Purification and properties of alpha-mannosidase II from Golgi-like membranes of baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda (IPLB-SF-21AE) cells.
ABSTRACT: An alpha-mannosidase II-like activity was identified in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda (IPLB-SF21-AE) cells. The enzyme responsible was purified from Golgi-type membranes to apparent homogeneity by using a combination of steps including DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, concanavalin A-Sepharose and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of this purified protein was approx. 120 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions and approx. 240 kDa under non-reducing conditions, indicating that the enzyme is a disulphide-linked dimer. Substrates demonstrated to undergo hydrolysis with this enzyme were GlcNAc-Man5-GlcNAc-GlcNAc (non-reduced and reduced) and p-nitrophenyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside. The oligosaccharide substrate was converted into GlcNAc-Man3-GlcNAc-GlcNAc through an intermediate GlcNAc-Man4-GlcNAc-GlcNAc. Treatment of the isolated intermediate oligosaccharide with endoglycosidase H resulted in its conversion into GlcNAc-Man4-GlcNAc. This indicated that it contained the alpha-1,3-linked mannose residue on the alpha-1,6-linked mannose arm and showed that the alpha-1,6-linked mannose residue on the alpha-1,6-linked mannose arm had been preferentially hydrolysed by the mannosidase. The oligosaccharide lacking the beta-1,2-linked GlcNAc residue on the alpha-1,3-linked mannose arm (Man5-GlcNAc-GlcNAc) was not hydrolysed in the presence of the enzyme. Metal ions were not required for enzymic activity on any of the substrates, but Cu2+ was strongly inhibitory. The activity of the enzyme was inhibited at low concentrations of swainsonine, but much higher concentrations of 1-deoxymannojirimycin were required to achieve inhibition. All of these properties are characteristic of mannosidase II enzymes from other eukaryotic tissues. The presence of mannosidase II in lepidopteran insect cells would allow entry of N-linked glycoproteins into the complex processing reaction pathway or into the terminal Man3-GlcNAc-GlcNAc pathway.
Project description:Analysis of the neutral urinary oligosaccharides in bovine, feline and human mannosidosis by thin-layer and gel-permeation chromatography has shown that the patterns of stored oligosaccharides in the three species are different. In bovine and feline mannosidosis the most abundant urinary oligosaccharide is also the most abundant in the tissues of each species. The predominant oligosaccharides were purified by a combination of gel-filtration, ion-exchange and thin-layer chromatography and shown to contain only mannose and N-acetylglucosamine by g.l.c. and g.l.c.--mass spectrometry. The probable composition and size of each oligosaccharide were predicted from its chromatographic properties, sugar composition and the known structure of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. The bovine and feline oligosaccharides belonged to a homologous series of general composition Mann (GlcNAc)2, whereas the human oligosaccharides belong to a different series, MannGlcNAc. These structures suggest that lysosomal endohexosaminidase is not present in bovine and feline tissues. The predominant feline storage product, Man3(GlcNAc)2, was the expected storage product from the catabolism of complex asparagine-linked glycans. In contrast, the predominant bovine oligosaccharide, Man2(GlcNAc)2, probably lacks one of the alpha-linked mannose residues in the core region. A similar situation occurs in human mannosidosis. It is predicted that in these species either that the residual mutant alpha-D-mannosidase retains activity towards one of the core alpha-linked mannose residues or that another form of lysosomal alpha-D-mannosidase that is unaffected in these disorders occurs. It is concluded that the differences in storage products are due to differences in the catabolic pathways of glycoproteins among the species.
Project description:Inhibition of Golgi alpha-mannosidase II (GMII), which acts late in the N-glycan processing pathway, provides a route to blocking cancer-induced changes in cell surface oligosaccharide structures. To probe the substrate requirements of GMII, oligosaccharides were synthesized that contained an alpha(1,3)- or alpha(1,6)-linked 1-thiomannoside. Surprisingly, these oligosaccharides were not observed in X-ray crystal structures of native Drosophila GMII (dGMII). However, a mutant enzyme in which the catalytic nucleophilic aspartate was changed to alanine (D204A) allowed visualization of soaked oligosaccharides and led to the identification of the binding site for the alpha(1,3)-linked mannoside of the natural substrate. These studies also indicate that the conformational change of the bound mannoside to a high-energy B 2,5 conformation is facilitated by steric hindrance from, and the formation of strong hydrogen bonds to, Asp204. The observation that 1-thio-linked mannosides are not well tolerated by the catalytic site of dGMII led to the synthesis of a pentasaccharide containing the alpha(1,6)-linked Man of the natural substrate and the beta(1,2)-linked GlcNAc moiety proposed to be accommodated by the extended binding site of the enzyme. A cocrystal structure of this compound with the D204A enzyme revealed the molecular interactions with the beta(1,2)-linked GlcNAc. The structure is consistent with the approximately 80-fold preference of dGMII for the cleavage of substrates containing a nonreducing beta(1,2)-linked GlcNAc. By contrast, the lysosomal mannosidase lacks an equivalent GlcNAc binding site and kinetic analysis indicates oligomannoside substrates without non-reducing-terminal GlcNAc modifications are preferred, suggesting that selective inhibitors for GMII could exploit the additional binding specificity of the GlcNAc binding site.
