Transfection of L6 myoblasts with adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein cDNA does not affect fatty acid uptake but disturbs lipid metabolism and fusion.
ABSTRACT: We studied the involvement of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) in growth, differentiation and fatty acid metabolism of muscle cells by lipofection of rat L6 myoblasts with rat heart (H) FABP cDNA or with rat adipocyte (A) FABP cDNA in a eukaryotic expression vector which contained a puromycin acetyltransferase cassette. Stable transfectants showed integration into the genome for all constructs and type-specific overexpression at the mRNA and protein level for the clones with H-FABP and A-FABP cDNA constructs. The rate of proliferation of myoblasts transfected with rat A-FABP cDNA was 2-fold higher compared with all other transfected cells. In addition, these myoblasts showed disturbed fusion and differentiation, as assessed by morphological examination and creatine kinase activity. Uptake rates of palmitate were equal for all clone types, in spite of different FABP content and composition. Palmitate oxidation over a 3 h period was similar in all clones from growth medium. After being cultured in differentiation medium, mock- and H-FABP-cDNA-transfected cells showed a lower fatty acid-oxidation rate, in contrast with A-FABP-cDNA-transfected clones. The ratio of [14C]palmitic acid incorporation into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine of A-FABP-cDNA-transfected clones changed in the opposite direction in differentiation medium from that of mock- and H-FABP-cDNA-transfected clones. In conclusion, transfection of L6 myoblasts with A-FABP cDNA does not affect H-FABP content and fatty acid uptake, but changes fatty acid metabolism. The latter changes may be related to the observed fusion defect.
Project description:Intracellular accumulation of fatty acids (FAs) is a well-described consequence of renal ischaemia and may lead to lethal cell injury. Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins with high affinity for FAs. They may protect vital cellular functions by binding to and promoting the metabolism of FAs, thereby reducing their intracellular concentration. In this study we investigated the putative cytoprotective role of FABPs in a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell model for renal damage. We studied the effects of transfection with cDNA encoding heart FABP, adipocyte FABP or liver FABP on cytotoxicity induced by chemical anoxia or FAs. Transfection of MDCK type II cells with these cDNA types caused a 5-20-fold increase in FABP content, but did not change the rate or extent of palmitate uptake. After 1 h of incubation with KCN, all cell types showed reduced viability and cellular ATP content and an intracellular accumulation of non-esterified FAs. High extracellular concentrations of oleate, but not palmitate, caused a markedly decreased cell viability and cellular ATP content. Oleate accumulated in non-esterified form in these cells. Simultaneous addition of glucose ameliorated the damaging effects of KCN or oleate, indicating that glycolytic ATP could substitute for uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation. No significant differences in the effects of chemical anoxia or oleate were observed between non-transfected, mock-transfected and FABP-cDNA-transfected cells. Non-esterified FA accumulation was not reduced in any of the FABP-cDNA-transfected cell lines. In conclusion, our data do not provide evidence for a cytoprotective role of FABP in this kidney cell model.
Project description:L6 myoblasts accumulate large stores of neutral lipid (predominantly triacylglycerol) when cultured in fatty acid-supplemented growth medium. No accumulation of neutral lipid was evident in myotubes (differentiated myoblasts) when treated similarly. Triacylglycerol accumulation was rapid and dependent on exogenous fatty acid concentration. Triacylglycerol content in myoblasts cultured in fatty acid-supplemented growth medium was approx. 3-fold higher than that in myotubes treated similarly and 2-3-fold higher than that in myoblasts cultured in normal growth medium. Incorporation studies using [I-14C]oleic acid showed that myoblasts and myotubes take up exogenous fatty acid at similar rates. However, cells cultured in fatty acid-supplemented growth medium remove more exogenous fatty acid than do cells cultured in normal growth medium. Over 90% of the incorporated label was found in phospholipid and triacylglycerol fractions in all situations studied. Myoblasts incorporated a more significant proportion (P less than 0.001) of label into triacylglycerol compared with that of myotubes. No differences in fatty acid oxidation rates were detected when differentiating L6 cells cultured in normal growth medium were compared with those cultured in fatty acid-supplemented growth medium. However, fatty acid oxidation rates were observed to increase 3-5-fold upon myoblast differentiation. We conclude that there is a marked change in the pattern of lipid metabolism when myoblasts (primarily triacylglycerol-synthesizing cells) differentiate into myotubes (primarily phospholipid-synthesizing cells). Understanding these changes, which coincide with normal muscle development, may be important, since a defect in this natural switch could explain the observed accumulation of lipid in muscle characteristic of some of the muscular dystrophies and other lipid-storage myopathies.
