Identification of the major allergens in wheat flour responsible for baker's asthma.
ABSTRACT: Baker's asthma, a typical occupational allergic disease, is a serious problem in the food industries. In this study, purification and identification of major allergens recognized by IgEs in sera of allergic patients were performed. Major immunoreactive proteins were purified from the albumin fraction by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-50 column followed by reverse-phase HPLC. The N-terminal amino acid sequences and molecular masses measured by MS indicated that the major immunoreactive proteins are members of the alpha-amylase inhibitor family, 0.19 and 0.28. Significant leukotriene release by each purified protein was observed in cell-associated stimulation tests, suggesting in vivo activity of these antigens. Carbohydrate analyses of major allergens indicated that they are monoglycosylated but not N-glycosylated in spite of the presence of a potential N-glycosylation site. Recombinant 0.19 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the same reactivity with IgE as native wheat 0.19 in Western blotting and ELISA using methyl vinyl ether maleic anhydride co-polymer as an immobilizing reagent, suggesting that the allergenic epitopes are located in the peptide portions.
Project description:Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most extensively consumed vegetables but, unfortunately, it is also able to induce allergic reactions. In the past, it has been shown that the choice of tomato cultivar significantly influenced the allergic reaction of tomato allergic subjects. In this study we investigated the allergenic potential of the cultivated tomato line M82 and of two selected lines carrying small chromosome regions from the wild species Solanum pennellii (i.e. IL7-3 and IL12-4). We evaluated the positive interactions of IgEs of allergic subjects in order to investigate the different allergenic potential of the lines under investigation. We used proteomic analyses in order to identify putative tomato allergens. In addition, bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches were applied in order to analyse the structure and the expression profiles of the identified allergen-encoding genes. These analyses demonstrated that fruits harvested from the two selected introgression lines harbour a different allergenic potential as those from the cultivated genotype M82. The different allergenicity found within the three lines was mostly due to differences in the IgE recognition of a polygalacturonase enzyme (46 kDa), one of the major tomato allergens, and of a pectin methylesterase (34 kDa); both the proteins were more immunoreactive in IL7-3 compared to IL12-4 and M82. The observed differences in the allergenic potential were mostly due to line-dependent translational control or post-translational modifications of the allergens. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the introgression from a wild species (S. pennellii) in the genomic background of a cultivated tomato line influences the allergenic properties of the fruits. Our findings could support the isolation of favorable wild loci promoting low allergenic potential in tomato.
Project description:The detection of allergen?specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E is an important method for the diagnosis of IgE?mediated allergic diseases. The sensitivity of the indirect IgE?ELISA method against allergen extracts is limited by interference from high IgG titers and low quantities of effectual allergen components in extracts. To overcome these limitations, a novel capture IgE?ELISA based on a recombinant Der f 1/Der f 2 fusion protein (rDer f 1/2) was developed to enhance the sensitivity to IgEs that bind allergens from the house dust mite (HDM) species Dermatophagoides farina. pET28?Der f 1/2 was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The purified fusion protein was evaluated by IgE western blotting, IgE dot blotting and indirect IgE?ELISA. Capture?ELISA was performed by coating wells with omalizumab and incubating in series with sera, biotinylated Der f 1/2, horseradish peroxidase?conjugated streptavidin and 3,3,5,5?tetramethylbenzidine. The relative sensitivities of indirect?ELISA and capture?ELISA for HDM allergen?specific IgE binding were determined; sera from non?allergic individuals were used as the control group. rDer f 1/2 was expressed in the form of inclusion bodies comprising refolded protein, which were then purified. It exhibited increased IgE?specific binding (24/28, 85.8%) than rDer f 1 (21/28, 75.0%) or rDer f 2 (22/28, 78.6%) with HDM?allergic sera. Furthermore, in a random sample of HDM?allergic sera (n=71), capture?ELISA (71/71, 100%) was more sensitive than indirect?ELISA (68/71, 95.8%) for the detection of HDM?specific IgEs (P<0.01), indicating that this novel method may be useful for the diagnosis of HDM allergy.
