Biochemical characteristics of a rice (Oryza sativa L., IR36) G-protein alpha-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: A cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein in rice (RGA1) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and then isolated by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of RGA1 bearing a His tag was approx. 49 kDa. Immunoblot analysis using anti-RGA1 revealed that the RGA1 protein is most abundant in seedling leaves and least abundant in mature roots. It exists at particularly high levels in the immature embryo after pellicle extrusion. In addition, the RGA1 antiserum exhibited a difference in binding affinity for Galpha proteins from monocots (maize and rice) and dicots (Arabidopsis, pea, soya bean and tomato); whereas it cross-reacted with Galpha proteins of monocots, it did not with those of dicot plants. When bound to guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (GTP[S]), the RGA1 protein was partially protected from tryptic proteolysis. In the presence of GTP[S], trypsin cleaved the RGA1 protein into four fragments 24, 14, 11 and 5 kDa in size. When RGA1 was bound to GDP, only the 5 kDa polypeptide was seen on SDS/PAGE after trypsin digestion. Photoaffinity labelling with [alpha-32P]GTP and a GTP[S]-binding assay revealed that RGA1 incorporated 32P and showed specific binding to a guanine nucleotide. Guanidine binding of RGA1 was affected by the concentration of MgCl2 (maximum at 2 mM). The rate of guanine nucleotide binding of RGA1 (kon,GTP[S]=0.0141+/-0.0014 min-1) and, at steady state, the kcat value for GTP hydrolysis (0.0075+/-0.0001 min-1) were very low even at 2 mM MgCl2. The binding affinity for the nucleotides examined was in the order GTP-S- >/= GTP > GDP > CTP > ATP >/= dTTP.
Project description:As a first step in determining the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion stimulated by GTP in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), we have looked for GTP-binding proteins. Rough microsomes from rat liver were treated for the release of ribosomes, and the membrane proteins were separated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The polypeptides were then blotted on to nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP [Bhullar & Haslam (1987) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620]. A doublet of polypeptides (23 and 24 kDa) was detected in the presence of 2 microM-MgCl2. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP was blocked by 1-5 mM-EDTA, 10-10,000 nM-GTP or 10 microM-GDP. Either guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate or guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate at 100 nM completely inhibited binding, but ATP, CTP or UTP at 10 mciroM did not. Pretreatment of microsomes by mild trypsin treatment (0.5-10 micrograms of trypsin/ml, concentrations known not to affect microsomal permeability) led to inhibition of [alpha-32P]GTP binding, suggesting a cytosolic membrane orientation for the GTP-binding proteins. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis revealed the 23 and 24 kDa [alpha-32P]GTP-binding proteins to have similar acid isoelectric points. [alpha-32P]GTP binding occurred to similar proteins of rough microsomes from rat liver, rat prostate and dog pancreas, as well as to a 23 kDa protein of rough microsomes from frog liver, but occurred to distinctly different proteins in a rat liver plasma-membrane-enriched fraction. Thus [alpha-32P]GTP binding has been demonstrated to two low-molecular-mass (approx. 21 kDa) proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of several varied cell types.
Project description:The rab3A gene product is a 25 kDa guanine-nucleotide-binding protein which is expressed at high levels in neural tissue and has about 30% sequence similarity to ras. Purified p25rab3A has been used as substrate to examine its kinetics of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, and to study the effects of Mg2+ on these processes. p25rab3A binds GDP and GTP similarly well, with nanomolar affinity. Mg2+ increases the affinity between p25rab3A and guanine nucleotides by 3- and 7-fold for GTP and GDP respectively, primarily by drastically decreasing the nucleotide off-rates. The Mg2+ binding affinity to p25rab3A. [alpha 32P]GDP was determined to be about 4 microns using entrapment of [alpha-32P]GDP as a measure of Mg2+ binding. At a Mg2+ concentration of 11 mM. GTPase activity was rate-limited by the GDP off-rate. Surprisingly, at a Mg2+ concentration of 80 nM. GTPase activity was comparable with that in the presence of excess Mg2+. In this case, kcat. was rate-limiting. At Mg2+ concentrations below 10 nM there was no detectable GTPase activity, indicating that Mg2+ is required for the GTPase activity of p25rab3A.
