Metabolism and possible compartmentalization of inositol lipids in isolated rat-liver nuclei.
ABSTRACT: (1) The removal of the nuclear envelope from isolated rat-liver nuclei by washing with Triton X-100 (TX-100) was assessed by electron microscopy. All the envelope was removed by 0.04% (w/v) TX-100. (2) After this removal, phosphorylation of inositol lipids and diacylglycerol (DAG) from [gamma-32P]ATP still occurs, despite the near complete absence of detectable (by mass assay) DAG and PtdIns. This suggests that the majority of these two lipids in nuclei are present in the nuclear membrane, but the small amounts remaining after extraction, defined as intranuclear, are available for phosphorylation by lipid kinases (36% for DAG and 24% for PtdIns respectively, when expressed as a percentage of incorporation of intact nuclei). (3) PtdIns(4,5)P2 did not follow the same pattern as PtdIns and DAG; after removal of the nuclear membrane, 40% of the mass of this lipid was left in the nucleus. Moreover, a similar amount of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was also resistant to extraction with even higher concentrations of detergent, suggesting that PtdIns(4,5)P2 has a discrete intranuclear location, probably bound to nuclear proteins. (4) Addition of exogenous substrates, PtdIns, PtdIns(4)P and DAG, to membrane-depleted nuclei resulted in reconstitution of the majority of lipid phosphorylations from [gamma-32P]ATP (70%, 90% and 94% of intact nuclei respectively), suggesting a predominantly intranuclear location for the respective kinases. (5) Nuclei also showed phosphomonoesterase and phosphatidic acid hydrolase activity; dephosphorylation of pre-radiolabelled PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidic acid was observed when [gamma-32P]ATP was removed. However, some of the radioactivity was apparently resistant to these enzymes, suggesting the existence of multiple pools of these lipids. (6) Addition of excess non-radiolabelled ATP to nuclei pre-labelled with [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in an initial increase in the label in PtdIns(4,5)P2, implying a precursor-product relationship between the radiolabelled pools of PtdIns(4)P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This was confirmed by analysis of the incorporation of 32P into the 4'-phosphate group of PtdIns(4)P and the individual 4'- and 5'-phosphate groups of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The data from these experiments also indicated that PtdIns(4,5)P2 can be produced from a pre-existing pool of PtdIns(4)P, as well as de novo from PtdIns. (7) Taken together our data suggest that isolated rat-liver nuclei have an intranuclear inositol lipid metabolism mechanism utilizing enzymes and substrates equivalent to those found in cytosol and plasma membrane, and that there may be some, but not complete, compartmentalization of the components of the nuclear inositol cycle.
Project description:[3H]Inositol and [32P]Pi labelling of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza L. revealed the presence of PtdIns(3,4)P2, in addition to PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 previously identified [Brearley and Hanke (1992) Biochem. J. 283, 255-260]. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was not detected. Throughout a 40 min [32P]Pi-labelling period the specific radioactivity of the gamma-phosphate of ATP and of the ATP pool as a whole increased. Chemical and enzymic dissection of phosphoinositides obtained from plants labelled for 35 min with [32P]Pi showed that over 99.7% of the label in PtdIns3P and PtdIns4P was accounted for by the monoester phosphates. The 3- and 4-monoester phosphates of PtdIns(3,4)P2 accounted for 23.1% and 76.6% respectively of the label, whereas the 4- and 5-monoester phosphates of PtdIns(4,5)P2 accounted for 21.1% and 78.6% respectively. These results are consistent with the synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 via PtdIns4P. The labelling of the individual phosphates of PtdIns(3,4)P2 is, however, inconsistent with synthesis from PtdIns(4,5)P2 via PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, but instead suggests that PtdIns(3,4)P2 is synthesized by 4-phosphorylation of PtdIns3P. These results afford the first evidence that in plants in vivo, synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 follows the pathway described in animal cells and also that plants possess PtdIns3P 4-kinase activity similar to that reported from animal cells.