Inhibition of inositol trisphosphate-induced calcium release by cyclic ADP-ribose in A7r5 smooth-muscle cells and in 16HBE14o- bronchial mucosal cells.
ABSTRACT: Ca2+ release from intracellular stores occurs via two families of intracellular channels, each with their own specific agonist: Ins(1, 4,5)P3 for the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) for the ryanodine receptor. We now report that cADPR inhibited Ins(1, 4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release in permeabilized A7r5 cells with an IC50 of 20 microM, and in permeabilized 16HBE14o- bronchial mucosal cells with an IC50 of 35 microM. This inhibition was accompanied by an increase in specific [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding. 8-Amino-cADPR, but not 8-bromo-cADPR, antagonized this effect of cADPR. The inhibition was prevented by a whole series of inositol phosphates (10 microM) that did not affect Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release, and by micromolar concentrations of PPi and various nucleotide di- or triphosphates. We propose that cADPR must interact with a novel regulatory site on the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor or on an associated protein. This site is neither the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domain, which prefers Ins(1,4,5)P3 and only binds nucleotides and PPi in the millimolar range, nor the stimulatory adenine nucleotide binding site.
Project description:The potential Ca2(+)-releasing activity of the inositol tetrakisphosphates Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 and DL-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and the inositol pentakisphosphate Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and their effect on Ins(1,4,5)P3- and DL-Ins (1,3,4,5)P4-mediated Ca2+ release were examined in permeabilized SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neither DL-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 nor Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 exhibit Ca2(+)-releasing activity at concentrations up to 10 microM, but Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 releases Ca2+ dose-dependently, with an EC50 value (conen, giving half-maximal effect) of 5.92 +/- 0.47 microM. Maximal response by this tetrakisphosphate (49 +/- 2.5%) is significantly less than that seen with Ins(1,4,5)P3 (60 +/- 3%) and is achieved at a concentration of 30 microM. In the presence of this concentration of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 the EC50 value for Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca2+ release increases from 0.12 +/- 0.02 microM to 2.11 +/- 0.51 microM, providing evidence that this naturally occurring inositol tetrakisphosphate may recognize and exhibit its Ca2(+)-releasing activity via the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, however, at its maximally effective concentration (10 microM) does not significantly affect Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca2+ release, and therefore appears to mediate its Ca2(+)-mobilizing action through a receptor distinct from that for Ins(1,4,5)P3.
Project description:The effects of a whole series of adenine nucleotides on Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release were characterized in permeabilized A7r5 smooth-muscle cells. Several adenine nucleotides activated the Ins(1, 4,5)P3 receptor. It was observed that 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphoulphate, CoA, di(adenosine-5')tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap5A) were more effective than ATP. Ap4A and Ap5A also interacted with a lower EC50 than ATP. In order to find out how these adenine nucleotides affected Ins(1,4, 5)P3-induced Ca2+ release, we have measured their effect on the response of permeabilized A7r5 cells to a progressively increasing Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration. Stimulatory ATP and Ap5A concentrations had no effect on the threshold Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration for initiating Ca2+ release, but they stimulated Ca2+ release in the presence of supra-threshold Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentrations by increasing the co-operativity of the release process. Inhibition of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release at higher ATP concentrations was associated with a further increase in co-operativity and also with a shift in threshold towards higher Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentrations. ATP had no effect on the non-specific Ca2+ leak in the absence of Ins(1,4,5)P3. We conclude that the adenine-nucleotide-binding site can be activated by many different adenine nucleotides. Binding of these compounds to the transducing domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor increases the efficiency of transmitting Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding to channel opening. The inhibition by high ATP concentrations is exerted at a different site, related to Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding.
