Hyperoxia, unlike phorbol ester, induces glutathione peroxidase through a protein kinase C-independent mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Human selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GP) is implicated as a mechanism of resistance against oxygen free radicals. The 5' flanking sequence upstream from the coding region of GP contained an oxygen-responsive element termed ORE1 that is responsive to hypoxia, as well as several copies of the activator protein-1 (AP-1)- and AP-1-like-binding sites. In this study, we sought to define the molecular events that lead to GP gene transcription in response to hyperoxia in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells, and asked whether such induction is mimicked and sustained by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol esters. Treatment of cells with 100 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) induced a delayed (24-48 h) but significant (2-fold) increase in steady-state GP mRNA levels. Steady-state GP mRNA levels also rose after exposure to 95% O2, again after considerable delay (48-72 h). For both PdBu and oxygen, induction was transcriptionally regulated, as demonstrated by nuclear run-on experiments. The simulations by PdBu and oxygen were additive. In contrast with PdBu, hyperoxia did not stimulate translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, although the specific activity of both cytosolic and particulate-associated PKC was increased 2-fold in cells exposed to 95% O2 for 5 days. In addition, gel mobility-shift assays using double-stranded tumour-promoting-agent-responsive element (TRE) and nuclear extracts derived from phorbol- and oxygen-treated cells revealed that PdBu, but not hyperoxia, increased AP-1 DNA-binding activity. On the other hand, the up-regulation of GP expression by oxygen could not be accounted for by the ORE1 core sequence, since no specific protein-DNA binding activity could be detected using nuclear extracts from hyperoxic cells and ORE1. Taken together, these results suggest that there may be different molecular mechanisms controlling GP expression. After exposure to PdBu, GP undergoes transcriptional activation via a process that can be readily explained by a classic AP-1 interaction with the TRE sites in the GP promoter. During hyperoxia, GP also undergoes transcriptional activity, but via a process that appears to involve neither TRE nor ORE1.
Project description:In cultured glomerular mesangial cells, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) has been shown to induce a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide (NO). In parallel, increased levels of mRNA of an inducible macrophage-type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were observed after incubating mesangial cells with IL-1 beta. Here we report that addition of the biologically active phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), dose-dependently inhibited the IL-1 beta-stimulated increase in iNOS mRNA levels and nitrite production. In contrast, the biologically inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, had no effect on cytokine induction of iNOS and nitrite formation. Incubation of mesangial cells with PMA or PDBu alone, in the absence of IL-1 beta, did not trigger any iNOS expression. Time-course studies indicated that phorbol ester needs to be added for only 1 h in order to maximally inhibit cytokine-induced nitrite production. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and -delta isoenzymes by 8 h PMA or PDBu treatment before stimulation with IL-1 beta still resulted in full inhibition of iNOS induction. In contrast, a 24 h treatment of mesangial cells with PMA or PDBu, a regimen that also causes depletion of PKC-epsilon, abolished inhibition of IL-1 beta-induced iNOS expression and nitrite production. In addition, the selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C potentiated IL-1 beta induction of iNOS activity. In summary these data suggest that IL-1 beta induction of iNOS expression is tonically suppressed by PKC and the epsilon-isoenzyme is the most likely candidate mediating this effect.
Project description:The effect of phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) on diacylglycerol (sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, diC8)- and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization and on the relationship between phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chains (MLC20) and force during Ca2+ sensitization were investigated in rabbit portal vein (PV), femoral artery (FA) and ileum smooth muscle. The effects of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and agonists on the membrane versus cytosolic distribution of PKC isoenzymes were also determined. Down-regulation of PKC abolished Ca2+ sensitization of force and the accompanying increases in MLC20 phosphorylation induced by PDBu, as well as Ca2+ sensitization of force by diC8, but not that by GTP[S], aluminum fluoride (AIF4-) or agonists (phenylephrine, endothelin or carbachol). Down-regulation also inhibited the PDBu-, but not the GTP[S]-induced increase in force under Ca(2+)-free conditions. In ileum, PDBu translocated PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta to the membrane fraction, and GTP[S] caused a small translocation of PKC-epsilon. Carbachol- and GTP[S]-induced Ca2+ sensitization remained unaffected in down-regulated ileum in which no cytosolic PKC-epsilon was detectable. We conclude that, although both phorbol ester-induced and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization of force are mediated by increased MLC20 phosphorylation, it is likely that PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta do not play an essential role in, although they may contribute to, the G-protein-coupled mechanism.
Project description:1. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in agonist-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle has been investigated. 2. The phorbol esters, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), relaxed tissues precontracted by submaximal concentrations of carbachol, histamine or substance P. 3. This inhibitory action of the phorbol esters was reversed following the application of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Similarly, pretreatment with ouabain inhibited the ability of phorbol esters to relax tissues precontracted by the above agonists. 4. The slow relaxation of the tonic component of contraction induced by submaximal concentrations of carbachol and histamine, and all concentrations of substance P, was abolished in the presence of ouabain. 5. In Na(+)-loaded tissues, PDBu and carbachol caused a concentration-dependent increase of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, assessed by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb(+)-uptake. Extrusion of Na+, assessed by the cellular content of the ion, was also stimulated by PDBu (the effect of carbachol was not investigated). 6. We conclude that phorbol esters inhibit the tonic component of contractions induced by submaximal concentrations of these agonists through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We suggest that PKC may exert feedback control over the tonic component of agonist contractions through stimulation of the pump.
