Phospholipid metabolism of serine in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes involves phosphatidylserine and direct serine decarboxylation.
ABSTRACT: Erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium knowlesi efficiently incorporated radioactive serine into phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Serine was also metabolized into ethanolamine (Etn) and phosphorylethanolamine (P-Etn) via direct serine decarboxylation; this is a major phenomenon since together these metabolites represent 60% of total radioactive water-soluble metabolites. They were identified by reverse-phase HPLC and two TLC-type analyses and confirmed by alkaline phosphatase treatment, which depleted the radioactive P-Etn peak completely with a concomitant increase in that of Etn. In the presence of 5 microM labelled serine, radioactivity appeared in Etn and P-Etn after a 25 min lag period, and isotopic equilibrium was reached at 40 and 95 min respectively. There was a similar lag period for PtdEtn formation, which accumulated steadily for at least 180 min. Incorporation of serine into phospholipids and water-soluble metabolites increased in the presence of up to 500 microM external serine. An apparent plateau was then reached for all metabolites except intracellular serine and Etn. Exogenous Etn (at 20 microM) induced a concomitant dramatic decrease in serine incorporation into P-Etn and all phospholipids, but not into Etn. Increasing exogenous serine to 100 microM decreased the incorporation of radioactive Etn into PtdEtn by only 30%, and the PtdCho level was not affected. 2-Hydroxyethylhydrazine significantly decreased serine incorporation into P-Etn and PtdEtn, whereas Etn was accumulated. No concomitant inhibition of PtdSer or PtdCho labelling from serine occurred, even when PtdEtn formation was decreased by 95%. This indicates that the PtdEtn pool derived from direct serine decarboxylation differed from that derived from PtdSer decarboxylation, and the latter appeared to be preferentially used for PtdCho biosynthesis. Hydroxylamine also inhibited phosphorylation of serine-derived Etn but not that of exogenous Etn. The rate of PtdSer synthesis from 10 microM L-serine was 3.1+/-0.5 and 2.95+/-1.3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells, whereas L-serine decarboxylation accounted for 7.1+/-1.5 and 9.9+/-3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells for P. falciparum and P. knowlesi respectively (means+/-S.E.M.). The serine decarboxylating reaction was not detected in other higher eukaryotic cells such as mouse fibroblasts and human lymphocytes. Finally, these results also indicate compartmentalization of phospholipid metabolism in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes.
Project description:The effects of calmodulin antagonists on the secretion of lysosomal enzyme and lipid metabolism in guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages were studied. Calmodulin antagonists, such as trifluoperazine, dibucaine and quinacrine, inhibited the secretion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase from cytochalasin B-treated macrophages when the macrophages were stimulated by the chemotactic peptide, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f Met-Leu-Phe) or the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. The effect of calmodulin antagonists on the incorporation of [(32)P]P(i) or [(3)H]glycerol into glycerolipids as well as on the redistribution of [(14)C]glycerol or [(3)H]arachidonic acid in [(14)C]glycerol- or [(3)H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled lipids were examined. Trifluoperazine, dibucaine or quinacrine stimulated [(32)P]P(i) incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PtdA) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) without significant effect on the labelling of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PtdCho) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (lyso-PtdEtn). The incorporation of [(32)P]P(i) into phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was, on the contrary, inhibited. When calmodulin antagonists were added to macrophages stimulated by fMet-Leu-Phe, [(32)P]P(i) incorporation into PtdIns and PtdA was synergistically increased compared with that induced only by calmodulin antagonists. Trifluoperazine inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]glycerol into PtdCho, triacylglycerol and PtdEtn. Also in this case, the incorporation of [(3)H]glycerol into PtdA and PtdIns was greatly enhanced. But [(3)H]glycerol incorporation into PtdSer, lyso-PtdEtn and lyso-PtdCho was not affected by the drug. On the other hand, diacylglycerol labelling with [(3)H]glycerol was maximally activated by 10mum-trifluoperazine and levelled off with the increasing concentration. When the effect of calmodulin antagonists on the redistribution of [(14)C]glycerol among lipids was examined in pulse-chase experiments, no significant effect on [(14)C]glycerol redistribution in PtdEtn, PtdCho, PtdIns, PtdSer, PtdA and tri- and di-acylglycerol could be detected. When macrophages prelabelled with [(3)H]arachidonic acid were treated with trifluoperazine, dibucaine or quinacrine, the [(3)H]arachidonic acid moiety in PtdEtn and PtdCho was decreased and that in PtdA was increased. The formation of [arachidonate-(3)H]diacylglycerol and non-esterified [(3)H]-arachidonic acid was also enhanced, but the increase in [(3)H]arachidonic acid was only observed at concentrations between 1 and 50mum. [Arachidonate-(3)H]PtdIns was not significantly affected. The activated formation of [arachidonate-(3)H]PtdA, diacylglycerol and non-esterified arachidonic acid by these drugs was synergistically enhanced in the presence of fMet-Leu-Phe.
