The sphingomyelin-ceramide pathway participates in cytokine regulation of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A, but not alpha-fibrinogen.
ABSTRACT: Maximal induction of the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in the human hepatoma cell line Hep3B requires the combination of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1. In contrast, IL-1 inhibits fibrinogen induction by IL-6. To explore the possible participation of the sphingomyelin-ceramide pathway in the transduction of cytokine effects, the role of this pathway in expression of CRP, SAA and alpha-fibrinogen was investigated. The cell-permeable ceramide analogues C2 and C6 each greatly potentiated induction of both CRP and SAA mRNA by IL-6+IL-1beta but did not affect the responses of alpha-fibrinogen to IL-6 or to IL-6+IL-1beta. The combination of IL-6+IL-1beta led to increased turnover of sphingomyelin in Hep3B cells. D609, an inhibitor of ceramide production by acidic but not neutral sphingomyelinases, substantially inhibited induction of CRP and SAA by IL-6+IL-1beta. The ability of C2 and C6 to potentiate the effects of cytokines suggests that the sphingomyelin-ceramide pathway participates in induction of CRP and SAA by IL-6+IL-1beta under these experimental conditions, most likely by transducing the effects of IL-1beta. C2 and C6 were unable to substitute for IL-1beta in enhancing IL-6 effects on CRP and SAA, consistent with other reports indicating that the sphingomyelin-ceramide pathway is only a single component of multiple necessary converging pathways for induction of many genes. In contrast, this pathway does not appear to participate in mediating the inhibitory effects of IL-1beta on fibrinogen induction by IL-6.
Project description:Okadaic acid (OA), a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (5-20 nM) the induction of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen by interleukin-6 (IL-6) plus interleukin-1 (IL-1), and of fibrinogen by IL-6 alone, in Hep 3B cells. Induction of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) by IL-6 plus IL-1 or IL-6 alone was not significantly affected by OA up to concentrations of 20 nM, above which concentration OA was toxic in Hep 3B cells. OA also inhibited the induction of CRP, fibrinogen and alpha 1-PI by IL-6 in the NPLC/PRF/5 cell line, albeit at a higher concentration (80 nM). These results suggest that the signal transduction mechanisms regulating induction of acute-phase proteins by IL-6, either alone or in combination with IL-1, are mediated by activation of protein phosphatases 1 and/or 2A.
Project description:Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is overproduced in human and rodent epileptogenic tissue and it exacerbates seizures upon brain application in rodents. Moreover, pharmacological prevention of IL-1beta endogenous synthesis, or IL-1 receptor blockade, mediates powerful anticonvulsive actions indicating a significant role of this cytokine in ictogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of the proconvulsive actions of IL-1beta are not known. We show here that EEG seizures induced by intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid in C57BL6 adult mice were increased by 2-fold on average by pre-exposure to IL-1beta and this effect was blocked by 3-O-methylsphingomyelin (3-O-MS), a selective inhibitor of the ceramide-producing enzyme sphingomyelinase. C2-ceramide, a cell permeable analog of ceramide, mimicked IL-1beta action suggesting that ceramide may be the second messenger of the proconvulsive effect of IL-1beta. The seizure exacerbating effects of either IL-1beta or C2-ceramide were dependent on activation of the Src family of tyrosine kinases since they were prevented by CGP76030, an inhibitor of this enzyme family. The proconvulsive IL-1beta effect was associated with increased Tyr(418) phosphorylation of Src-family of kinases indicative of its activation, and Tyr(1472) phosphorylation of one of its substrate, the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, which were prevented by 3-O-MS and CGP76030. Finally, the proconvulsive effect of IL-1beta was blocked by ifenprodil, a selective NR2B receptor antagonist. These results indicate that the proconvulsive actions of IL-1beta depend on the activation of a sphingomyelinase- and Src-family of kinases-dependent pathway in the hippocampus which leads to the phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit, thus highlighting a novel, non-transcriptional mechanism underlying seizure exacerbation in inflammatory conditions.