Project description:The role of Ca2+ was examined in regulating the binding of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) to intact human platelets. Alterations in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concn. [( Ca2+]i), but not extracellular Ca2+, substantially influenced the binding parameters of the phorbol ester. Ca(2+)-depleted platelets demonstrated a significant decline in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax), an increase in equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and a decrease in the Hill coefficient (h), suggesting the presence of Ca(2+)-sensitive and Ca(2+)-insensitive populations of PdBu-binding sites. In 1 mM-Ca2+ buffer, thrombin (0.1 NIH unit/ml) and ionomycin (0.5 microM) evoked a rise in [Ca2+]i to approx. 300-500 nM, associated with a significant decline in Kd, but without an apparent effect on Bmax. No effect of thrombin was observed on PdBu binding in Ca(2+)-depleted platelets. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by H7 was associated with a greater thrombin-evoked [Ca2+]i transient and a decline in Kd. Staurosporine also decreased the Kd for PdBu binding. We propose that this effect of the PKC inhibitors on the Kd was also [Ca2+]i-dependent. These observations in intact platelets indicate that the primary role of agonist- or non-agonist-induced rise in [Ca2+]i is to increase the affinity of PKC for PdBu and, presumably, endogenous diacylglycerol. However, in itself a rise in [Ca2+]i does not increase the Bmax, for PdBu binding.
Project description:The influence of protein kinase C (PKC) activation on cyclic AMP production in GH3 cells has been studied. The stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation induced by forskolin and cholera toxin was potentiated by 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). Moreover, PDBu, which causes attenuation of the maximal response to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), also induced a small right shift in the dose-response curve for VIP-induced cyclic AMP accumulation. PDBu-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was unaffected by pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin or the inhibitory muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine. PDBu stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity required the presence of a cytosolic factor which appeared to translocate to the plasma membrane in response to the phorbol ester. The diacylglycerol-generating agents thyroliberin, bombesin and bacterial phospholipase C each stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation, but, unlike PDBu, did not attenuate the stimulation induced by VIP. These results suggest that PKC affects at least two components of the adenylate cyclase complex. Stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation is probably due to modification of the catalytic subunit, whereas attenuation of VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation appears to be due to the phosphorylation of a different site, which may be the VIP receptor.
Project description:The effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activation on muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide and Ca2+ signalling were examined in the human neuroblastoma, SH-SY5Y. Carbachol evoked rapid transient elevations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and intracellular [Ca2+] followed by lower sustained elevations. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) preferentially attenuated transient phases. Removal of the transplasmalemmal Ca2+ gradient coupled with depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin also reduced carbachol-mediated Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation. Under these conditions, PDBu virtually abolished Ins(1,4,5)P3 responses to carbachol thereby implicating both Ca(2+)- and PKC-sensitive components. PDBu also reduced agonist-mediated accumulation of inositol phosphates and depletion of lipids, thereby eliminating an effect of PKC on Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism or phosphoinositide synthesis. In electroporated cells, PDBu inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation mediated by carbachol or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate, the latter indicating that some PDBu-sensitive elements were downstream of the receptor. The PKC inhibitor, Ro-318220, protected against PDBu but did not enhance responses to maximal concentrations of carbachol, indicating no feedback inhibition by agonist-activated PKC. Muscarinic antagonist activity of Ro-318220 complicated such assessment at low agonist concentrations. Carbachol or PDBu induced cytosol to membrane translocation of PKC alpha. This was faster and possibly greater with PDBu, which may explain the lack of feedback by agonist-activated PKC. These results indicate that, in SH-SY5Y cells, PDBu activation of PKC preferentially inhibits rapid muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide and Ca2+ responses via suppression of PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. This is at least partially through inhibition of Gq-protein/phosphoinositidase C coupling. However, at least at high agonist concentrations, a major agonist-mediated PKC feedback is not present in these cells.
