell junction and PKCdelta localization to the cytosol. Further analyses in fractionated endothelial lysates confirmed the differential redistribution of these isozymes. Additionally, FRET analysis of PKC subcellular dynamics demonstrated a high PKC(betaII) activity at the cell surface and junction, whereas PKCdelta activity is concentrated in intracellular membrane organelles.Taken together, these data suggest that PKC(betaII) and PKCdelta counter-regulate coronary endothelial barrier properties by targeting distinctive subcellular sites. Imbalanced PKC(betaII)/PKCdelta expression and activity may contribute to endothelial hyperpermeability and coronary dysfunction in diabetes.
Project description:Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in a wide array of cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Phosphorylation of both turn motif (TM) and hydrophobic motif (HM) are important for PKC function. Here, we show that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has an important function in phosphorylation of both TM and HM in all conventional PKCs, novel PKCepsilon as well as Akt. Ablation of mTORC2 components (Rictor, Sin1 or mTOR) abolished phosphorylation on the TM of both PKCalpha and Akt and HM of Akt and decreased HM phosphorylation of PKCalpha. Interestingly, the mTORC2-dependent TM phosphorylation is essential for PKCalpha maturation, stability and signalling. Our study demonstrates that mTORC2 is involved in post-translational processing of PKC by facilitating TM and HM phosphorylation and reveals a novel function of mTORC2 in cellular regulation.
Project description:The effect of phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) on diacylglycerol (sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, diC8)- and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization and on the relationship between phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chains (MLC20) and force during Ca2+ sensitization were investigated in rabbit portal vein (PV), femoral artery (FA) and ileum smooth muscle. The effects of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and agonists on the membrane versus cytosolic distribution of PKC isoenzymes were also determined. Down-regulation of PKC abolished Ca2+ sensitization of force and the accompanying increases in MLC20 phosphorylation induced by PDBu, as well as Ca2+ sensitization of force by diC8, but not that by GTP[S], aluminum fluoride (AIF4-) or agonists (phenylephrine, endothelin or carbachol). Down-regulation also inhibited the PDBu-, but not the GTP[S]-induced increase in force under Ca(2+)-free conditions. In ileum, PDBu translocated PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta to the membrane fraction, and GTP[S] caused a small translocation of PKC-epsilon. Carbachol- and GTP[S]-induced Ca2+ sensitization remained unaffected in down-regulated ileum in which no cytosolic PKC-epsilon was detectable. We conclude that, although both phorbol ester-induced and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization of force are mediated by increased MLC20 phosphorylation, it is likely that PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta do not play an essential role in, although they may contribute to, the G-protein-coupled mechanism.