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Hyperoxia, unlike phorbol ester, induces glutathione peroxidase through a protein kinase C-independent mechanism.


ABSTRACT: Human selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GP) is implicated as a mechanism of resistance against oxygen free radicals. The 5' flanking sequence upstream from the coding region of GP contained an oxygen-responsive element termed ORE1 that is responsive to hypoxia, as well as several copies of the activator protein-1 (AP-1)- and AP-1-like-binding sites. In this study, we sought to define the molecular events that lead to GP gene transcription in response to hyperoxia in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells, and asked whether such induction is mimicked and sustained by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol esters. Treatment of cells with 100 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) induced a delayed (24-48 h) but significant (2-fold) increase in steady-state GP mRNA levels. Steady-state GP mRNA levels also rose after exposure to 95% O2, again after considerable delay (48-72 h). For both PdBu and oxygen, induction was transcriptionally regulated, as demonstrated by nuclear run-on experiments. The simulations by PdBu and oxygen were additive. In contrast with PdBu, hyperoxia did not stimulate translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, although the specific activity of both cytosolic and particulate-associated PKC was increased 2-fold in cells exposed to 95% O2 for 5 days. In addition, gel mobility-shift assays using double-stranded tumour-promoting-agent-responsive element (TRE) and nuclear extracts derived from phorbol- and oxygen-treated cells revealed that PdBu, but not hyperoxia, increased AP-1 DNA-binding activity. On the other hand, the up-regulation of GP expression by oxygen could not be accounted for by the ORE1 core sequence, since no specific protein-DNA binding activity could be detected using nuclear extracts from hyperoxic cells and ORE1. Taken together, these results suggest that there may be different molecular mechanisms controlling GP expression. After exposure to PdBu, GP undergoes transcriptional activation via a process that can be readily explained by a classic AP-1 interaction with the TRE sites in the GP promoter. During hyperoxia, GP also undergoes transcriptional activity, but via a process that appears to involve neither TRE nor ORE1.

SUBMITTER: Jornot L 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC1218644 | BioStudies | 1997-01-01

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): 10.1042/bj3260117

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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