Project description:It is well known that Galpha(i1)(GDP) binds strongly to Gbetagamma subunits to form the Galpha(i1)(GDP)-Gbetagamma heterotrimer, and that activation to Galpha(i1)(GTP) results in conformational changes that reduces its affinity for Gbetagamma subunits. Previous studies of G protein subunit interactions have used stoichiometric amounts of the proteins. Here, we have found that Galpha(i1)(GDP) can bind a second Gbetagamma subunit with an affinity only 10-fold weaker than the primary site and close to the affinity between activated Galpha(i1) and Gbetagamma subunits. Also, we find that phospholipase Cbeta2, an effector of Gbetagamma, does not compete with the second binding site implying that effectors can be bound to the Galpha(i1)(GDP)-(Gbetagamma)(2) complex. Biophysical measurements and molecular docking studies suggest that this second site is distant from the primary one. A synthetic peptide having a sequence identical to the putative second binding site on Galpha(i1) competes with binding of the second Gbetagamma subunit. Injection of this peptide into cultured cells expressing eYFP-Galpha(i1)(GDP) and eCFP-Gbetagamma reduces the overall association of the subunits suggesting this site is operative in cells. We propose that this second binding site serves to promote and stabilize G protein subunit interactions in the presence of competing cellular proteins.
Project description:RGS proteins are critical modulators of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling given their ability to deactivate Galpha subunits via GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP) activity. Their selectivity for specific GPCRs makes them attractive therapeutic targets. However, measuring GAP activity is complicated by slow guanosine diphosphate (GDP) release from Galpha and lack of solution phase assays for detecting free GDP in the presence of excess guanosine triphosphate (GTP). To overcome these hurdles, the authors developed a Galpha(i1) mutant with increased GDP dissociation and decreased GTP hydrolysis rates, enabling detection of GAP activity using steady-state GTP hydrolysis. Galpha(i1)(R178M/A326S) GTPase activity was stimulated 6- to 12-fold by RGS proteins known to act on Galpha(i) subunits and not affected by those unable to act on Galpha(i), demonstrating that the Galpha/RGS domain interaction selectivity was not altered by mutation. The selectivity and affinity of Galpha( i1)(R178M/A326S) interaction with RGS proteins was confirmed by molecular binding studies. To enable nonradioactive, homogeneous detection of RGS protein effects on Galpha(i1)(R178M/A326S), the authors developed a Transcreener fluorescence polarization immunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody that recognizes GDP with greater than 100-fold selectivity over GTP. Combining Galpha(i1)(R178M/A326S) with a homogeneous, fluorescence-based GDP detection assay provides a facile means to explore the targeting of RGS proteins as a new approach for selective modulation of GPCR signaling.
Project description:GoLoco ('Galpha(i/o)-Loco' interaction) motif proteins have recently been identified as novel GDIs (guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors) for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits. G18 is a member of the mammalian GoLoco-motif gene family and was uncovered by analyses of human and mouse genomes for anonymous open-reading frames. The encoded G18 polypeptide is predicted to contain three 19-amino-acid GoLoco motifs, which have been shown in other proteins to bind Galpha subunits and inhibit spontaneous nucleotide release. However, the G18 protein has thus far not been characterized biochemically. Here, we have cloned and expressed the G18 protein and assessed its ability to act as a GDI. G18 is capable of simultaneously binding more than one Galpha(i1) subunit. In binding assays with the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, G18 exhibits GDI activity, slowing the exchange of GDP for GTP by Galpha(i1). Only the first and third GoLoco motifs within G18 are capable of interacting with Galpha subunits, and these bind with low micromolar affinity only to Galpha(i1) in the GDP-bound form, and not to Galpha(o), Galpha(q), Galpha(s) or Galpha12. Mutation of Ala-121 to aspartate in the inactive second GoLoco motif of G18, to restore the signature acidic-glutamine-arginine tripeptide that forms critical contacts with Galpha and its bound nucleotide [Kimple, Kimple, Betts, Sondek and Siderovski (2002) Nature (London) 416, 878-881], results in gain-of-function with respect to Galpha binding and GDI activity.
Project description:Several studies have reported that activation of G(q)-coupled receptors inhibits PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) signalling. In the present study, we used purified proteins to demonstrate that Galpha(q) directly inhibits p110alpha/p85alpha PI3K in a GTP-dependent manner. Activated Galpha(q) binds to the p110alpha/p85alpha PI3K with an apparent affinity that is seven times stronger than that for Galpha(q).GDP as measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. In contrast, Galpha(q) did not bind to the p110gamma PI3K. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments also showed that Galpha(q) competes with Ras, a PI3K activator, for binding to p110alpha/p85alpha. Interestingly, co-precipitation studies using deletion mutants showed that Galpha(q) binds to the p85-binding domain of p110alpha and not to the Ras-binding domain. Expression of constitutively active Galpha(q)Q209L in cells inhibited Ras activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway but had no effect on Ras/Raf/MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase] signalling. These results suggest that activation of G(q)-coupled receptors leads to increased binding of Galpha(q).GTP to some isoforms of PI3K, which might explain why these receptors inhibit this signalling pathway in certain cell types.