Project description:Sphingomyelin and cholesterol can assemble into domains and segregate from other lipids in the membranes. These domains are reported to function as platforms for protein transport and signalling. Do similar domains exist in the Golgi membranes and are they required for protein secretion? We tested this hypothesis by using D-ceramide-C6 to manipulate lipid homeostasis of the Golgi membranes. Lipidomics of the Golgi membranes isolated from D-ceramide-C6-treated HeLa cells revealed an increase in the levels of C6-sphingomyelin, C6-glucosylceramide, and diacylglycerol. D-ceramide-C6 treatment in HeLa cells inhibited transport carrier formation at the Golgi membranes without affecting the fusion of incoming carriers. The defect in protein secretion as a result of D-ceramide-C6 treatment was alleviated by knockdown of the sphingomyelin synthases 1 and 2. C6-sphingomyelin prevented liquid-ordered domain formation in giant unilamellar vesicles and reduced the lipid order in the Golgi membranes of HeLa cells. These findings highlight the importance of a regulated production and organization of sphingomyelin in the biogenesis of transport carriers at the Golgi membranes.
Project description:Ceramide has emerged as a novel lipid mediator in cell growth and apoptosis. In difluoromethylornithine-resistant L1210 cells stimulated to growth from quiescence, the cell-permeant analogues of ceramide N-acetylsphingosine (C2-ceramide) and N-hexanoylsphingosine (C6-ceramide) inhibited the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity with IC50 of 8.3 and 1.5 microM respectively. This effect was strictly related to the ability to inhibit cell growth and [3H]thymidine incorporation. The suppression of cell growth was also associated with apoptosis. The addition of bacterial sphingomyelinase resulted in a significant, but limited, reduction of ODC induction and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide, which may act as a ceramide analogue, also inhibited the induction of the enzyme. Moreover, C6-ceramide largely prevented the accumulation of ODC mRNA and its precursor, ODC heterogeneous nuclear RNA, that accompanied the induction of ODC activity. A slight increase in ODC turnover was also observed. The DNA-binding activity of some transcription factors known to bind and transactivate the ODC gene was investigated by gel mobility-shift assay under the same experimental conditions. However, only the binding of Myc/Max was negatively affected by the treatment with C6-ceramide. Furthermore, the amount of immunoreactive c-Myc, which increased after stimulation of the cells to growth, was strongly reduced by C6-ceramide. These results suggest that the inhibition of c-Myc and ODC expression may be early events in the response of leukaemia cells to ceramide.
Project description:Ceramide sphingolipids are major components of membranes. C2 and C6 ceramides induce programmed cell death (PCD) in animals and plants, and we previously showed that C2 and C6 ceramides induce PCD in rice (Oryza sativa) protoplasts. However, the mechanistic link between sphingolipids and PCD in rice remains unclear. Here, we observed that calcium levels increased rapidly after ceramide treatment. Moreover, the calcium channel inhibitor LaCl3 and the intracellular calcium chelator acetoxymethyl-1, 2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethic acid (BAPTA-AM) inhibited this calcium increase and prevented ceramide-induced PCD. Moreover, caspase-3-like protease activity increased significantly in C6 ceramide-treated protoplasts, and a caspase-specific inhibitor prevented C6 ceramide-induced cell death. We also detected the other typical PCD events including ATP loss. DIDS (4, 49-diisothiocyanatostilbene- 2, 29-disulfonic acid), an inhibitor of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs), decreased C6 ceramide-induced cell death. Together, this evidence suggests that mitochondria played an important role in C6 ceramide-induced PCD.
