Regulation of integrin function: evidence that bivalent-cation-induced conformational changes lead to the unmasking of ligand-binding sites within integrin alpha5 beta1.
ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms that regulate integrin-ligand binding are unknown; however, bivalent cations are essential for integrin activity. According to recent models of integrin tertiary structure, sites involved in ligand recognition are located on the upper face of the seven-bladed beta-propeller formed by the N-terminal repeats of the alpha subunit and on the von Willebrand factor A-domain-like region of the beta subunit. The epitopes of function-altering monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cluster in these regions of the alpha and beta subunits; hence these mAbs can be used as probes to detect changes in the exposure or shape of the ligand-binding sites. Bivalent cations were found to alter the apparent affinity of binding of the inhibitory anti-alpha5 mAbs JBS5 and 16, the inhibitory anti-beta1 mAb 13, and the stimulatory anti-beta1 mAb 12G10 to alpha5 beta1. Analysis of the binding of these mAbs to alpha5beta1 over a range of Mn2+, Mg2+ or Ca2+ concentrations demonstrated that there was a concordance between the ability of cations to elicit conformational changes and the ligand-binding potential of alpha5 beta1. Competitive ELISA experiments provided evidence that the domains of the alpha5 and beta1 subunits recognized by mAbs JBS5/16 and 13/12G10 are spatially close, and that the distance between these two domains is increased when alpha5 beta1 is occupied by bivalent cations. Taken together, our findings suggest that bivalent cations induce a conformational relaxation in the integrin that results in exposure of ligand-binding sites, and that these sites lie near an interface between the alpha subunit beta-propeller and the beta subunit putative A-domain.
Project description:The high-affinity interaction of integrin alpha5beta1 with the central cell-binding domain of fibronectin requires both the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence (in the tenth type III repeat) and a second site Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn (PHSRN) in the adjacent ninth type III repeat, which synergizes with RGD. Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala (RRETAWA) is a novel peptidic ligand for alpha5beta1, identified by phage display, which blocks alpha5beta1-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin. A key question is the location of the binding sites for these ligand sequences within the integrin. In this study we have identified residues that form part of the epitopes of three inhibitory anti-alpha5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs): 16, P1D6 and SNAKA52. These mAbs have distinct functional properties. mAb 16 blocks the recognition of RGD and RRETAWA, whereas P1D6 blocks binding to the synergy sequence. The binding of SNAKA52 is inhibited by anti-beta1 mAbs, indicating that its epitope is close to the interface between the alpha and beta subunits. Residues in human alpha5 were replaced with the corresponding residues in mouse alpha5 by site-directed mutagenesis; wild-type or mutant human alpha5 was expressed on the surface of alpha5-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. mAb binding was assessed by flow cytometry and by adhesion to the central cell-binding domain of fibronectin or RRETAWA by cell attachment assay. All three epitopes were located to different putative loops in the N-terminal domain of alpha5. As expected, disruption of these epitopes had no effect on ligand recognition by alpha5beta1. The locations of these epitopes are consistent with the beta-propeller model for integrin alpha-subunit structure and allow us to propose a topological image of the integrin-ligand complex.
Project description:N-Glycosylation of integrin alpha5beta1 plays a crucial role in cell spreading, cell migration, ligand binding, and dimer formation, but the detailed mechanisms by which N-glycosylation mediates these functions remain unclear. In a previous study, we showed that three potential N-glycosylation sites (alpha5S3-5) on the beta-propeller of the alpha5 subunit are essential to the functional expression of the subunit. In particular, site 5 (alpha5S5) is the most important for its expression on the cell surface. In this study, the function of the N-glycans on the integrin beta1 subunit was investigated using sequential site-directed mutagenesis to remove the combined putative N-glycosylation sites. Removal of the N-glycosylation sites on the I-like domain of the beta1 subunit (i.e. the Delta4-6 mutant) decreased both the level of expression and heterodimeric formation, resulting in inhibition of cell spreading. Interestingly, cell spreading was observed only when the beta1 subunit possessed these three N-glycosylation sites (i.e. the S4-6 mutant). Furthermore, the S4-6 mutant could form heterodimers with either alpha5S3-5 or alpha5S5 mutant of the alpha5 subunit. Taken together, the results of the present study reveal for the first time that N-glycosylation of the I-like domain of the beta1 subunit is essential to both the heterodimer formation and biological function of the subunit. Moreover, because the alpha5S3-5/beta1S4-6 mutant represents the minimal N-glycosylation required for functional expression of the beta1 subunit, it might also be useful for the study of molecular structures.