Project description:Staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, was studied for its effects on the binding of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) to human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). Treatment of PMNs with staurosporine concentrations in the range 50 nM-2 microM at 37 degrees C (but not at 4 degrees C) and with 1 nM [3H]PDBu at both temperatures enhanced specific PDBu binding to PMNs by approx. 10-600% relative to control values. The potentiation was rapid (detectable within 1 min) and reached a plateau after 10 min of cell treatment. Scatchard analysis of the binding showed that staurosporine increased the total number of PDBu-binding sites (Bmax) from (178 +/- 9) x 10(3) (control) to (324 +/- 15) x 10(3) sites per PMN and lowered the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) from 9.6 +/- 0.8 (control) to 3.3 +/- 0.3 nM. In Ca(2+)-depleted cells, staurosporine induced similar changes in Kd values, whereas the Bmax. increased by 60%. Treatment of PMNs with 500 nM staurosporine enhanced PDBu binding in the particulate fraction by 120 +/- 7% and decreased PDBu binding in the soluble fraction by 69 +/- 4%, whereas PKC histone-phosphorylating activity of both fractions was almost completely inhibited. Incubation of staurosporine-pretreated particulate fractions with soluble fractions enriched the particulate fraction in PDBu-binding sites at the expense of the soluble fraction, without altering the binding affinity of PDBu for either fraction. Stimulation of PMNs with chemotactic N-formyl peptides induced a transient increase in PDBu binding. This effect was potentiated by approx. 52% by staurosporine. These results show that, in addition to its interference with PKC protein-phosphorylating activity, staurosporine enhances both PDBu-binding capacity and affinity to PMNs, through a mechanism involving Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent processes. Alterations of PDBu binding to soluble and particulate fractions suggest that the enhanced binding capacity in intact PMNs may be due to translocation of PDBu receptors, presumably PKC units. This phenomenon may affect PKC-dependent cellular responses mediated by physiological stimulation.
Project description:Classic and novel protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes contain two zinc finger motifs, designated "C1a" and "C1b" domains, which constitute the recognition modules for the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) or the phorbol esters. However, the individual contributions of these tandem C1 domains to PKC function and, reciprocally, the influence of protein context on their function remain uncertain. In the present study, we prepared PKCdelta constructs in which the individual C1a and C1b domains were deleted, swapped, or substituted for one another to explore these issues. As isolated fragments, both the deltaC1a and deltaC1b domains potently bound phorbol esters, but the binding of [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([(3)H]PDBu) by the deltaC1a domain depended much more on the presence of phosphatidylserine than did that of the deltaC1b domain. In intact PKCdelta, the deltaC1b domain played the dominant role in [(3)H]PDBu binding, membrane translocation, and down-regulation. A contribution from the deltaC1a domain was nonetheless evident, as shown by retention of [(3)H]PDBu binding at reduced affinity, by increased [(3)H]PDBu affinity upon expression of a second deltaC1a domain substituting for the deltaC1b domain, and by loss of persistent plasma membrane translocation for PKCdelta expressing only the deltaC1b domain, but its contribution was less than predicted from the activity of the isolated domain. Switching the position of the deltaC1b domain to the normal position of the deltaC1a domain (or vice versa) had no apparent effect on the response to phorbol esters, suggesting that the specific position of the C1 domain within PKCdelta was not the primary determinant of its activity.
Project description:Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a key lipid second messenger downstream of cellular receptors that binds to the C1 domain in many regulatory proteins. Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms constitute the most prominent family of signaling proteins with DAG-responsive C1 domains, but six other families of proteins, including the chimaerins, Ras-guanyl nucleotide-releasing proteins (RasGRPs), and Munc13 isoforms, also play important roles. Their significant involvement in cancer, immunology, and neurobiology has driven intense interest in the C1 domain as a therapeutic target. As with other classes of targets, however, a key issue is the establishment of selectivity. Here, using [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]PDBu) competition binding assays, we found that a synthetic DAG-lactone, AJH-836, preferentially binds to the novel PKC isoforms PKCδ and PKCϵ relative to classical PKCα and PKCβII. Assessment of intracellular translocation, a hallmark for PKC activation, revealed that AJH-836 treatment stimulated a striking preferential redistribution of PKCϵ to the plasma membrane relative to PKCα. Moreover, unlike with the prototypical phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), prolonged exposure of cells to AJH-836 selectively down-regulated PKCδ and PKCϵ without affecting PKCα expression levels. Biologically, AJH-836 induced major changes in cytoskeletal reorganization in lung cancer cells, as determined by the formation of membrane ruffles, via activation of novel PKCs. We conclude that AJH-836 represents a C1 domain ligand with PKC-activating properties distinct from those of natural DAGs and phorbol esters. Our study supports the feasibility of generating selective C1 domain ligands that promote novel biological response patterns.
Project description:Migration of fibroblasts is important in wound healing. Here, we demonstrate a role and a mechanism for h3/acidic calponin (aCaP, CNN3) in REF52.2 cell motility, a fibroblast line rich in actin filaments. We show that the actin-binding protein h3/acidic calponin associates with stress fibers in the absence of stimulation but is targeted to the cell cortex and podosome-like structures after stimulation with a phorbol ester, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). By coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)alpha constitutively associate with h3/acidic calponin and are cotargeted with h3/acidic calponin in the presence of PDBu. This targeting can be blocked by a PKC inhibitor but does not require phosphorylation of h3/acidic calponin at the PKC sites S175 or T184. Knockdown of h3/acidic calponin results in a loss of PDBu-mediated ERK1/2 targeting, whereas PKCalpha targeting is unaffected. Caldesmon is an actin-binding protein that regulates actomyosin interactions and is a known substrate of ERK1/2. Both ERK1/2 activity and nonmuscle l-caldesmon phosphorylation are blocked by h3/acidic calponin knockdown. Furthermore, h3/acidic calponin knockdown inhibits REF52.2 migration in an in vitro wound healing assay. Our findings are consistent with a model whereby h3/acidic calponin controls fibroblast migration by regulation of ERK1/2-mediated l-caldesmon phosphorylation.