Project description:Cytosolic Ca2+ biphasically regulates Ins(1,4,5)P3-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization in liver [Marshall and Taylor (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 13214-13220]. We have investigated the mechanisms underlying this biphasic control of Ca2+ mobilization in permeabilized hepatocytes by comparing the effects of Sr2+, Ba2+ and Ca2+ on the liver Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. Both Ca2+ and Sr2+ increased the binding of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 to liver membranes by converting receptors from a low-affinity (KD approximately 35 nM) to a high-affinity (KD approximately 5 nM) state. Ba2+ (< or = 20 microM) did not affect [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding. At concentrations similar to those that caused an enhancement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding, Sr2+ (EC50 = 570 nM) and Ca2+ (EC50 = 200 nM) increased the sensitivity of the intracellular Ca2+ stores to Ins(1,4,5)P3. Further modest elevations in [Ca2+] (EC50 = 1.5 microM) inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization, whereas Sr2+ caused inhibition only when its concentration was very substantially increased (EC50 approximately 900 microM). Sr2+ is therefore only 3-fold less potent than Ca2+ in causing sensitization of Ins(1,4,5)P3-stimulated Ca2+ release, but 600-fold less potent in causing inhibition. Ba2+ neither sensitized ([Ba2+] < or = 20 microM) nor inhibited ([Ba2+] < or = 1 mM) Ins(1,4,5)P3-stimulated Ca2+ release, and did not inhibit either the sensitization of Ca2+ release evoked by Sr2+ or the inhibition of Ca2+ release evoked by Ca2+. Our results suggest that two distinct Ca(2+)-binding sites, which differ in their selectivities for bivalent cations, mediate the interconversion of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors between at least three different conformational states. These two Ca(2+)-binding sites, which may reside either on the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor itself or on distinct regulatory proteins, can be distinguished by their different selectivities for bivalent cations.
Project description:Inositol-polyphosphate-induced Ca2+ mobilization was investigated in saponin-permeabilized SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Ins(1,4,5)P3 induced a dose-related release from intracellular Ca2+ stores with an EC50 (concn. giving half-maximal effect) of 0.1 microM and a maximal release of 70%. Ins(1,3,4)P3, DL-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 did not evoke Ca2+ mobilization in these cells when used at concentrations up to 10 microM. However, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was found to release Ca2+ in a dose-related manner, but the response was dependent on the source of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 used. When commercially available D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was used, the EC50 and maximal response values were 1 microM and 50% respectively, compared with values for chemically synthesized DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 of 2 microM and 25%. The enhanced maximal response of commercial D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was decreased by pretreatment with rat brain crude Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase and was therefore concluded to be indicative of initial Ins(1,4,5)P3 contamination of the Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 preparation. When metabolism of DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (10 microM) in these cells at 25 degrees C was investigated by h.p.l.c., substantial amounts of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (0.2 microM) and Ins(1,3,4)P3 (0.8 microM) were found to be produced within 3 min. Analysis of DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 incubation with cells at 4 degrees C, however, indicated that metabolism had been arrested ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 detection limits were estimated to be approx. 0.01 microM). When chemically synthesized DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and incubation conditions of low temperature were used, the Ca2(+)-releasing properties of this compound were established to be 1 microM and 19% for the EC50 and maximal response values respectively. The results obtained strongly suggest that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 alone has the ability to release intracellular Ca2+. However, in the presence of sub-maximal concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ca2+ release appears to be synergistic with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, but at supramaximal concentrations not even additive effects are observed.
Project description:Hormonal and phorbol ester pretreatment of pancreatic acinar cells markedly decreases the Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced release of actively stored Ca2+ [Willems, Van Den Broek, Van Os & De Pont (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 9762-9767]. Inhibition occurred at an ambient free Ca2+ concentration of 0.1 microM, suggesting a receptor-mediated increase in Ca2(+)-sensitivity of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-operated Ca2+ channel. To test this hypothesis, the Ca2(+)-dependence of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was investigated. In the presence of 0.2 microM free Ca2+, permeabilized cells accumulated 0.9 nmol of Ca2+/mg of acinar protein in an energy-dependent pool. Uptake into this pool increased 2.2- and 3.3-fold with 1.0 and 2.0 microM free Ca2+ respectively. At 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 microM free Ca2+, Ins(1,4,5)P3 maximally released 0.53 (56%), 0.90 (44%) and 0.62 (20%) nmol of Ca2+/mg of acinar protein respectively. Corresponding half-maximal stimulatory Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentrations were calculated to be 0.5, 0.6 and 1.4 microM, suggesting that the affinity of Ins(1,4,5)P3 for its receptor decreases beyond 1.0 microM free Ca2+. The possibility that an inhibitory effect of sub-micromolar Ca2+ is being masked by the concomitant increase in size of the releasable store is excluded, since Ca2+ release from cells loaded in the presence of 0.1 or 0.2 microM free Ca2+ and stimulated at higher ambient free Ca2+ was not inhibited below 1.0 microM free Ca2+. At 2.0 and 10.0 microM free Ca2+, Ca2+, Ca2+ release was inhibited by approx. 30% and 75% respectively. The results presented show that hormonal pretreatment does not lead to an increase in Ca2(+)-sensitivity of the release mechanism. Such an increase in Ca2(+)-sensitivity to sub-micromolar Ca2+ is required to explain sub-micromolar oscillatory changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ by a Ca2(+)-dependent negative-feedback mechanism.
