Identification of cardiac oxidoreductase(s) involved in the metabolism of the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehyde-4-hydroxynonenal.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the cardiac oxidoreductases involved in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), an alpha,beta unsaturated aldehyde generated during the peroxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In homogenates of bovine, human and rat ventricles the primary pyridine coenzyme-linked metabolism of HNE was associated with NADPH oxidation. The NADPH-dependent enzyme catalysing HNE reduction was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The purified enzyme displayed kinetic and immunological properties identical with the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR), and catalysed the reduction of HNE to its alcohol 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), with a Km of 7+/-2 microM. In the presence of NADP the enzyme did not catalyse the oxidation of DHN. During catalysis, HNE did not cause inactivation of AR. Nevertheless when the apoenzyme was incubated with HNE a dissociable complex was formed between the enzyme and HNE, followed by irreversible loss of activity. Inactivation of the enzyme by HNE was prevented by NADP. Partial modification of the enzyme with HNE led to a 17-fold increase in the KHNEm and Kglyceraldehydem, and the HNE-modified enzyme had a 500-fold higher IC50 for sorbinil than for the reduced enzyme, whereas the IC50 for tolrestat increased 25-fold. Incubation of the enzyme with radiolabelled HNE resulted in the incorporation of 2 mol of the aldehyde per mol of the enzyme. Sequence analysis of the radiolabelled peptides revealed modification of Cys-298 and Cys-187. The amino acid sequence of the HNE-modified peptides confirmed that the HNE-reducing cardiac enzyme is AR and not a related protein such as the fibroblast-growth-factor-regulated protein FR-1 or the mouse vas deferens protein MVDP. These results indicate that AR represents the only major oxidoreductase in the heart capable of utilizing HNE. The high affinity of the enzyme for HNE, the lack of inactivation during catalysis, and the lack of significant alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the protein suggests that AR-mediated catalysis of HNE is unlikely to be limited by substrate/product inhibition. Thus AR might constitute an antioxidative enzyme involved in myocardial protection against endogenous and exogenous cytotoxic aldehydes and against oxidative stress.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) and acrolein in the heart. These aldehydes are metabolized via several pathways, of which aldose reductase (AR) represents a broad-specificity route for their elimination. We tested the hypothesis that by preventing aldehyde removal, AR deficiency accentuates the pathological effects of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). We found that the levels of AR in the heart were increased in mice subjected to TAC for 2?weeks. In comparison with wild-type (WT), AR-null mice showed lower ejection fraction, which was exacerbated 2?weeks after TAC. Levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and myosin heavy chain were higher in AR-null than in WT TAC hearts. Deficiency of AR decreased urinary levels of the acrolein metabolite, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid. Deletion of AR did not affect the levels of the other aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme - aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in the heart, or its urinary product - (N-Acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-l-cystiene). AR-null hearts subjected to TAC showed increased accumulation of HNE- and acrolein-modified proteins, as well as increased AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy. Superfusion with HNE led to a greater increase in p62, LC3II formation, and GFP-LC3-II punctae formation in AR-null than WT cardiac myocytes. Pharmacological inactivation of JNK decreased HNE-induced autophagy in AR-null cardiac myocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that during hypertrophy the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes promotes pathological remodeling via excessive autophagy, and that metabolic detoxification of these aldehydes by AR may be essential for maintaining cardiac function during early stages of pressure overload.