Project description:The plant pathogen Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a major disease of greenhouse tomato crops worldwide. Plant pathogens can induce expression of defence- or pathogenesis-related proteins, including identified allergens. Therefore we hypothesised that PepMV infection results in the expression of allergens leading to a higher allergenic potential of tomato fruits. Transcript level analyses showed differential expression of 17 known and putative tomato fruit allergen encoding genes at early and late time points after PepMV inoculation, but no general induction was detected. Immunoblot analyses were conducted and IgEs from a serum pool of tomato allergic subjects reacted with 20 proteins, of which ten have not yet been described. In parallel, skin prick tests with a group of tomato allergic subjects did not show a general difference between PepMV infected and non-infected tomato fruits and basophil activation tests confirmed these results. In summary, PepMV infection of tomato plants can lead to long-lasting up-regulation of particular allergens in fruits, but the hypothesis that this results in a higher allergenic potential of the fruits proved invalid.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of atopic disease. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 provides the most comprehensive information on IgE-mediated sensitization in the general US population. OBJECTIVE:We investigated clustering, sociodemographic, and regional patterns of allergic sensitization and examined risk factors associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. METHODS:Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Participants aged 1 year or older (n = 9440) were tested for serum specific IgEs (sIgEs) to inhalant and food allergens; participants 6 years or older were tested for 19 sIgEs, and children aged 1 to 5 years were tested for 9 sIgEs. Serum samples were analyzed by using the ImmunoCAP System. Information on demographics and participants' characteristics was collected by means of questionnaire. RESULTS:Of the study population aged 6 years and older, 44.6% had detectable sIgEs, whereas 36.2% of children aged 1 to 5 years were sensitized to 1 or more allergens. Allergen-specific IgEs clustered into 7 groups that might have largely reflected biological cross-reactivity. Although sensitization to individual allergens and allergen types showed regional variation, the overall prevalence of sensitization did not differ across census regions, except in early childhood. In multivariate modeling young age, male sex, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, geographic location (census region), and reported pet avoidance measures were most consistently associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. CONCLUSIONS:The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization does not vary across US census regions, except in early life, although allergen-specific sensitization differs based on sociodemographic and regional factors. Biological cross-reactivity might be an important but not the sole contributor to the clustering of allergen-specific IgEs.
Project description:House dust mites (HDMs) such as Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus represent major causes of perennial allergy. HDM proteomes are currently poorly characterized, with information mostly restricted to allergens. As of today, 33 distinct allergen groups have been identified for these 2 mite species, with groups 1 and 2 established as major allergens. Given the multiplicity of IgE-reactive mite proteins, potential additional allergens have likely been overlooked.To perform a comprehensive characterization of the transcriptomes, proteomes and allergomes of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus in order to identify novel allergens.Transcriptomes were analyzed by RNA sequencing and de novo assembly. Comprehensive mass spectrometry-based analyses proteomes were combined with two-dimensional IgE reactivity profiling.Transcripts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus were assembled, translated into protein sequences and used to populate derived sequence databases in order to inform immunoproteomic analyses. A total of 527 and 157 proteins were identified by bottom-up MS analyses in aqueous extracts from purified HDM bodies and fecal pellets, respectively. Based on high sequence similarities (>71% identity), we also identified 2 partial and 11 complete putative sequences of currently undisclosed D. pteronyssinus counterparts of D. farinae registered allergens. Immunoprofiling on 2D-gels revealed the presence of unknown 23 kDa IgE reactive proteins in both species. Following expression of non-glycosylated recombinant forms of these molecules, we confirm that these new allergens react with serum IgEs from 42% (8/19) of HDM-allergic individuals.Using combined transcriptome and immunoproteome approaches, we provide a comprehensive characterization of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus allergomes. We expanded the known allergen repertoire for D. pteronyssinus and identified two novel HDM allergens, now officially referred by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Nomenclature Subcommittee as Der f 36 and Der p 36.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diagnosing food allergy in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated by their high rate of asymptomatic sensitization to foods, which can lead to misdiagnosis and unnecessary food avoidance. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine whether food-specific (sIgE) or component immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels could predict allergic status in patients with moderate to severe AD and elevated total IgE. METHODS:Seventy-eight children (median age, 10.7 years) with moderate to severe AD were assessed for a history of clinical reactivity to milk, egg, peanut, wheat, and soy. The IgE levels for each food and its components were determined by ImmunoCAP. The level and pattern of IgE reactivity to each food and its components, and their ratio to total IgE, were compared between subjects who were allergic and tolerant to each food. RESULTS:Ninety-one percent of subjects were sensitized, and 51% reported allergic reactivity to at least 1 of the 5 most common food allergens. Allergy to milk, egg, and peanut were most common, and IgE levels to each of these foods were significantly higher in the allergic group. Component IgEs most associated with milk, egg, and peanut allergy were Bos d8, Gal d1, and Ara h2, respectively. The ratio of sIgE to total IgE offered no advantage to sIgE alone in predicting allergy. CONCLUSION:Specific IgE levels and the pattern of IgE reactivity to food components can distinguish AD subjects allergic vs tolerant to the major food allergens and may therefore be helpful in guiding the clinical management of these patients.