Project description:In the human T-lymphocyte cell lines Jurkat and HPB.ALL and the human monocytoid cell line U937, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 triggers a dose-dependent release of Ca2+ from crude microsomal preparations, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 1.2-2.3 microM. Similar results were obtained with enriched vesicular plasma membranes from U937 cells. However, in permeabilized preparations of the same cell types only Ins(1,4,5)P3 was able to release Ca2+ from intracellular stores, with EC50 values in the range 0.11-0.84 microM. In crude microsomes the effects of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and Ins(2,4,5)P3, a non-metabolizable InsP3 isomer, occurred independently of each other, indicating subpopulations of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4- and Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive vesicles. The Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 preparation used for the Ca(2+)-release experiments contains neither Ca2+ nor contaminating Ins(1,4,5)P3 and was not metabolized to Ins(1,4,5)P3 during the Ca(2+)-release experiments. We conclude that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 independently of Ins(1,4,5)P3 induces a Ca2+ flux via a membrane compartment, most likely the plasma membrane, that is functionally destroyed during the permeabilization of the cells.
Project description:We have synthesized two photolabile arylazido-analogues of Ins(1,4,5)P3 selectively substituted at the 1-phosphate group for determination of Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding proteins. These two photoaffinity derivatives, namely N-(4-azidobenzoyl)aminoethanol-1-phospho-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (AbaIP3) and N-(4-azidosalicyl)aminoethanol-1-phospho-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (AsaIP3), bind to high affinity Ins(1,4,5)P3-specific binding sites at a 9-fold lower affinity (Kd = 66 and 70 nM) than Ins(1,4,5)P3 (Kd = 7.15 nM) in a fraction from rat pancreatic acinar cells enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Other inositol phosphates tested showed comparable (DL-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphothioate, Kd = 81 nM) or much lower affinities for the binding sites [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, Kd = 4 microM; Ins(1,4)P2, Kd = 80 microM]. Binding of AbaIP3 was also tested on a microsomal preparation of rat cerebellum [Kd = 300 nM as compared with Ins(1,4,5)P3, Kd = 45 nM]. Ca2+ release activity of the inositol derivatives was tested with AbaIP3. It induced a rapid and concentration-dependent Ca2+ release from the ER fraction [EC50 (dose producing half-maximal effect) = 3.1 microM] being only 10-fold less potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3 (EC50 = 0.3 microM). From the two radioactive labelled analogues ([3H]AbaIP3 and 125I-AsIP3) synthesized, the radioiodinated derivative was used for photoaffinity labelling. It specifically labelled three proteins with apparent molecular masses of 49, 37 and 31 kDa in the ER-enriched fraction. By subfractionation of this ER-enriched fraction on a Percoll gradient the 37 kDa Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding protein was obtained in a membrane fraction which showed the highest effect in Ins(1,4,5)P3-inducible Ca2+ release (fraction P1). The other two Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding proteins, of 49 and 31 kDa, were obtained in fraction P2, in which Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was half of that obtained in fraction P1. We conclude from these data that the 37 kDa and/or the 49 and 31 kDa proteins are involved in Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release from the ER of rat pancreatic acinar cells.