Project description:Bovine liver NADP(+)-dependent dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD3) is extremely sensitive to SH reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). NEM produced time- and concentration-dependent inactivation of DD3 in a pseudo-first-order reaction manner. This inactivation was prevented by NADP+, 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, 2',5'-ADP and 2'-AMP but not by substrates, NAD+, nicotinamide mononucleotide or 5'-ADP.DD3 was absorbed by an affinity column of thiopropyl-Sepharose 6B, but enzyme incubated with both NEM and NADP+ was not. Moreover, one [14C]NEM molecule was incorporated into a cysteine of DD3 in the presence, and two cysteines of DD3 in the absence, of NADP+. These results suggested that two cysteine residues were modified per enzyme molecule by NEM, one was protected by NADP+ and the other had no significant function for the enzyme activity. Two radiolabelled peptides (P1 and P2) produced by the digestion with lysyl endopeptidase of [14C]NEM-modified DD3 could be separated by reverse-phase HPLC. P1, which was radiolabelled by [14C]NEM only in the absence of NADP+, showed the following sequence; H2N-Tyr-Lys-Pro-Val-Xaa-Asn-Gln-Val-Glu- NEM.Cys-His-Pro-Tyr-Phe-Asn-Gln-Ser-Lys-COOH (Xaa indicates a possible cysteine residue). This sequence was very similar to that of rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (3 alpha-HSD/DD) (residues 184 to 201) and was also highly conserved in the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. The sequence of P2, which had radioactivity in both the absence and presence of NADP+, also contained an NEM-modified cysteine and was similar in sequence to the regions located in loop A of rat 3 alpha-HSD/DD. The present study suggests that P1, which may have a cysteine residue corresponding to Cys-193 of rat 3 alpha-HSD/DD, functions in the alteration of DD3 activity depending on the modulation of NADP(+)-binding ability through a thiol/disulphide exchange reaction similar to that of rat 3 alpha-HSD/DD shown in our previous results; while P2, which may have a cysteine residue corresponding to Cys-145 of rat 3 alpha-HSD/DD, may be located near the surface of the enzyme molecule.
Project description:The production of reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a key event in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which ranges from simple steatosis to fibrosis. The lipid phosphatase PTEN plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver. In this study, the effects of chronic ethanol feeding and carbonylation on the PTEN signaling pathway were examined in a 9-week mouse feeding model for ALD. Chronic ethanol consumption resulted in altered redox homeostasis as evidenced by decreased GSH, decreased Trx1, and increased GST activity. Both PTEN expression and PTEN phosphorylation were significantly increased in the livers of ethanol-fed mice. Carbonylation of PTEN increased significantly in the ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed control animals, corresponding to decreased PTEN 3-phosphatase activity. Concomitantly, increased expression of Akt2 along with increased Akt phosphorylation at residues Thr(308), Thr(450), and Ser(473) was observed resulting in increased Akt2 activity in the ethanol-fed animals. Akt2 activation corresponded to a decrease in cytosolic SREBP and ChREBP. Subsequent LC/MS/MS analysis of 4-HNE-modified recombinant human PTEN identified Michael addition adducts of 4-HNE on Cys(71), Cys(136), Lys(147), Lys(223), Cys(250), Lys(254), Lys(313), Lys(327), and Lys(344). Computational-based molecular modeling analysis of 4-HNE adducted to Cys(71) near the active site and Lys(327) in the C2 domain of PTEN suggested inhibition of enzyme catalysis via either stearic hindrance of the active-site pocket or prevention of C2 domain-dependent PTEN function. We hypothesize that 4-HNE-mediated PTEN inhibition contributes to the observed activation of Akt2, suggesting a possible novel mechanism of lipid accumulation in response to increased reactive aldehyde production during chronic ethanol administration in mice.
Project description:The protein targets and sites of modification by 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE) in human monocytic THP-1 cells after exogenous exposure to HNE were examined using a multipronged proteomic approach involving electrophoretic, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric methods. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal anti-HNE antibodies showed several proteins as targets of HNE adduction. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with ascorbic acid resulted in reduced levels of HNE-protein adducts. Biotinylation of Michael-type HNE adducts using an aldehyde-reactive hydroxylamine-functionalized probe (aldehyde-reactive probe, ARP) and subsequent enrichment facilitated the identification and site-specific assignment of the modifications by LC-MS/MS analysis. Sixteen proteins were unequivocally identified as targets of HNE adduction, and eighteen sites of HNE modification at Cys and His residues were assigned. HNE exposure of THP-1 cells resulted in the modification of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization and regulation, proteins associated with stress responses, and enzymes of the glycolytic and other metabolic pathways. This study yielded the first evidence of site-specific adduction of HNE to Cys-295 in tubulin alpha-1B chain, Cys-351 and Cys-499 in alpha-actinin-4, Cys-328 in vimentin, Cys-369 in D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, and His-246 in aldolase A.