Project description:The cDNAs of two types of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) present in human kidney, previously described as types A and B, were isolated using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with human kidney mRNA and various sets of primers. The cDNA fragments were cloned and sequenced. Renal FABP type A and B cDNAs appeared to be completely identical to human liver- and heart-type FABP cDNAs respectively. In the second part of this study we demonstrated the presence of liver-type FABP in rat kidney by chromatography, e.l.i.s.a. and immunocytochemistry. The ratio and cellular distribution of the two FABP types varies markedly in human and rat kidney. Using RT-PCR we were also able to prepare and identify liver- and heart-type FABP cDNAs with mRNA from both male and female rat kidney.
Project description:L6 myoblasts, before fusion, accumulate large stores of neutral lipid when cultured in medium supplemented with fatty acid. Upon fusion to terminally differentiated myotubes, a noticeable decrease in these neutral-lipid stores was observed. Triacylglycerol lipase activity was examined in L6 myoblasts at various stages of cell differentiation to assess a possible role for this enzyme in the above phenomenon. In this first study to demonstrate lipolytic activity in cultured muscle cells, the activity was found to be totally dependent on the presence of a detergent, either Cutscum or Triton X-100, during homogenization. The inhibition by many thiol-specific reagents [N-ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, iodoacetate, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)] suggest that a thiol group is at or near the active site. The observed acidic pH optimum (5.5-6.0), the acute inhibition by chlorpromazine (a lysosomal lipase inhibitor) and the distribution of lipolytic activity upon cell fractionation (which co-sediments with acid phosphatase, a lysosomal marker enzyme) suggest that the lipase may be of lysosomal origin. Under the optimal conditions described, the triacylglycerol lipase activity of L6 myoblasts was determined to be 2.9 +/- 0.4 nmol of oleic acid released/min per mg of DNA. This activity increased 3-fold, to 9.0 +/- 1.6 nmol/min per mg, in the myotube phase. This increase in lipolytic activity may be responsible for the observed decrease in neutral-lipid stores of differentiating myoblasts.
Project description:Although movement of fatty acids between bilayers can occur spontaneously, it has been postulated that intracellular movement is facilitated by a class of proteins named fatty acid binding proteins (FABP). In this study we have incorporated long chain fatty acids into multilamellar liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine, incubated them with rat liver microsomes containing an active acyl-CoA synthetase, and measured formation of acyl-CoA in the absence or presence of FABP purified from rat liver. FABP increased about 2-fold the accumulation of acyl-CoA when liposomes were the fatty acid donor. Using fatty acid incorporated into liposomes made either of egg yolk lecithin or of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, it was found that the temperature dependence of acyl-CoA accumulation in the presence of FABP correlated with both the physical state of phospholipid molecules in the liposomes and the binding of fatty acid to FABP, suggesting that fatty acid must first desorb from the liposomes before FABP can have an effect. An FABP-fatty acid complex incubated with microsomes, in the absence of liposomes, resulted in greater acyl-CoA formation than when liposomes were present, suggesting that desorption of fatty acid from the membrane is rate-limiting in the accumulation of acyl-CoA by this system. Finally, an equilibrium dialysis cell separating liposomes from microsomes on opposite sides of a Nuclepore filter was used to show that liver FABP was required for the movement and activation of fatty acid between the compartments. These studies show that liver FABP interacts with fatty acid that desorbs from phospholipid bilayers, and promotes movement to a membrane-bound enzyme, suggesting that FABP may act intracellularly by increasing net desorption of fatty acid from cell membranes.
Project description:There have been studies on health beneficial effects of ginger and its components. However, there still remain certain aspects that are not well defined in their anti-hyperglycemic effects. Our aims were to find evidence of possible mechanisms for antidiabetic action of -gingerol, a pungent component of ginger, employing a rat skeletal muscle-derived cell line, a rat-derived pancreatic ?-cell line, and type 2 diabetic model animals. The antidiabetic effect of -gingerol was investigated through studies on glucose uptake in L6 myocytes and on pancreatic ?-cell protective ability from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RIN-5F cells. Its in vivo effect was also examined using obese diabetic db/db mice. -Gingerol increased glucose uptake under insulin absent condition and induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in L6 myotubes. Promotion by -gingerol of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma membrane was visually demonstrated by immunocytochemistry in L6 myoblasts transfected with glut4 cDNA-coding vector. -Gingerol suppressed advanced glycation end product-induced rise of ROS levels in RIN-5F pancreatic ?-cells. -Gingerol feeding suppressed the increases in fasting blood glucose levels and improved glucose intolerance in db/db mice. -Gingerol regulated hepatic gene expression of enzymes related to glucose metabolism toward decreases in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis as well as an increase in glycogenesis, thereby contributing to reductions in hepatic glucose production and hence blood glucose concentrations. These in vitro and in vivo results strongly suggest that -gingerol has antidiabetic potential through multiple mechanisms.