Project description:The effects of alpha-D-mannopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene (MMNT) on mannosidases involved in asparagine-linked oligosaccharide processing were investigated. MMNT was found to inhibit the activity of rat liver Golgi alpha-mannosidase I in a concentration-dependent manner (50% inhibition with 0.18 mM-MMNT), whereas rat liver endoplasmic-reticulum alpha-mannosidase appeared to be resistant (less than 5% inhibition at 1 mM-MMNT). Jack-bean alpha-mannosidase was also sensitive to inhibition by MMNT (50% inhibition with 0.32 mM-MMNT). Treatment of influenza-virus-infected chick-embryo cells with 1 mM-MMNT led to a decrease in the formation of complex-type asparagine-linked oligosaccharides and an accumulation of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides with the composition Man8(GlcNAc)2 and Man7(GlcNAc)2 on the viral glycoproteins. The biological activities of influenza-virus haemagglutinin and neuraminidase synthesized in the presence of 1 mM-MMNT remained unchanged, but the virus was less infectious than the control.
Project description:Tissues from rabbit lung were found to incorporate radioactivity from [3H]mannose into the oligosaccharide of a polar lipid soluble in chloroform/methanol/water (10:10:3, by vol.). Only one oligosaccharide-lipid was formed and the composition of the radiolabelled carbohydrate moiety was Glc3Man9(GlcNAc)2. An antitumour antibiotic, bleomycin, and an anti-inflammatory steroid, methylprednisolone, partially inhibited the incorporation of [3H]mannose into oligosaccharide-lipids and in addition resulted in the production of two new components, Man5(GlcNAc)2 and Man2(GlcNAc)2. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the glycoproteins synthesized from the oligosaccharide-lipid intermediates showed labelled components with Mr greater than 200000, 130000, 80000 and 62000. The addition of the drugs resulted in the same pattern with the addition of a new component of Mr 36000. Endoglucosaminidase H-treatment of the glycopeptides isolated from the Pronase-digested glycoproteins indicated that the oligosaccharide units in the glycoproteins were of the high-mannose-type.
Project description:Bacteria in a biofilm are enmeshed in a self-synthesized extracellular polysaccharide matrix (PGA), which is a linear polymer of beta(1,6)-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues. Dispersin B (DspB), a soluble glycoside hydrolase produced by the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans degrades PGA. The enzyme DspB is an alpha/beta TIM-barrel protein and belongs to family 20 glycosyl hydrolases members. The enzyme activity of DspB with regard to its substrate specificity towards beta(1,6)-linked GlcNAc polymers and its endo/exo character was investigated through ligand docking and the hydrolysis of synthetic oligosaccharides. Ligand docking analysis suggested that beta(1,6)-linked GlcNAc oligosaccharide bound to the active site better that beta(1,4)-linked GlcNAc oligosaccharide. Our combined results indicate that DspB is an exo-acting enzyme that hydrolyzes beta(1,6)-linked N-acetylglucosamine oligomers.
Project description:In humans and rodents, the lysosomal catabolism of core Man(3)GlcNAc(2) N-glycan structures is catalyzed by the concerted action of several exoglycosidases, including a broad specificity lysosomal alpha-mannosidase (LysMan), core-specific alpha1,6-mannosidase, beta-mannosidase, and cleavage at the reducing terminus by a di-N-acetylchitobiase. We describe here the first cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of a novel human glycosylhydrolase family 38 alpha-mannosidase with catalytic characteristics similar to those established previously for the core-specific alpha1,6-mannosidase (acidic pH optimum, inhibition by swainsonine and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-mannitol, and stimulation by Co(2+) and Zn(2+)). Substrate specificity studies comparing the novel human alpha-mannosidase with human LysMan revealed that the former enzyme efficiently cleaved only the alpha1-6mannose residue from Man(3)GlcNAc but not Man(3)GlcNAc(2) or other larger high mannose oligosaccharides, indicating a requirement for chitobiase action before alpha1,6-mannosidase activity. In contrast, LysMan cleaved all of the alpha-linked mannose residues from high mannose oligosaccharides except the core alpha1-6mannose residue. alpha1,6-Mannosidase transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, and expressed sequence tag searches identified homologous sequences in murine, porcine, and canine databases. No expressed sequence tags were identified for bovine alpha1,6-mannosidase, despite the identification of two sequence homologs in the bovine genome. The lack of conservation in 5'-flanking sequences for the bovine alpha1,6-mannosidase genes may lead to defective transcription similar to transcription defects in the bovine chitobiase gene. These results suggest that the chitobiase and alpha1,6-mannosidase function in tandem for mammalian lysosomal N-glycan catabolism.