Project description:Group A Streptococcus (GAS) and other bacterial pathogens are known to interact with integrins as an initial step in a complex pathway of bacterial ingestion by host cells. Efficient GAS invasion depends on the interaction of bound fibronectin (Fn) with integrins and activation of integrin signaling. TGF-beta1 regulates expression of integrins, Fn, and other extracellular matrix proteins, and positively controls the integrin signaling pathway. Therefore, we postulated that TGF-beta1 levels could influence streptococcal invasion of mammalian cells. Pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with TGF-beta1 increased their capacity to ingest GAS when the bacteria expressed fibronectin-binding proteins (M1 or PrtF1). Western blots revealed significant induction of alpha5 integrin and Fn expression by HEp-2 cells in response to TGF-beta1. Increased ingestion of streptococci by these cells was blocked by a specific inhibitor of the TGF-beta1 receptor I and antibodies directed against alpha5 integrin and Fn, indicating that increased invasion depends on TGF-beta1 up-regulation of both the alpha5 integrin and Fn. The capacity of TGF-beta1 to up-regulate integrin expression and intracellular invasion by GAS was reproduced in primary human tonsil fibroblasts, which could be a source of TGF-beta1 in chronically infected tonsils. The relationship between TGF-beta1 and GAS invasion was strengthened by the observation that TGF-beta1 production was stimulated in GAS-infected primary human tonsil fibroblasts. These findings suggest a mechanism by which GAS induce a cascade of changes in mammalian tissue leading to elevated expression of the alpha5beta1 receptor, enhanced invasion, and increased opportunity for survival and persistence in their human host.
Project description:Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 recognizes both fibronectin (CS-1 sequence) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). To localize the ligand-binding sites of alpha 4, we located the epitopes for function-blocking anti-alpha 4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including those that recognize previously described (but not yet physically localized) functional epitopes (A, B1, B2 and C) using interspecies alpha 4 chimeras expressed in mammalian cells. Epitopes B1 and B2 were associated with ligand binding, and epitopes A and B2 with homotypic cellular aggregation. mAbs P4C2 (epitope B2), 20E4 and PS/2 were mapped within residues 108-182; mAbs HP2/1 (epitope B1), SG/73 and R1-2 within residues 195-268; mAbs HP1/3 (epitope A) and P4G9 within residues 1-52; and B5G10 (epitope C) within residues 269-548. The data suggest that residues 108-268, which do not include bivalent-cation-binding motifs, are related to VCAM-1 and CS-1 binding, and more N-terminal portions of alpha 4 (residues 1 and 52 and 108-182) to homotypic aggregation. Since mAbs PS/2 and HP2/1 block alpha 4 beta 7 binding to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), the MAdCAM-1-binding site is close to, or overlapping with, VCAM-1- and CS-1-binding sites. The role of Asp-130 of beta 1 in the binding to VCAM-1 and CS-1 peptide was examined. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing beta 1 (D130A) (Asp-130 to Ala mutant of beta 1) and alpha 4 showed much less binding to both ligands than CHO cells expressing wild-type beta 1 and alpha 4 [a dominant negative effects of beta 1 (D130A)], suggesting that Asp-130 of beta 1 is critical for binding to both ligands and that the two ligand share common binding mechanisms [corrected].