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] of turkey erythrocytes were labelled by using either [32P]Pi or [3H]inositol. Although there was little basal release of inositol phosphates from membranes purified from labelled cells, in the presence of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) the rate of accumulation of inositol bis-, tris- and tetrakis-phosphate (InsP2, InsP3 and InsP4) was increased 20-50-fold. The enhanced rate of accumulation of 3H-labelled inositol phosphates was linear for up to 20 min; owing to decreases in 32P specific radioactivity of phosphoinositides during incubation of membranes with unlabelled ATP, the accumulation of 32P-labelled inositol phosphates was linear for only 5 min. In the absence of ATP and a nucleotide-regenerating system, no InsP4 was formed, and the overall inositol phosphate response to GTP[S] was decreased. Analyses of phosphoinositides during incubation with ATP indicated that interconversions of PtdIns to PtdIns4P and PtdIns4P to PtdIns(4,5)P2 occurred to maintain PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentrations; GTP[S]-induced inositol phosphate formation was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in 32P- and 3H-labelled PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. In the absence of ATP, only GTP[S]-induced decreases in PtdIns(4,5)P2 occurred. Since inositol monophosphate was not formed under any condition, PtdIns is not a substrate for the phospholipase C. The production of InsP2 was decreased markedly, but not blocked, under conditions where Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphomonoesterase activity in the preparation was inhibited. Thus the predominant substrate of the GTP[S]-activated phospholipase C of turkey erythrocyte membranes is PtdIns(4,5)P2. Ins(1,4,5)P3 was the major product of this reaction; only a small amount of Ins(1:2-cyclic, 4,5)P3 was released. The effects of ATP on inositol phosphate formation apparently involve the contributions of two phenomena. First, the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2MeSATP) greatly increased inositol phosphate formation and decreased [3H]PtdIns4P and [3H]PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the presence of a low (0.1 microM) concentration of GTP[S]. ATP over the concentration range 0-100 microM produced effects in the presence of 0.1 microM-GTP[S] essentially identical with those observed with 2MeSATP, suggesting that the effects of low concentrations of ATP are also explained by a stimulation of P2-receptors. Higher concentrations of ATP also increase inositol phosphate formation, apparently by supporting the synthesis of substrate phospholipids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:The effect of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) on PtdIns and PtdIns(4)P kinase activities was measured in rat liver plasma membranes. The addition of [32P]ATP resulted in the rapid incorporation of 32P into PtdIns(4)P and PtdIns(4,5)P2, with maximal levels reached within 30 s. GTP[S] (25-500 microM) increased the rate and magnitude of [32P]PtdIns(4)P and [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2 formation by 50 and 120% respectively. Similar stimulatory effects were induced by guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, GTP, GDP and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. The stimulation of PtdIns phosphorylation by GTP[S] occurred in the presence of 2 mM-EGTA, a condition which fully inhibited phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. GTP[S] did not stimulate phosphomonoesterase activity, and its action was not due to the binding of magnesium. However, the overall ATP-hydrolysing activity of the membrane preparation was inhibited by GTP[S] and the other guanine nucleotides. There was a direct correlation between the extent of this inhibition and the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide formation. The results indicate that stimulation of polyphosphoinositide formation by guanine nucleotides in rat liver plasma membranes can be accounted for by an inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. These data are inconsistent with a specific GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated stimulation of PtdIns or PtdIns(4)P kinase.
Project description:The turnover of phosphomonoester groups of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] was investigated in human erythrocytes by short-term labelling with [32P]Pi. The procedure applied ensured a quantitative extraction of erythrocyte polyphosphoinositides as well as their reliable separation for the determinations of pool sizes and specific radioactivities. The pool sizes of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 are 25, 11 and 44 nmol/ml of cells respectively. Under steady-state conditions, the phosphorylation fluxes from [gamma-32P]ATP into PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 are in the ranges 14-22 and 46-94 nmol X h-1 X ml of cells-1 respectively. Only 25-60% of total PtdIns4P and 6-10% of total PtdIns(4,5)P2 take part in the rapid tracer exchange, i.e. are compartmentalized. In isolated erythrocyte ghosts, the turnover of PtdIns4P approximately corresponds to that in intact erythrocytes, although any compartmentation can be excluded in this preparation. Under the conditions of incubation employed, the turnover of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is more than one order of magnitude smaller in isolated ghosts than that obtained for intact erythrocytes.