Project description:Liver fatty acid binding protein is a member of the fatty acid binding group of proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of bioactive fatty acids and participate in intracellular signalling pathways, cell growth and differentiation. In this study we have used proteomics and immunohistochemistry to determine the changes in liver fatty acid binding protein in colorectal neoplasia. Comparative proteome analysis of paired samples colorectal cancer and normal colon identified consistent loss of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in colorectal cancer compared with normal colon. To identify the changes in liver fatty acid binding protein expression during colorectal cancer development and progression the cell-specific expression of L-FABP was determined by immunohistochemistry in a series of colorectal cancers and colorectal adenomas. Decreased L-FABP immunoreactivity was significantly associated with poorly differentiated cancers (P<0.001). In colorectal adenomas there was a significant trend towards decreased staining of L-FABP in the larger adenomas (P<0.001). There was consistent L-FABP immunostaining of normal surface colonocytes. This study demonstrates that loss of L-FABP occurs at the adenoma stage of colorectal tumour development and also indicates that L-FABP is a marker of colorectal cancer differentiation.
Project description:The coding part of the cDNA encoding human muscle fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) was ligated in the pET8c vector and expressed under the control of the lacUV5 promoter. After induction with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, almost 12% of the cytoplasmic proteins consisted of FABP. The protein could be isolated after sonication of the bacterial pellet followed by (NH4)2SO4 precipitations, anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The muscle FABP produced in Escherichia coli has an isoelectric point of 5.3 and is recognized by anti-(human muscle FABP) antiserum after Western blotting. The purified FABP has a preference for binding to palmitic acid and C18-C22 (poly)unsaturated fatty acids, and no affinity to palmitoyl-CoA or other hydrophobic ligands tested. The dissociation constant for oleic acid is 0.58 microM, with a binding stoichiometry of 0.72 mol of fatty acid/mol of protein. The physicochemical and binding characteristics of the protein were in complete agreement with those of FABP isolated from human skeletal muscle.
Project description:Defining the mechanisms governing myogenesis has advanced in recent years. Skeletal-muscle differentiation is a multi-step process controlled spatially and temporally by various factors at the transcription level. To explore those factors involved in myogenesis, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), coupled with high-accuracy mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap), was applied successfully. Rat L6 cell line is an excellent model system for studying muscle myogenesis in vitro. When mononucleate L6 myoblast cells reach confluence in culture plate, they could transform into multinucleate myotubes by serum starvation. By comparing protein expression of L6 myoblasts and terminally differentiated multinucleated myotubes, 1170 proteins were quantified and 379 proteins changed significantly in fully differentiated myotubes in contrast to myoblasts. These differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in inter-or intracellular signaling, protein synthesis and degradation, protein folding, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix, cell structure and motility, metabolism, substance transportation, etc. These findings were supported by many previous studies on myogenic differentiation, of which many up-regulated proteins were found to be involved in promoting skeletal muscle differentiation for the first time in our study. In summary, our results provide new clues for understanding the mechanism of myogenesis.
Project description:Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 is a major substrate of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptors. It is well-known that IGF-I and II play essential roles in myogenesis progression. Herein, we report an unexpected phenomenon that IRS-1-overexpressing L6 myoblasts are eliminated from normal cell layers at the beginning of differentiation. Initially, the IRS protein level and apoptosis were examined during myogenic differentiation in L6 myoblasts. We found that the IRS-1 protein level decreased, whereas active caspase 3 increased around 1 day after induction of differentiation. The addition of a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, inhibited differentiation-induced suppression of the IRS-1 protein level. Apoptosis was not enhanced in L6 myoblasts stably expressing high levels of IRS-1 (L6-IRS-1). However, when L6-IRS-1 was cultured with control cells (L6-mock), we observed that L6-IRS-1 was eliminated from the cell layer. We have recently reported that, in L6-IRS-1, internalization of the IGF-I receptor was delayed and IGF signal activation was sustained for a longer period than in L6-mock. When cells stably expressing IRS-1 3YA mutant, which could not maintain the IGF signals, were cultured with normal cells, elimination from the cell layer was not detected. These data suggested that the high level of IRS-1 in myoblasts induces elimination from the cell layer due to abnormal sustainment of IGF-I receptor activation.