Project description:Integrin alpha5beta1 is a key receptor for the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. Antagonists of human integrin alpha5beta1 have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic agents in cancer and diseases of the eye. However, the structure of the integrin is unsolved and the atomic basis of fibronectin and antagonist binding by integrin alpha5beta1 is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that zebrafish alpha5beta1 integrins do not interact with human fibronectin or the human alpha5beta1 antagonists JSM6427 and cyclic peptide CRRETAWAC. Zebrafish alpha5beta1 integrins do bind zebrafish fibronectin-1, and mutagenesis of residues on the upper surface and side of the zebrafish alpha5 subunit beta-propeller domain shows that these residues are important for the recognition of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif and the synergy sequence [Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn (PHSRN)] in fibronectin. Using a gain-of-function analysis involving swapping regions of the zebrafish integrin alpha5 subunit with the corresponding regions of human alpha5 we show that blades 1-4 of the beta-propeller are required for human fibronectin recognition, suggesting that fibronectin binding involves a broad interface on the side and upper face of the beta-propeller domain. We find that the loop connecting blades 2 and 3 of the beta-propeller, the D3-A3 loop, contains residues critical for antagonist recognition, with a minor role played by residues in neighbouring loops. A new homology model of human integrin alpha5beta1 supports an important function for D3-A3 loop residues Trp157 and Ala158 in the binding of antagonists. These results will aid the development of reagents that block integrin alpha5beta1 functions in vivo.
Project description:Haptokinetic cell migration across surfaces is mediated by adhesion receptors including beta1 integrins and CD44 providing adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands such as collagen and hyaluronan (HA), respectively. Little is known, however, about how such different receptor systems synergize for cell migration through three-dimensionally (3-D) interconnected ECM ligands. In highly motile human MV3 melanoma cells, both beta1 integrins and CD44 are abundantly expressed, support migration across collagen and HA, respectively, and are deposited upon migration, whereas only beta1 integrins but not CD44 redistribute to focal adhesions. In 3-D collagen lattices in the presence or absence of HA and cross-linking chondroitin sulfate, MV3 cell migration and associated functions such as polarization and matrix reorganization were blocked by anti-beta1 and anti-alpha2 integrin mAbs, whereas mAbs blocking CD44, alpha3, alpha5, alpha6, or alphav integrins showed no effect. With use of highly sensitive time-lapse videomicroscopy and computer-assisted cell tracking techniques, promigratory functions of CD44 were excluded. 1) Addition of HA did not increase the migratory cell population or its migration velocity, 2) blocking of the HA-binding Hermes-1 epitope did not affect migration, and 3) impaired migration after blocking or activation of beta1 integrins was not restored via CD44. Because alpha2beta1-mediated migration was neither synergized nor replaced by CD44-HA interactions, we conclude that the biophysical properties of 3-D multicomponent ECM impose more restricted molecular functions of adhesion receptors, thereby differing from haptokinetic migration across surfaces.