Project description:Regulation of phosphatidylinositol kinase (EC 184.108.40.206) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) kinase (EC 220.127.116.11) was investigated in highly enriched plasma-membrane and cytosolic fractions derived from cloned rat pituitary (GH3) cells. In plasma membranes, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] added exogenously enhanced incorporation of [32P]phosphate from [gamma-32P]MgATP2- into PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns4P to 150% of control; half-maximal effect occurred with 0.03 mM exogenous PtdIns(4,5)P2. Exogenous PtdIns4P and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) had no effect. When plasma membranes prepared from cells prelabelled to isotopic steady state with [3H]inositol were used, there was a MgATP2- dependent increase in the content of [3H]PtdIns(4,5)P2 and [3H]PtdIns4P that was enhanced specifically by exogenous PtdIns(4,5)P2 also. Degradation of 32P- and 3H-labelled PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns4P within the plasma-membrane fraction was not affected by exogenous PtdIns(4,5)P2. Phosphoinositide kinase activities in the cytosolic fraction were assayed by using exogenous substrates. Phosphoinositide kinase activities in cytosol were inhibited by exogenously added PtdIns(4,5)P2. These findings demonstrate that exogenously added PtdIns(4,5)P2 enhances phosphoinositide kinase activities (and formation of polyphosphoinositides) in plasma membranes, but decreases these kinase activities in cytosol derived from GH3 cells. These data suggest that flux of PtdIns to PtdIns4P to PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane cannot be increased simply by release of membrane-associated phosphoinositide kinases from product inhibition as PtdIns(4,5)P2 is hydrolysed.
Project description:When intact human erythrocytes are incubated at metabolic steady state in a chloride-free medium containing [32P]Pi, there is rapid labelling of the gamma-phosphate of ATP, followed by a slower labelling of the monoester phosphate groups of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] [King, Stephens, Hawkins, Guy & Michell (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 209-217]. We have analysed the early kinetics of the labelling of these phosphate groups, in order to determine: (a) the steady-state rates of the interconversions of phosphatidylinositol, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2; and (b) the fractions of the total cellular complement of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 that participate in this steady-state turnover. The experimental data most closely fit a pattern of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 turnover in which one-quarter of the total cellular complement of each lipid is in the metabolic pool that participates in rapid metabolic turnover, with rate constants of 0.028 min-1 for the interconversion of PtdIns and PtdIns4P, and of 0.010 min-1 for the PtdIns4P/PtdIns(4,5)P2 cycle. These rate constants represent metabolic fluxes of approx. 2.1 nmol of lipid/h per ml of packed erythrocytes between PtdIns and PtdIns4P and of approx. 5.7 nmol/h per ml of cells between PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2.
Project description:After labelling of erythrocytes with [32P]P1 for 23 h, the specific radioactivities of the phosphomonoester groups of PtdIns4P and of PtdIns(4,5)P2 approached equilibrium values which were close to that of the gamma-phosphate of ATP (78-85%), showing that almost all of these phosphate groups were metabolically active. Phosphoinositidase C (PIC) activation, using Ca2+ and the ionophore A23187, of 32P-prelabelled erythrocytes was used to investigate a possible functional heterogeneity of the phosphoinositides. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2, measured from its radioactivity, decreased as function of the time of prelabelling up to a constant value equal to that measured from its content. In contrast, hydrolysis of PtdIns4P, determined both from radioactivity and from content, was always the same. These data suggest that newly labelled molecules of PtdIns(4,5)P2, initially accessible to PIC, then moved towards a PIC-resistant pool. This was further confirmed by measuring the fraction of labelled PtdIns(4,5)P2 molecules accessible to PIC after a prelabelling period of 5 min and different times of reincubation. Hydrolysis by PIC was also measured in erythrocytes in which the phosphoinositide content had been modified by activation (Mg2+-enriched cells) or inhibition (ATP-depleted cells) of the phosphoinositide kinases. The sizes of the PIC-resistant pools of polyphosphoinositides were not affected by these treatments, indicating that the kinases (and the phosphatases) act on the PIC-sensitive pools. This was also shown by the decrease in the production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 upon PIC activation in ATP-depleted erythrocytes. A model is presented in which the PIC-sensitive pools of polyphosphoinositides are those which are accessible to the kinases and the phosphatases and are rapidly turned over.