Project description:The effects of phospholipid vesicles and their fatty acid compositions on the acceleration of Protein C activation by thrombin-thrombomodulin was studied in vitro. Four main phospholipid fractions were prepared from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and purified thrombomodulin from human placenta was reconstituted into vesicles consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) alone, PtdCho plus phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), PtdCho plus phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and PtdCho plus PtdIns (1:1, w/w in each case). Vesicles of PtdCho, PtdIns/PtdCho, PtdSer/PtdCho and PtdEtn/PtdCho increased thrombin-thrombomodulin-catalysed protein C activation by 1.2-, 1.9-, 4.3- and 8.4-fold respectively compared with that in the absence of phospholipid. This Protein C activation was not affected by distearoyl PtdEtn/distearoyl PtdCho, whereas it was markedly increased with increasing content of unsaturated fatty acid in PtdEtn. The thrombin-dependent Protein C activation by thrombomodulin reconstituted into dilinolenoyl PtdEtn/distearoyl PtdCho was 14.6 times that by thrombomodulin reconstituted into distearoyl PtdEtn/distearoyl PtdCho, as a result of a decrease in the dissociation constant (Kd) for thrombin and the Michaelis constant (Km) for Protein C of thrombomodulin. Binding of Protein C to PtdEtn/PtdCho fixed to a microwell plate required the presence of CaCl2 and increased with increasing degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in PtdEtn. As PtdEtn appeared on the outside of the plasma membrane in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells after thrombin stimulation, it was presumed that Protein C activation could be elevated by PtdEtn at the outer surface of the plasma membrane via an increased affinity between thrombomodulin, thrombin and Protein C, resulting from both increased formation of the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex via a conformational change in thrombomodulin and increased binding of Protein C to the membrane phospholipid in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.
Project description:In previous studies, activators of protein kinase C, sphingosine, ATP and various oncogenes were each found to enhance phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Here I examined possible stimulation of PtdEtn hydrolysis by various growth-stimulatory agents, including serum, bombesin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and insulin. Treatment of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, prelabelled with [14C]Etn or [32P]PtdEtn, with PDGF-BB resulted in enhanced formation of [14C]Etn or [32P]phosphatidic acid from the respective labelled cellular pools of PtdEtn. A maximal effect (approximately 3-fold stimulation) on PtdEtn hydrolysis was obtained with 50 ng of PDGF/ml after 5 min of treatment. Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was also hydrolysed, although less extensively than PtdEtn, in PDGF-stimulated cells. PDGF-stimulate hydrolysis of both PtdEtn and PtdCho was prevented by prolonged (30 h) treatment of cells with 400 nM-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Similar to PDGF, fetal calf serum (1-10%) also stimulated PtdEtn hydrolysis. However, in contrast to PDGF, the effect of serum on PtdEtn hydrolysis (i) was not diminished by pretreatment with PMA, and (ii) was synergistic with that of PMA after a 1 h incubation. Compared with PDGF and serum, bombesin had less effect on PtdEtn hydrolysis, while FGF and insulin had no effects at all. In contrast to PDGF or serum, bombesin inhibited the effect of PMA on PtdEtn hydrolysis.