Project description:Mass spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of exposing mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) to the membrane lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxy-2-(E)-nonenal (HNE). ACO2 was selected for this study because (1) it is known to be inactivated by HNE, (2) elevated concentrations of HNE-adducted ACO2 have been associated with disease states, (3) extensive structural information is available, and (4) the iron-sulfur cluster in ACO2 offers a critical target for HNE adduction. The aim of this study was to relate the inactivation of ACO2 by HNE to structural features. Initially, Western blotting and an enzyme activity assay were used to assess aggregate effects and then gel electrophoresis, in-gel digestion, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were used to identify HNE addition sites. HNE addition reaction rates were determined for the most significant sites using the iTRAQ approach. The most reactive sites were Cys(358), Cys(421), and Cys(424), the three iron-sulfur cluster-coordinating cysteines, Cys(99), the closest non-ligated cysteine to the cluster, and Cys(565), which is located in the cleft leading to the active site. Interestingly, both enzyme activity assay and iTRAQ relative abundance plots appeared to be trending toward horizontal asymptotes, rather than completion.
Project description:Aldehyde dehydrogenase from the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, catalyses the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to acids. The enzyme is unique compared with other forms of aldehyde dehydrogenase in that it exhibits a very high specificity and affinity for the cofactor NADP(+). Structural studies of this enzyme and comparisons with other forms of aldehyde dehydrogenase provide the basis for understanding the molecular features that dictate these unique properties and will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of catalysis for this class of enzyme. The X-ray structure of aldehyde dehydrogenase from V. harveyi has been solved to 2.5-A resolution as a partial complex with the cofactor NADP(+) and to 2. 1-A resolution as a fully bound 'holo' complex. The cofactor preference exhibited by different forms of the enzyme is predominantly determined by the electrostatic environment surrounding the 2'-hydroxy or the 2'-phosphate groups of the adenosine ribose moiety of NAD(+) or NADP(+), respectively. In the NADP(+)-dependent structures the presence of a threonine and a lysine contribute to the cofactor specificity. In the V. harveyi enzyme an arginine residue (Arg-210) contributes to the high cofactor affinity through a pi stacking interaction with the adenine ring system of the cofactor. Further differences between the V. harveyi enzyme and other aldehyde dehydrogenases are seen in the active site, in particular a histidine residue which is structurally conserved with phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This may suggest an alternative mechanism for activation of the reactive cysteine residue for nucleophilic attack.
Project description:1. Periodate-oxidized NADP+ inhibits the catalytic activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Candida utilis, competing with NADP+. 2. Incubation of the enzyme with the coenzyme analogue causes partial reversible inactivation of the enzyme as a result of affinity labelling of the coenzyme-binding site. 3. Some kinetic values of the reaction were calculated. 4. The inactivation can be made irreversible by treatment with NaBH4, which reduces a Schiff base formed between an aldehyde group on the coenzyme analogue and a lysine residue on the enzyme. 5. Complete inactivation can be correlated with the binding of only one inhibitor to each enzyme subunit. 6. The lysine residue involved in the binding of the inhibitor is present at the coenzyme-binding site.
Project description:A proteomic approach was applied to liver cytosol from rats fed a diet consisting of high fat and ethanol to identify 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)-modified proteins in vivo. Cytosolic Hsp72, the inducible variant of the Hsp70 heat shock protein family, was consistently among the proteins modified by 4-HNE. Despite 1.3-fold induction of Hsp72 in the livers of ethanol-fed animals, no increase in Hsp70-mediated luciferase refolding in isolated heptocytes was observed, suggesting inhibition of this process by 4-HNE. A 50% and 75% reduction in luciferase refolding efficiency was observed in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) supplemented with recombinant Hsp72 which had been modified in vitro with 10 and 100 microM 4-HNE, respectively. This observation was accompanied by a 25% and 50% decrease in substrate binding by the chaperone following the same treatment; however, no effect on complex formation between Hsp72 and its co-chaperone Hsp40 was observed. Trypsin digest and mass spectral analysis of Hsp72 treated with 10 and 100 microM 4-HNE consistently identified adduct formation at Cys267 in the ATPase domain of the chaperone. The role of this residue in the observed inhibition was demonstrated through the use of DnaK, a bacterial Hsp70 variant lacking Cys267. DnaK was resistant to 4-HNE inactivation. Additionally, Hsp72 was resistant to inactivation by the thiol-unreactive aldehyde malondialdehyde (MDA), further supporting a role for Cys in Hsp72 inhibition by 4-HNE. Finally, the affinity of Hsp72 for ATP was decreased 32% and 72% following treatment of the chaperone with 10 and 100 microM 4-HNE, respectively. In a model of chronic alcoholic liver injury, induction of Hsp72 was not accompanied by an increase in protein refolding ability. This is likely the result of 4-HNE modification of the Hsp72 ATPase domain.