Project description:D-Ins(1,4,5)P3 is now recognized as an intracellular messenger that mediates the actions of many cell-surface receptors on intracellular Ca2+ pools, but its complex and rapid metabolism in intact cells has confused interpretation of its possible roles in oscillatory changes in intracellular [Ca2+] and in controlling Ca2+ entry at the plasma membrane. We now report the actions and metabolic stability of a synthetic analogue of Ins(1,4,5)P3, DL-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphorothioate [DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3]. In permeabilized hepatocytes, DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 and synthetic DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 stimulated Ca2+ release from the same intracellular stores, though the concentration required for half-maximal release was 3-fold higher for DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3. Since L-Ins(1,4,5)P3 neither antagonized the effects of D-Ins(1,4,5)P3 nor itself stimulated appreciable Ca2+ release, the activity of the racemic mixture of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and presumably also of Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3, is attributable to the D-isomer. Under conditions where there was negligible metabolism of D-[3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3, both DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 and DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 elicited rapid Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, and the stores remained empty during prolonged stimulation. When cells were incubated at high density, both compounds stimulated rapid Ca2+ release, but while the stores soon refilled as Ins(1,4,5)P3 was degraded to Ins(1,4)P2, there was no refilling of the pools after stimulation with DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3. When DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 or DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 was treated with a crude preparation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase and ATP, and the Ca2+-releasing activity of the products subsequently assayed, DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 was completely inactivated by phosphorylation, but there was no loss of activity of the phosphorothioate analogue. In additional experiments, DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 (10 microM) did not affect the rate of phosphorylation of D-[3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 (1 microM). We conclude that Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 is a full agonist and only 3-fold less potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3 in mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores, but unlike the natural messenger it is resistant to both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We propose that this stable analogue will allow the direct actions of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to be resolved from those that require its metabolism.
Project description:In an earlier study we reported the effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] in releasing Ca2+ from highly purified human platelet intracellular membrane vesicles. [Authi & Crawford (1985) Biochem. J. 230, 247-253]. We have now investigated the metabolic and functional consequences of introducing Ins(1,4,5)P3 into saponin-permeabilized platelets. Washed human platelets when resuspended in a suitable medium were permeabilized with saponin (10-14 micrograms/ml) to allow entry of low-Mr water-soluble molecules without significant release of the cytoplasmic marker enzyme protein lactate dehydrogenase. Saponin-permeabilized platelets show identical platelet responses (shape change, aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine) to both collagen (5 micrograms/ml) and thrombin (0.1 unit/ml) as obtained with intact cells, indicating that there is minimal disturbance to the surface membrane receptor topography for these two agonists. Ins(1,4,5)P3 (1-10 microM) added to saponin-treated platelets (but not to intact platelets) induced dose-related shape change, aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine which at maximal doses was comparable with responses obtained with thrombin or collagen. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and aspirin, if added prior to saponization and Ins(1,4,5)P3 addition, completely inhibited both aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine (EC50 for indomethacin, 50 nM; for aspirin, 30 microM). We believe that Ins(1,4,5)P3 induces the release of Ca2+ from intracellular storages sites which stimulates the Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 releasing arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. Arachidonic acid is then converted to the aggregatory prostanoids (prostaglandin H2 and thromboxane A2) resulting in the observed responses. This concept is supported by the use of the thromboxane receptor antagonists EPO 45 and EPO 92, both of which also completely inhibit Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced responses in saponin-permeabilized platelets. Electron microscopy of the platelet preparations revealed that thrombin- and collagen-induced platelet aggregates of intact and saponized cells were identical, showing extensive pseudopod formation and dense granule release. The Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced aggregates also showed similar dense granule release but an almost total absence of pseudopod formation. These results are discussed in the light of the second messenger role of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in stimulus-response coupling in platelets.
Project description:The Ins(1,4,5)P3 regioisomers, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3, which can mimic the 1,4,5-arrangement on the inositol ring of Ins(1,4,5)P3, were examined for Ca2+ release by using four types of saponin-permeabilized cell possessing various abundances of receptor subtypes, with special reference to the relation of potency to receptor subtype. Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 were weak agonists in rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL cells), which possess predominantly subtype II receptors, with respective potencies of 1/200 and less than 1/500 that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [the EC50 values were 0.2, 45 and more than 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively]. Similar rank order potencies were also evaluated for the displacement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 bound to RBL cell membranes by these regioisomers. However, they caused Ca2+ release from GH3 rat pituitary cells possessing predominantly subtype I receptors more potently; Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 evoked release at respective concentrations of only one-third and one-twentieth that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 1.2 and 8 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In COS-1 African green-monkey kidney cells, with the relative abundances of 37% of the subtype II and of 62% of the subtype III receptor, potencies of 1/40 and approx. 1/200 for Ins(1, 4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively were exhibited relative to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 15 and approx. 80 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In HL-60 human leukaemic cells, in spite of the dominant presence of subtype I receptors (71%), similar respective potencies to those seen with COS-1 cells were exhibited (the EC50 values were 0.3, 15 and approx. 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). These results indicate that these regioisomers are the first ligands that distinguish between receptor subtypes; the present observations are of significance for the future design of molecules with enhanced selectivity.