Project description:The affinity of the extracellular domain of integrins for ligand is regulated by conformational changes signaled from the cytoplasm. Alternative types of conformational movement in the ligand-binding headpiece have been proposed. In one study, electron micrograph image averages of the headpiece of integrin aV beta 3 show two different conformations. The open conformation of the headpiece is present when a ligand mimetic peptide is bound and differs from the closed conformation in the presence of an obtuse angle between the beta 3 subunit hybrid and I-like domains. We tested the hypothesis that opening of the hybrid-I-like domain interface increases ligand-binding affinity by mutationally introducing an N-glycosylation site into it. Both beta 3 and beta1 integrin glycan wedge mutants exhibit constitutively high affinity for physiological ligands. The data uniquely support one model of integrin activation and suggest that movement at the interface with the hybrid domain pulls down the C-terminal helix of the I-like domain and activates its metal ion-dependent adhesion site, analogously to activation of the integrin I domain.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligand-mimetic inhibitors of integrins are unable to dissociate pre-formed integrin-fibronectin complexes (IFCs). These observations suggested that amino acid residues involved in integrin-fibronectin binding become obscured in the ligand-occupied state. Because the epitopes of some function-blocking anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) lie near the ligand-binding pocket, it follows that the epitopes of these mAbs may become shielded in the ligand-occupied state. Here, we tested whether function-blocking mAbs directed against ?5?1 can interact with the integrin after it forms a complex with an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin. We showed that the anti-?5 subunit mAbs JBS5, SNAKA52, 16, and P1D6 failed to disrupt IFCs and hence appeared unable to bind to the ligand-occupied state. In contrast, the allosteric anti-?1 subunit mAbs 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 could dissociate IFCs and therefore were able to interact with the ligand-bound state. However, another class of function-blocking anti-?1 mAbs, exemplified by Lia1/2, could not disrupt IFCs. This second class of mAbs was also distinguished from 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 by their ability to induce homotypic cell aggregation. Although the epitope of Lia1/2 was closely overlapping with those of 13, 4B4, and AIIB2, it appeared to lie closer to the ligand-binding pocket. A new model of the ?5?1-fibronectin complex supports our hypothesis that the epitopes of mAbs that fail to bind to the ligand-occupied state lie within, or very close to, the integrin-fibronectin interface. Importantly, our findings imply that the efficacy of some therapeutic anti-integrin mAbs could be limited by epitope masking.
Project description:Translocation of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) effector protein via the cag-Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) into host cells is a major risk factor for severe gastric diseases, including gastric cancer. However, the mechanism of translocation and the requirements from the host cell for that event are not well understood. The T4SS consists of inner- and outer membrane-spanning Cag protein complexes and a surface-located pilus. Previously an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-dependent typical integrin/ligand type interaction of CagL with alpha5beta1 integrin was reported to be essential for CagA translocation. Here we report a specific binding of the T4SS-pilus-associated components CagY and the effector protein CagA to the host cell beta1 Integrin receptor. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that CagA binding to alpha5beta1 integrin is rather strong (dissociation constant, K(D) of 0.15 nM), in comparison to the reported RGD-dependent integrin/fibronectin interaction (K(D) of 15 nM). For CagA translocation the extracellular part of the beta1 integrin subunit is necessary, but not its cytoplasmic domain, nor downstream signalling via integrin-linked kinase. A set of beta1 integrin-specific monoclonal antibodies directed against various defined beta1 integrin epitopes, such as the PSI, the I-like, the EGF or the beta-tail domain, were unable to interfere with CagA translocation. However, a specific antibody (9EG7), which stabilises the open active conformation of beta1 integrin heterodimers, efficiently blocked CagA translocation. Our data support a novel model in which the cag-T4SS exploits the beta1 integrin receptor by an RGD-independent interaction that involves a conformational switch from the open (extended) to the closed (bent) conformation, to initiate effector protein translocation.
Project description:Formaldehyde cross-linking of protein complexes combined with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis is a promising technique for analysing protein-protein interactions, including those of transient nature. Here we used integrin beta1 as a model to describe the application of formaldehyde cross-linking in detail, particularly focusing on the optimal parameters for cross-linking, the detection of formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, the utility of antibodies, and the identification of binding partners. Integrin beta1 was found in a high molecular weight complex after formaldehyde cross-linking. Eight different anti-integrin beta1 antibodies were used for pull-down experiments and no loss in precipitation efficiency after cross-linking was observed. However, two of the antibodies could not precipitate the complex, probably due to hidden epitopes. Formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, precipitated from Jurkat cells or human platelets and analyzed by mass spectrometry, were found to be composed of integrin beta1, alpha4 and alpha6 or beta1, alpha6, alpha2, and alpha5, respectively.