Project description:Induction of C-reactive protein (CRP) by conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes in two human hepatoma-cell lines, Hep 3B and NPLC/PRF/5, was potentiated 3-6-fold by the methylxanthine caffeine. The induction observed in the presence of conditioned medium plus caffeine was as much as 180-fold, comparable with that seen after many stimuli in vivo. This potentiation was accompanied by an increase in the levels of CRP mRNA. By contrast, no potentiating effect on CRP induction by conditioned medium was found when we tested theophylline, forskolin, 8-bromo cyclic AMP or two Ca2+ ionophores, namely ionomycin and A23187. None of the above compounds, including caffeine, when tested alone, had any detectable effect on the synthesis and secretion of CRP. Our previous study [Ganapathi, May, Schultz, Brabenec, Weinstein, Sehgal & Kushner (1988) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 157, 271-277], employing defined cytokines, had shown that induction of CRP in Hep 3B cells requires IL(interleukin)-6 plus IL-1, whereas, in the NPLC/PRF/5 cell line, IL-6 alone is effective. Caffeine similarly potentiated induction of CRP by these defined cytokine signals in these two cell lines. Changes in synthesis of other acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA), alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and albumin, induced by conditioned medium or, in some cases, by IL-6 and/or IL-1 alpha, were only minimally affected by caffeine. Thus these results indicate that the mechanism by which caffeine potentiates CRP induction by cytokines appears to be independent of increases in intracellular concentrations of the two second messengers, cyclic AMP and Ca2+; the precise nature of this mechanism is unclear at the present time. Our results also indicate that the intracellular mechanisms by which cytokines regulate synthesis of CRP may differ from those regulating synthesis of some other acute-phase proteins. The differential response of CRP and SAA to caffeine is of particular interest, since induction of both of these two major acute-phase proteins can be accomplished by identical extracellular signals.
Project description:Elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) inhibit erythropoiesis and cause anemia in patients with cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. TNFα is also a potent activator of the sphingomyelinase (SMase)/ceramide pathway leading to ceramide synthesis and regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and autophagy. Here we evaluated the implication of the TNFα/SMase/ceramide pathway on inhibition of erythropoiesis in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (CD34/HSPCs) from healthy donors. Exogenous synthetic C2- and C6-ceramide as well as bacterial SMase inhibited erythroid differentiation in erythropoietin-induced (Epo)CD34/HSPCs shown by the analysis of various erythroid markers. The neutral SMase inhibitor GW4869 as well as the genetic inhibition of nSMase with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3) prevented the inhibition by TNFα, but not the acid SMase inhibitor desipramine. Moreover, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a ceramide metabolite, restored erythroid differentiation, whereas TNFα inhibited sphingosine kinase-1, required for S1P synthesis. Analysis of cell morphology and colony formation demonstrated that erythropoiesis impairment was concomitant with a granulomonocytic differentiation in TNFα- and ceramide-treated EpoCD34/HSPCs. Inhibition of erythropoiesis and induction of granulomonocytic differentiation were correlated to modulation of hematopoietic transcription factors (TFs) GATA-1, GATA-2, and PU.1. Moreover, the expression of microRNAs (miR)-144/451, miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 was also modulated by TNFα and ceramide treatments, in line with cellular observations. Autophagy plays an essential role during erythropoiesis and our results demonstrate that the TNFα/neutral SMase/ceramide pathway inhibits autophagy in EpoCD34/HSPCs. TNFα- and ceramide-induced phosphorylation of mTORS2448 and ULK1S758, inhibited Atg13S355 phosphorylation, and blocked autophagosome formation as shown by transmission electron microscopy and GFP-LC3 punctae formation. Moreover, rapamycin prevented the inhibitory effect of TNFα and ceramides on erythropoiesis while inhibiting induction of myelopoiesis. In contrast, bafilomycin A1, but not siRNA against Atg5, induced myeloid differentiation, while both impaired erythropoiesis. We demonstrate here that the TNFα/neutral SMase/ceramide pathway inhibits erythropoiesis to induce myelopoiesis via modulation of a hematopoietic TF/miR network and inhibition of late steps of autophagy. Altogether, our results reveal an essential role of autophagy in erythroid vs. myeloid differentiation.