Project description:Membrane proteins from rabbit and human platelets were separated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and the resolved polypeptides blotted on nitrocellulose. A family of GTP-binding proteins, termed Gn proteins, was detected by incubation of these blots with [alpha-32P]GTP in the presence of Mg2+. A major Gn protein with a molecular mass of 27 kDa (Gn27) and lesser amounts of 23, 24 and 25 kDa Gn proteins were observed in platelet membranes; much smaller amounts were in the platelet soluble fraction. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP by platelet Gn proteins was blocked by GDP, GTP or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, but not by GMP or adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. Rabbit and human red-cell membranes contained only Gn27. When rat tissues were analysed for Gn proteins, the largest amounts were found in brain, which contained two membrane-bound forms (Gn27 and Gn26) and a soluble form (Gn26).
Project description:The functional consequences of the mutation of a conserved Cys-214 in Galpha(i1) have been investigated. We reported herein that substitutions of Cys-214 of Galpha(i1) to either alanine or tryptophan abolished the intrinsic GTPase activity. Free phosphate release from [32P]GTP-bound Galpha(i1) C214A or [32P]GTP-bound Galpha(i1) C214W was at least 30-fold lower than that of the wild-type Galpha(i1) in single-turnover GTPase assays. Consistently, tryptic proteolysis of C214A and C214W proteins showed that they were partially protected by GTP, further confirming that the GTPase activity in both mutant proteins was impaired. Expression of C214A or C214W mutants in Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells caused significant inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. However, the mutations did not significantly affect the GTP[S] (guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate)-binding activity. Both C214A and C214W mutants serve as good substrates for pertussis toxin-catalysed ADP ribosylation, indicating that they interact well with betagamma subunits. Moreover, RGS4 protein, a GTPase-activating protein for Galpha(i1), cannot interact with Cys-214 mutants even in the presence of AlF4-, which induces the transition state of Galpha. In summary, our findings suggest that C214A or C214W are GTPase-deficient mutants and can functionally serve as constitutively active forms of Galpha(i1) in cells.
Project description:We compared the effects of guanine nucleotides and Mg2+ on ADP-ribosylation of rat brain and liver membrane proteins catalysed by Bordetella pertussis toxin (IAP) and cholera toxin (CT). Labelling of proteins in the presence of [alpha-32P]NAD+, ATP and CT required GTP or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP [S]). In contrast, labelling of one (liver) or two (brain) polypeptides by IAP was enhanced by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) or GTP, but was blocked by GTP[S] or guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG). The order of labelling intensity was GDP[S] greater than GTP greater than no addition greater than GTP[S] = p [NH]ppG. Mg2+ increased labelling by CT, but decreased labelling by IAP. In addition, Mg2+ potentiated the effects of the guanine nucleotides, increasing the inhibitory effects of GTP[S] and the activatory effects of GDP[S] or GTP. Preincubating liver membranes at 30 degrees C in the presence of 10 mm-MgCl2 inhibited labelling by IAP irreversibly. Pretreatment of liver membranes with 4.95 mM-N-ethylmaleimide decreased labelling by CT by approximately 15%, but almost completely blocked labelling by IAP. These results suggest that the undissociated, GDP-bound, conformation of Ni, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of adenylate cyclase, is the preferred substrate for ADP-ribosylation by IAP. This conformation, which is prevalent in native membranes, is sensitive to temperature, Mg2+ ions and alkylating agents such as N-ethylmaleimide. At 30 degrees C, Mg2+ may cause dissociation and denaturation of Ni in native membranes.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce their signals through trimeric G proteins, inducing guanine nucleotide exchange on their Galpha-subunits; the resulting Galpha-GTP transmits the signal further inside the cell. GoLoco domains present in many proteins play important roles in multiple trimeric G protein-dependent activities, physically binding Galpha-subunits of the Galpha(i/o) class. In most cases GoLoco binds exclusively to the GDP-loaded form of the Galpha-subunits. Here we demonstrate that the poly-GoLoco-containing protein Pins of Drosophila can bind to both GDP- and GTP-forms of Drosophila Galpha(o). We identify Pins GoLoco domain 1 as necessary and sufficient for this unusual interaction with Galpha(o)-GTP. We further pinpoint a lysine residue located centrally in this domain as necessary for the interaction. Our studies thus identify Drosophila Pins as a target of Galpha(o)-mediated GPCR receptor signaling, e.g., in the context of the nervous system development, where Galpha(o) acts downstream from Frizzled and redundantly with Galpha(i) to control the asymmetry of cell divisions.