Project description:We studied the possibility that hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] may be the initiating event for the increase in [32P]Pi incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PtdA) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) during carbachol and pancreozymin (cholecystokinin-octapeptide) action in the rat pancreas. After prelabelling acini for 2h, [32P]Pi incorporation into PtdA, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) had reached equilibrium. Subsequent addition of carbachol or pancreozymin caused 32P in PtdIns(4,5)P2 to decrease by 30-50% within 10-15 s, and this was followed by sequential increases in [32P]Pi incorporation into PtdA and PtdIns. Similar changes in 32P-labelling of PtdIns4P were not consistently observed. Confirmation that the decrease in 32P in chromatographically-purified PtdIns(4,5)P2 reflected an actual decrease in this substance was provided by the fact that similar results were obtained (a) when PtdIns(4,5)P2 was prelabelled with [2-3H]inositol, and (b) when PtdIns(4,5)P2 was measured as its specific product (glycerophosphoinositol bisphosphate) after methanolic alkaline hydrolysis and ion-exchange chromatography. The secretogogue-induced breakdown of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was not inhibited by Ca2+ deficiency (severe enough to inhibit amylase secretion and Ca2+-dependent hydrolysis of PtdIns), and ionophore A23187 treatment did not provoke PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. The increase in the hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and the increase in [32P]Pi incorporation into PtdA commenced at the same concentration of carbachol in dose-response studies. Our findings suggest that the hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is an early event in the action of pancreatic secretogogues that mobilize Ca2+, and it is possible that this hydrolysis may initiate the Ca2+-independent labelling of PtdA and PtdIns. Ca2+ mobilization may follow these responses, and subsequently cause Ca2+-dependent hydrolysis of PtdIns and exocytosis.
Project description:Experiments were carried out to assess the effects of secretagogues on the polyphosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] on preparations of exocrine pancreas in vitro. Carbachol and caerulein provoked a rapid (less than 1 min) breakdown of 15-20% of [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2 in isolated pancreatic acini, but did not affect [32P]PtdIns4P. In contrast, the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin had no immediate effect on the levels of either inositide but caused a parallel fall in both lipids after 5-10 min. A similar decrease in [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2 due to carbachol was obtained with isolated acini and isolated cells, despite the fact that the secretory response of isolated cells was considerably less than that of isolated acini. Loss of [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2 elicited by carbachol or caerulein was unaffected either by the addition of EGTA in excess of extracellular Ca2+ or when a protocol was employed that eliminated caerulein-induced intracellular Ca2+-release. These results suggest that agonist-induced PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown in the exocrine pancreas may be an early step in the stimulus-response coupling pathway and also suggest that this breakdown is not dependent on Ca2+-mobilization.
Project description:Stimulated hydrolysis of the inositol phospholipids phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] was investigated by studying the phosphoinositides produced in a suspended preparation of plasma membranes by transference of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP. At basal Ca2+ concentration (calculated free Ca2+, 150 nM) phospholipid hydrolysis was stimulated either by the muscarinic agonists carbamoylcholine and bethanecol or by the addition of the non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate [p(NH)ppG]. GTP was without effect on basal hyrolysis. Both GTP and p(NH)ppG enhanced the rapid (within 10 s) hydrolysis of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 induced by carbamoylcholine in a dose-dependent manner. A rightward shift in the competition curve of carbamoylcholine for bound L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate was seen on addition of GTP or p(NH)ppG (100 microM) under phosphorylating conditions. Pretreatment of intact islet cells with Bordetella pertussis toxin, islet-activating protein (IAP) or treatment of membranes with IAP under conditions which elicited ADP-ribosylation of a protein of Mr 41,000 was without effect on muscarinic binding, phosphoinositide phosphorylation or subsequent hydrolysis by carbamoylcholine. The findings indicate the involvement of a GTP-binding protein in the coupling of the muscarinic receptor to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the islet cell and suggest that this is distinct from the GTP-binding regulatory component of adenylate cyclase which is covalently modified by IAP.