Project description:Cultured skin fibroblasts established from goats affected with beta-mannosidosis, an inherited neurovisceral storage disorder, showed an absence of lysosomal beta-mannosidase activity and the corresponding accumulation of a trisaccharide (TS) with the structure Man beta (1----4)GlcNAc beta (1----4)GlcNAc (0.4 mumol/g) and lesser amounts (0.15 mumol/g) of a Man beta (1----4)GlcNAc disaccharide (DS). By using purified storage TS isolated from fibroblasts metabolically labelled with [3H]GlcN, no conversion of TS into DS could be demonstrated in homogenates of affected cells at either lysosomal pH (4.4) or cytosolic pH (6.1), or in the culture medium (pH 7.0) of affected cells. Both TS and DS were secreted into the culture medium by affected fibroblasts. When affected fibroblasts were treated with tunicamycin before labelling with [3H]GlcN, the accumulation of both labelled TS and DS was completely inhibited. Treatment of both affected and normal goat fibroblasts with swainsonine resulted in the inhibition of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase activity and in the accumulation of the same labelled oligosaccharides in both. The major storage pentasaccharide from both normal and affected swainsonine-treated fibroblasts was sensitive to digestion with alpha-mannosidase and endo-beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase D, suggesting a branched mannose structure and a chitobiose core. In the absence of evidence for the existence of unusual N-linked glycoprotein-associated chitotriose oligosaccharide structures in affected goat fibroblasts, it must be concluded that degradative pathways for N-linked oligosaccharides are similar in both normal and affected goat fibroblasts, and that these pathways differ from catabolic pathways in human fibroblasts.
Project description:The cell surface of Candida albicans is enriched in highly glycosylated mannoproteins that are involved in the interaction with the host tissues. N glycosylation is a posttranslational modification that is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) N-glycan is processed by alpha-glucosidases I and II and alpha1,2-mannosidase to generate Man(8)GlcNAc(2). This N-oligosaccharide is then elaborated in the Golgi to form N-glycans with highly branched outer chains rich in mannose. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CWH41, ROT2, and MNS1 encode for alpha-glucosidase I, alpha-glucosidase II catalytic subunit, and alpha1,2-mannosidase, respectively. We disrupted the C. albicans CWH41, ROT2, and MNS1 homologs to determine the importance of N-oligosaccharide processing on the N-glycan outer-chain elongation and the host-fungus interaction. Yeast cells of Cacwh41Delta, Carot2Delta, and Camns1Delta null mutants tended to aggregate, displayed reduced growth rates, had a lower content of cell wall phosphomannan and other changes in cell wall composition, underglycosylated beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and had a constitutively activated PKC-Mkc1 cell wall integrity pathway. They were also attenuated in virulence in a murine model of systemic infection and stimulated an altered pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile from human monocytes. Therefore, N-oligosaccharide processing by ER glycosidases is required for cell wall integrity and for host-fungus interactions.
Project description:1. Ovalbumin glycopeptides, freed from all amino acids other than aspartic acid and a small proportion of leucine by repeated digestion with Pronase, were hydrolysed by 1-aspartamido-beta-N-acetylglucosamine amidohydrolase (glycoaspartamidase) to the corresponding oligosaccharides. The glycoaspartamidase did not attack ovalbumin itself. 2. Ovalbumin, with mannose/hexosamine ratio 5:4, lost 1.5moles of N-acetylglucosamine and more than 2moles of mannose after incubation with alpha-mannosidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase respectively. 3. In ovalbumin glycopeptides with approximate mannose/hexosamine ratios 5:3 and 5:4, one and two N-acetylglucosamine residues respectively were accessible to the action of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. 4. A mixture of alpha-mannosidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, acting on an ovalbumin glycopeptide with mannose/hexosamine ratio 5:3.7, removed nearly 4moles of mannose and 1.5moles of N-acetylglucosamine. 5. alpha-Mannosidase removed about 1.5moles of mannose from the ovalbumin oligosaccharide with mannose/hexosamine ratio approx. 5:3. The subsequent action of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase liberated less than 1mole of N-acetylglucosamine and made at least 1mole further of mannose accessible to alpha-mannosidase action. 6. It is concluded that the carbohydrate moiety of ovalbumin is linked through a glycosyl group to asparagine. In a molecule with mannose/hexosamine ratio 5:4, there are two beta-N-acetylglucosamine residues linked together in a terminal position, followed by alpha-mannose. There is also present a side chain containing two alpha-mannose units.
Project description:Golgi alpha-mannosidase II, a key enzyme in N-glycan processing, is a target in the development of anti- cancer therapies. The crystal structure of Drosophila Golgi alpha-mannosidase II in the absence and presence of the anti-cancer agent swainsonine and the inhibitor deoxymannojirimycin reveals a novel protein fold with an active site zinc intricately involved both in the substrate specificity of the enzyme and directly in the catalytic mechanism. Identification of a putative GlcNAc binding pocket in the vicinity of the active site cavity provides a model for the binding of the GlcNAcMan(5)GlcNAc(2) substrate and the consecutive hydrolysis of the alpha1,6- and alpha1,3-linked mannose residues. The enzyme-inhibitor interactions observed provide insight into the catalytic mechanism, opening the door to the design of novel inhibitors of alpha-mannosidase II.