Project description:The genome of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contains three highly similar genes coding for phospholipases B/lysophospholipases. These enzymes behave differently with respect to substrate preferences in vitro and relative contributions to phospholipid catabolism in vivo [Merkel, Fido, Mayr, Pruger, Raab, Zandonella, Kohlwein and Paltauf (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 28121-28127]. It is shown in the present study that, in vitro, pH markedly affects the substrate preference of Plb1p and Plb2p, but not of Plb3p. At the pH optimum of 2.5-3.5, the order of substrate preference of Plb1p and Plb2p is PtdSer (phosphatidylserine)>PtdIns>PtdCho (phosphatidylcholine>PtdEtn (phosphatidylethanolamine). At pH values of 5 and above, the substrate preferences change to PtdCho=PtdEtn for Plb1p and PtdSer=PtdEtn for Plb2p. Accordingly, with cultured cells the ratio of PtdIns/PtdCho breakdown, as reflected in the ratio of GroPIns (glycerophosphoinositol)/GroPCho (glycerophosphocholine) released into the culture medium, is inversely related to the pH of the growth medium. This effect is ascribed to the pH response of Plb1p, because Plb2p does not contribute to the degradation of PtdIns and PtdCho in vivo. Bivalent and tervalent cations activate phospholipases B at pH 5.5, but are inhibitory at pH 2.5. Al3+ at a concentration of 20 mM increases Plb1p activity in vitro by 8-fold and leads to a 9-fold increase in GroPCho release by whole cells. In vivo, cycloheximide strongly inhibits the breakdown of PtdIns, and to a lesser extent PtdCho. However, Al3+-stimulated GroPCho release is almost completely inhibited by cycloheximide. Deletion of PLB3 leads to increased sensitivity to toxic Al3+. Addition of SDS or melittin to cultured cells leads to a significant increase in phospholipid degradation, which is insensitive to inhibition by cycloheximide. Deletion mutants defective in the PLB1 gene are significantly more resistant to SDS than are wild-type cells.
Project description:The mechanism of import of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) into mitochondria was investigated using a reconstituted system of isolated organelles in vitro in which PtdSer was translocated from donor membranes to mitochondria and was decarboxylated therein. Neither phosphatidylcholine nor phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) was translocated under the same conditions. Transfer of PtdSer from its site of synthesis on the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria-associated membranes [J. E.Vance (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7248-7256] to its site of decarboxylation on mitochondrial inner membranes is predicted to be mediated by membrane contact. A mitochondrial membrane protein appears to be involved in the translocation event since proteolysis of proteins exposed on the mitochondrial surface potently inhibited PtdSer transfer, whereas proteolysis of surface proteins of mitochondria-associated membranes did not impair the transfer. The nature of the membranes that donate PtdSer to mitochondria in vitro is not crucial since PtdSer of mitochondria-associated membranes, endoplasmic reticulum and microsomes was decarboxylated to PtdEtn with approximately equal efficiency. The translocation of PtdSer to mitochondria was stimulated by magnesium and calcium ions and was inhibited by incubation of mitochondria with sulphydryl group-modifying reagents. Reconstitution of PtdSer translocation/decarboxylation using digitonin-solubilized mitochondria and PtdSer-donor membranes suggested that the putative PtdSer-translocation protein is primarily localized to contract sites between mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. These studies provide evidence for the involvement of a mitochondrial membrane protein in the import of newly-synthesized PtdSer into mitochondria.