Project description:Before insects can be used widely as an alternative source of dietary protein, their allerginicity should be investigated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the potential adverse reactions of the immune system of dogs against <i>Tenebrio molitor</i> proteins. Dogs sensitised to storage mites <i>T. putrescentiae</i> and <i>A. siro</i> were included. Clinically healthy and clinically allergic dogs were compared. Proteins were extracted from mealworm larvae and their digestibility determined by in vitro incubation with digestive proteases. Mealworm protein extracts and digests were analysed by SDS-PAGE. Canine sera tested for the presence of mite-specific IgEs were used for subsequent Western blotting. LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify mealworm proteins and their allergenic potential was predicted with the AllermatchTM tool. The binding of canine sera IgEs to mealworm proteins was confirmed; however, the differences between the two groups of dogs were not significant. Moreover, no clear correlation was found between sensitisation to storage mites and clinical status of the dogs. Altogether, 17 different proteins were identified, including tropomyosin, α-amylase, and Tm-E1a cuticular protein that are known cross-reacting IgE-binding allergens. Our results suggest that dogs allergic to mites may clinically express also the cross-reactivity with mealworm proteins.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Allergy diagnosis by determination of allergen-specific IgE is complicated by clinically irrelevant IgE, of which the most prominent example is IgE against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) that occur on allergens from plants and insects. Therefore, CCDs cause numerous false-positive results. Inhibition of CCDs has been proposed as a remedy, but has not yet found its way into the routine diagnostic laboratory. We sought to provide a simple and affordable procedure to overcome the CCD problem.<h4>Methods</h4>Serum samples from allergic patients were analysed for allergen-specific IgEs by different commercial tests (from Mediwiss, Phadia and Siemens) with and without a semisynthetic CCD blocker with minimized potential for nonspecific interactions that was prepared from purified bromelain glycopeptides and human serum albumin.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty two per cent of about 6000 serum samples reacted with CCD reporter proteins. The incidence of anti-CCD IgE reached 35% in the teenage group. In patients with anti-CCD IgE, application of the CCD blocker led to a clear reduction in read-out values, often below the threshold level. A much better correlation between laboratory results and anamnesis and skin tests was achieved in many cases. The CCD blocker did not affect test results where CCDs were not involved.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Eliminating the effect of IgEs directed against CCDs by inhibition leads to a significant reduction in false-positive in vitro test results without lowering sensitivity towards relevant sensitizations. Application of the CCD blocker may be worthwhile wherever natural allergen extracts or components are used.
Project description:Allergy to short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen is a serious and expanding health problem in North America and Europe. Whereas only 10 short ragweed pollen allergens are officially recorded, patterns of IgE reactivity observed in ragweed allergic patients suggest that other allergens contribute to allergenicity. The objective of the present study was to identify novel allergens following extensive characterization of the transcriptome and proteome of short ragweed pollen.Following a Proteomics-Informed-by-Transcriptomics approach, a comprehensive transcriptomic data set was built up from RNA-seq analysis of short ragweed pollen. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses and IgE reactivity profiling after high resolution 2D-gel electrophoresis were then combined to identify novel allergens.Short ragweed pollen transcripts were assembled after deep RNA sequencing and used to inform proteomic analyses, thus leading to the identification of 573 proteins in the short ragweed pollen. Patterns of IgE reactivity of individual sera from 22 allergic patients were assessed using an aqueous short ragweed pollen extract resolved over 2D-gels. Combined with information derived from the annotated pollen proteome, those analyses revealed the presence of multiple unreported IgE reactive proteins, including new Amb a 1 and Amb a 3 isoallergens as well as 7 novel candidate allergens reacting with IgEs from 20-70% of patients. The latter encompass members of the carbonic anhydrase, enolase, galactose oxidase, GDP dissociation inhibitor, pathogenesis related-17, polygalacturonase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase families.We extended the list of allergens identified in short ragweed pollen. These findings have implications for both diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy purposes.
Project description:Allergen-specific immunotherapy can induce long-term suppression of allergic symptoms, reduce medication use, and prevent exacerbations of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Current treatment is based on crude allergen extracts, which contain immunostimulatory components such as ?-glucans, chitins, and endotoxin. Use of purified or recombinant allergens might therefore increase efficacy of treatment.Here, we test application of purified natural group 1 and 2 allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) treatment in a house dust mite (HDM)-driven mouse model of allergic asthma.HDM-sensitized mice received SCIT with crude HDM extract, a mixture of purified Der p1 and 2 (DerP1/2), or placebo. Upon challenges, we measured specific immunoglobulin responses, allergen-induced ear swelling response (ESR), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue.ESR measurement shows suppression of early allergic response in HDM-SCIT- and DerP1/2-SCIT-treated mice. Both HDM-SCIT and DerP1/2-SCIT are able to suppress AHR and eosinophilic inflammation. In contrast, only DerP1/2-SCIT is able to significantly suppress type 2 cytokines in lung tissue and BAL fluid. Moreover, DerP1/2-SCIT treatment is uniquely able suppress CCL20 and showed a trend toward suppression of IL-33, CCL17 and eotaxin levels in lung tissue.Taken together, these data show that purified DerP1/2-SCIT is able to not only suppress AHR and inflammation, but also has superior activity toward suppression of Th2 cells and HDM-induced activation of lung structural cells including airway epithelium.We postulate that treatment with purified natural major allergens derived from HDM will likely increase clinical efficacy of SCIT.