Project description:The systemic inflammation is associated with clinical outcome and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. To investigate the effects of tiotropium (Tio) and/or budesonide/formoterol (Bud/Form) on systemic inflammation biomarkers in stable COPD patients of group D, a randomized, open-label clinical trial was conducted.Eligible participants (n = 324) were randomized and received either Tio 18ug once daily (group I), Bud/Form 160/4.5ug twice daily (group II), Bud/Form 320/9ug twice daily (group III), or Tio 18ug once daily with Bud/Form 160/4.5ug twice daily (group IV) for 6 months. Systemic inflammation biomarkers were measured before randomization and during the treatment, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), serum amyloid A (SAA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), fibrinogen (Fib), and white blood cell (WBC).After 6-month treatment, CRP levels in group II, group III and group IV changed by a median (interquartile range) of -1.25 (-3.29, 1.18) mg/L, -1.13 (-2.55, 0.77) mg/L, and -1.56 (-4.64, 0.22) mg/L respectively, all of which with statistical differences compared with group I. In addition, there were no treatment differences in terms of IL-8, SAA, TNF-?, Fib and WBC levels.A long-term treatment with Bud/Form alone or together with Tio can attenuate circulating CRP levels in COPD patients of group D, compared with Tio alone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore the correlations between SAA, CRP, and clinical indices of patients with acutely exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS:A total of 120 patients with AECOPD and another 120 with remitted COPD were enrolled in an AECOPD group and a COPD remission group, respectively. Meanwhile, 120 healthy subjects were included as a control group. SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 levels were detected. FEV1 and FEV1 /FVC were measured. RESULTS:Compared with control group, the serum levels of SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 significantly increased in COPD remission group (P < 0.05). The levels of AECOPD group significantly exceeded those of COPD remission group (P < 0.05). The levels of AECOPD patients with different GOLD grades were significantly different (P < 0.05). AECOPD group had significantly lower FEV1 and FEV1 /FVC than those of COPD remission group (P < 0.05). The CAT score of AECOPD patients was (18.41 ± 2.55) points. The levels of SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1 /FVC, and positively correlated with CAT score. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of SAA was largest (0.931). The cutoff values for SAA, CRP, PCT and Fbg were 18.68 mg/L, 14.70 mg/L, 0.39 ?g/L, 3.91 g/L, 0.46 ?g/L, 24.17 ?g/L, 7.18 mg/L, and 83.19 ng/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Serum levels of SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 in AECOPD patients were elevated, which may undermine pulmonary functions. SAA can be used as an effective index for AECOPD diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) have been associated with the increased likelihood of cardiovascular events, the relative or combined utility of these biomarkers in predicting atherosclerosis and death in an angiography cohort is unknown. METHODS: A cohort of 1117 consecutive patients (797 men and 320 women), referred to 2 Vancouver teaching hospitals for selective coronary angiography, was recruited between 1993 and 1995. Angiography results were obtained for 1019 patients. In 2004 we determined that of 1050 patients who could be traced, 231 had died, 95 of CAD-related causes. We compared the relative utility of baseline measurements of CRP, IL-6, SAA and tHcy as well as of lipids for predicting angiographic CAD and all-cause and CAD-related death. RESULTS: The risk of death increased across quartiles for CRP, IL-6, SAA and tHcy. When comparing the highest and lowest quartiles, the greatest hazard ratios were associated with IL-6 (2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-4.09) and tHcy (2.36, 95% CI 1.53-3.65). A Cox regression model containing all plasma biomarkers and traditional risk factors indicated that age, angiographic CAD and baseline plasma levels of IL-6 and tHcy remained independent predictors of CAD-related death, whereas age, sex, smoking, diabetes and apolipoprotein B levels were independent predictors of angiographic CAD. Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated a utility in combining measures of CRP, SAA, IL-6 and tHcy for predicting risk of all-cause and CAD-related death. INTERPRETATION: A comparison of elevated levels of CRP, IL-6, SAA and tHcy with traditional CAD risk factors indicated that IL-6 and tHcy were the strongest independent biomarkers for CAD-related death. Elevated levels of multiple biomarkers were associated with an increasing rate of all-cause and CAD-related death.