Project description:The activity of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PeMT), an enzymic system that catalyses the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) via sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as a methyl donor, was examined in brain homogenates from rats of various ages. The data thus obtained were consistent with the existence of two distinct enzyme activities within this enzyme system, i.e. one catalysing the methylation of PtdEtn [to form phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine (PtdMeEtn)], and the other catalysing the methylations of PtdMeEtn and phosphatidyl-NN-dimethylethanolamine (PtdMe2Etn) (to form PtdMe2Etn and PtdCho, respectively). PeMT (PtdEtn-methylating) activity per g of brain was 4-fold higher in neonatal than in adult brains. The enzyme activity in adult brains exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics for AdoMet, and its affinity for AdoMet was high (apparent Km 1.6 microM). In neonatal brain the relationships between AdoMet concentrations and PtdMeEtn formation were more complex: a sigmoidal component (with a Hill coefficient of 2.7), requiring 90 microM-AdoMet for half-saturation predominated over the high-affinity component (similar to that of the adult brain). PeMT (PtdMe2Etn-methylating) activity per g of brain increased 2-fold between the 5th and the 20th postnatal days and remained constant thereafter; it was higher than that of PeMT (PtdEtn-methylating) activity at all ages studied, and its affinity for AdoMet was low (apparent Km 99 microM). No sexual dimorphism in brain PeMT activity was observed at any age. We conclude that PeMT (PtdEtn-methylating) catalyses the rate-limiting step in PtdCho synthesis in rat brain, and that PtdCho formation via this pathway may be greatest during the neonatal period.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Malignancy alters cellular complex lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition and turnover. Here, we investigated whether tumorigenesis in cancer-derived prostate epithelial cell lines influences protein kinase C-linked turnover of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EtnPGs) and alters the pattern of ethanolamine (Etn) metabolites released to the medium. METHODS: Prostate epithelial cell lines P4E6, LNCaP and PC3 were models of prostate cancer (PCa). PNT2C2 and PNT1A were models of benign prostate epithelia. Cellular EtnPGs were labelled with [1-(3)H]-Etn hydrochloride. PKC was activated with phorbol ester (TPA) and inhibited with Ro31-8220 and GF109203X. D609 was used to inhibit PLD (phospholipase D). [(3)H]-labelled Etn metabolites were resolved by ion-exchange chromatography. Sodium oleate and mastoparan were tested as activators of PLD2. Phospholipase D activity was measured by a transphosphatidylation reaction. Cells were treated with ionomycin to raise intracellular Ca(2+) levels. RESULTS: Unstimulated cell lines release mainly Etn and glycerylphosphorylEtn (GPEtn) to the medium. Phorbol ester treatment over 3h increased Etn metabolite release from the metastatic PC3 cell line and the benign cell lines PNT2C2 and PNT1A but not from the tumour-derived cell lines P4E6 and LNCaP; this effect was blocked by Ro31-8220 and GF109203X as well as by D609, which inhibited PLD in a transphosphatidylation reaction. Only metastatic PC3 cells specifically upregulated Etn release in response to TPA treatment. Oleate and mastoparan increased GPEtn release from all cell lines at the expense of Etn. Ionomycin stimulated GPEtn release from benign PNT2C2 cells but not from cancer-derived cell lines P4E6 or PC3. Ethanolamine did not stimulate the proliferation of LNCaP or PC3 cell lines but decreased the uptake of choline (Cho). CONCLUSIONS: Only the metastatic basal PC3 cell line specifically increased the release of Etn on TPA treatment most probably by PKC activation of PLD1 and increased turnover of EtnPGs. The phosphatidic acid formed will maintain a cancer phenotype through the regulation of mTOR. Ethanolamine released from cells may reduce Cho uptake, regulating the membrane PtdEtn:PtdCho ratio and influencing the action of PtdEtn-binding proteins such as RKIP and the anti-apoptotic hPEBP4. The work highlights a difference between LNCaP cells used as a model of androgen-dependent early stage PCa and androgen-independent PC3 cells used to model later refractory stage disease.
Project description:Endogenous content of and incorporation of labelled glycerol into alkenylacyl-, alkylacyl- and diacyl-glycerol, -glycerol-3-phosphocholine and -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine of pulmonary type II cells were measured. On prolonged incubation of type II cells with labelled glycerol, the proportion of label incorporated into the diacyl subclass of these glycerolipids increased and the proportion of label incorporated into the ether lipids declined. Endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) of type II cells contained 38.4% of the dipalmitoyl species, but endogenous phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) only 2.5%. In contrast, similar proportions of labelled glycerol were incorporated into dipalmitoyl-PtdCho and -PtdEtn after short-time incubation but, with prolonged incubation time the proportion of labelled dipalmitoyl-PtdCho increased from 11.3 to 18.8%, whereas that of dipalmitoyl-PtdEtn did not change significantly. Type II cell membranes were found to exhibit cofactor-independent and CoA-mediated transacylations