Project description:Clinical observations have demonstrated a link between chronic pain and increased ischemic heart disease mortality, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Reactive aldehydes have recently been confirmed as a new player in pain pathologies, while our previous study demonstrated that reactive aldehydes (4-HNE) induced carbonyl stress contributing to myocardial ischemic intolerance. The aim of this study was to explore whether chronic pain increases susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury and to investigate the underlying mechanisms focusing on toxic aldehyde and carbonyl stress. Methods: Chronic pain was induced by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD). After 2 weeks CCD, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) KO or wild-type (WT) littermate mice were then subjected to in vivo MI/R. Results: In CCD-WT mice, heightened nociception paralleled circulating aldehyde (4-HNE) accumulation and cardiac protein carbonylation. Mechanistically, CCD-induced 4-HNE overload provoked cardiac Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) carbonylative inactivation and inhibited Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) - AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1-AMPK) interaction, which resulted in exacerbated MI/R injury and higher mortality compared with non-CCD WT mice. ALDH2 deficiency further aggravated CCD-induced susceptibility to MI/R injury. Exogenous 4-HNE exposure in peripheral tissue mimicked chronic pain-induced aldehyde overload, elicited sustained allodynia and increased MI/R injury. However, cardiac-specific ALDH2 upregulation by AAV9-cTNT-mediated gene delivery significantly ameliorated chronic pain-induced SIRT1 carbonylative inactivation and decreased MI/R injury (minor infarct size, less apoptosis, and improved cardiac function). Conclusion: Collectively, chronic pain-enhanced carbonyl stress promotes myocardial ischemic intolerance by SIRT1 carbonylative inactivation and impairment of LKB1-AMPK interaction. ALDH2 activation and prevention of protein carbonylation may be a potential therapeutic target for myocardial ischemic vulnerability in chronic pain patients. Our results newly provided overlapping cellular mechanisms of chronic pain and myocardial dysfunction interplay.
Project description:Atherosclerotic lesion formation is associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids. Products of lipid oxidation, particularly aldehydes, stimulate cytokine production and enhance monocyte adhesion; however, their contribution to atherosclerotic lesion formation remains unclear.To test the hypothesis that inhibition of aldehyde removal by aldose reductase (AR), which metabolizes both free and phospholipid aldehydes, exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation.In atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein (apo)E-null mice, AR protein was located in macrophage-rich regions and its abundance increased with lesion progression. Treatment of apoE-null mice with AR inhibitors sorbinil or tolrestat increased early lesion formation but did not affect the formation of advanced lesions. Early lesions of AR(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice maintained on high-fat diet were significantly larger when compared with age-matched AR(+/+)/apoE(-/-) mice. The increase in lesion area attributable to deletion of the AR gene was seen in both male and female mice. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of AR also increased the lesion formation in male mice made diabetic by streptozotocin treatment. Lesions in AR(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice exhibited increased collagen and macrophage content and a decrease in smooth muscle cells. AR(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice displayed a greater accumulation of the AR substrate 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE) in the plasma and protein-HNE adducts in arterial lesions than AR(+/+)/apoE(-/-) mice.These observations indicate that AR is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and it protects against early stages of atherogenesis by removing toxic aldehydes generated in oxidized lipids.