of [1-14C]palmitoyl-lyso-PtdCho and -lyso-PtdEtn. The distribution of label among the palmitic acid-containing species of PtdCho and PtdEtn formed by both transacylation activities was determined. Cofactor-independent and CoA-mediated transacylation showed a strong selectivity for palmitate and arachidonate and a strong discrimination against oleate. The amount (nmol) of dipalmitoyl-PtdEtn formed by both transacylation activities after short-time incubation (2 min) decreased with prolonged incubation time (60 min). In contrast, the nmol of dipalmitoyl-PtdCho formed by cofactor-independent transacylation remains nearly the same after short-time and longer incubation. The nmol of dipalmitoyl-PtdCho formed by CoA-mediated transacylation increased strongly in the same time interval. Beside synthesis de novo via the CDP-choline pathway and reacylation of lyso-PtdCho with palmitoyl-CoA, the CoA-mediated transacylation of lyso-PtdCho may be an effective pathway for the formation of dipalmitoyl-PtdCho in pulmonary type II cells.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is synthesized in mammalian cells by two base-exchange enzymes: PtdSer synthase (PSS)-1 primarily uses phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for exchange with serine, whereas PSS2 uses phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). We previously expressed murine PSS1 in McArdle hepatoma cells. The activity of PSS1 in vitro and the synthesis of PtdSer and PtdSer-derived PtdEtn were increased, whereas PtdEtn synthesis from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway was inhibited [Stone, Cui and Vance (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 7293-7302]. We have now cloned and stably expressed a murine PSS2 cDNA in McArdle cells and M.9.1.1 cells [which are ethanolamine-requiring mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells defective in PSS1]. Expression of the PSS2 in M.9.1.1 cells reversed the ethanolamine auxotrophy. However, the PtdEtn content was not normalized unless the culture medium was supplemented with ethanolamine. In both M.9.1.1 and hepatoma cells transfected with PSS2 cDNA the rate of synthesis of PtdSer and PtdSer-derived PtdEtn did not exceed that in parental CHO cells or control McArdle cells respectively, in contrast to cells expressing similar levels of murine PSS1. These observations suggest that PtdSer synthesis via murine PSS2, but not PSS1, is regulated by end-product inhibition. Moreover, expression of murine PSS2 in McArdle cells did not inhibit PtdEtn synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway, whereas expression of similar levels of PSS1 activity inhibited this pathway by approx. 50%. We conclude that murine PSS1 and PSS2, which are apparently derived from different genes, independently modulate phospholipid metabolism. In addition, mRNAs encoding the two synthases are differentially expressed in several murine tissues, supporting the idea that PSS1 and PSS2 might perform unique functions.
Project description:The normal mammal requires large amounts of choline for maintenance and growth of tissue mass. Since milk, the only food for neonates, has many-fold higher free choline concentration than does maternal plasma, it is possible that mammary gland can synthesize choline molecules. The only known mammalian pathway for the synthesis de novo of choline molecules is catalysed by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PeMT), which synthesizes phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) via sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as a methyl donor. We identified PeMT activity in rat mammary tissue, and differences in affinities for substrate, as well as in activities as a function of pH, suggest that at least two distinct enzyme activities are involved [i.e. one catalysing the methylation of PtdEtn to form phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine (PtdMeEtn) and the other catalysing the methylation of PtdMeEtn and phosphatidyl-NN-dimethylethanolamine (PtdMe2Etn) to form PtdMe2Etn and PtdCho, respectively]. The relationships between AdoMet concentrations and PtdCho formation from endogenous PtdEtn in rat mammary homogenate were complex: a sigmoidal component (with a Hill coefficient of 2.2), requiring 55 microM-AdoMet for half saturation (Vmax. = 9 pmol/h per mg of protein), and a high affinity component (Kapparent = 8.7 microM and Vmax. = 3.8 pmol/h per mg of protein) were identified. When exogenous PtdMe2Etn was added as substrate, PtdCho formation exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics for AdoMet, and its affinity for AdoMet was high (Kapparent = 9 microM, Vmax. = 85 pmol/h per mg of protein). In the presence of endogenous substrates, the rates of PeMT-catalysed PtdCho formation within homogenates of rat mammary tissue were similar in tissue from lactating and non-lactating animals. When exogenous PtdMe2Etn was added to homogenates of rat mammary tissue, tissue from lactating rats made twice as much PtdCho as did tissue from non-lactating rats. Isolated mammary epithelial cells also exhibited PeMT activity; the rate of formation of PtdCho was much greater in intact versus broken cells. We also identified PeMT activity in homogenates of mammary tissue from non-lactating humans. The rate of PtdCho formation was of similar magnitude to that seen in rat tissue. This evidence supports the hypothesis that some of the choline found in milk could have been synthesized de novo in the mammary gland.