Overexpression of myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate enhances activation of phospholipase D by protein kinase C in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Signal transduction can involve the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the subsequent phosphorylation of protein substrates, including myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS). Previously we showed that stimulation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesis by PMA in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells required overexpression of MARCKS, whereas PKCalpha alone was insufficient. We have now investigated the role of MARCKS in PMA-stimulated PtdCho hydrolysis by phospholipase D (PLD). Overexpression of MARCKS enhanced PLD activity 1.3-2.5-fold compared with vector controls in unstimulated cells, and 3-4-fold in cells stimulated with 100 nM PMA. PMA-stimulated PLD activity was blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide. Activation of PLD by PMA was linear with time to 60 min, whereas stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by PMA in clones overexpressing MARCKS was observed after a 15 min time lag, suggesting that the hydrolysis of PtdCho by PLD preceded synthesis. The formation of phosphatidylbutanol by PLD was greatest when PtdCho was the predominantly labelled phospholipid, indicating that PtdCho was the preferred, but not the only, phospholipid substrate for PLD. Cells overexpressing MARCKS had 2-fold higher levels of PKCalpha than in vector control cells analysed by Western blot analysis; levels of PKCbeta and PLD were similar in all clones. The loss of both MARCKS and PKCalpha expression at higher subcultures of the clones was paralleled by the loss of stimulation of PLD activity and PtdCho synthesis by PMA. Our results show that MARCKS is an essential link in the PKC-mediated activation of PtdCho-specific PLD in these cells and that the stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by PMA is a secondary response.
Project description:The phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated synthesis of phosphatidylethanol (PtdEtOH) and the hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) were examined in drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant lines of MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. In drug-sensitive (MCF-7/WT) cells, the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) failed to enhance either the synthesis of PtdEtOH or the hydrolysis of either phospholipid. In the drug-resistant (MCF-7/MDR) cells, 100 nM PMA greatly enhanced both the synthesis of PtdEtOH (approximately 21-fold) and the hydrolysis of PtdEtn (approximately 29-fold), but had no effect on the hydrolysis of PtdCho. The PLD activators sphingosine and H2O2 were found to elicit only a slight (1.28-1.4-fold) stimulatory effect on PtdCho hydrolysis in both the MCF-7/WT and MCF-7/MDR cell types, and had only a small effect on PtdEtn hydrolysis in the MCF-7/WT cells as well. However, these agents significantly (approximately 2.6-3.5-fold) stimulated PtdEtn hydrolysis in the MCF-7/MDR cells. These data indicate that MCF-7/MDR cells contain a PtdEtn-specific PLD activity which can be selectively stimulated by PMA, sphingosine and H2O2.
Project description:The tumour-promotion-sensitive (P+) and -resistant (P-) variants of mouse JB6 epidermis-derived cells have often been used to study the requirements for the tumour-promoting effect of PMA. As part of an effort to identify the defect(s) in JB6 P- cells that might prevent the promoting effect of PMA, stimulation of phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) by PMA as well as the rate of phospholipid synthesis were compared in three P+ variants, two P- variants and a transformed variant of the JB6 cell line. PMA (5-100 nM) had significantly less stimulatory effect on PtdCho hydrolysis in P- cells than in P+ or transformed JB6 cells. The effects of PMA on PtdEtn hydrolysis in the P+ and P- cell lines were similar, whereas in transformed cells PMA had slightly less effect. Each JB6 cell line was found to contain similar amounts of PtdCho. In contrast, P- cells contained significantly less PtdEtn and a correspondingly higher level of ethanolamine phosphate compared with P+ and transformed cells. P- cells also secreted ethanolamine phosphate into the medium; this process was greatly enhanced by PMA. In the two P- variants the synthesis of PtdEtn from [14C]ethanolamine was reduced to various extents, whereas the rate of PtdCho synthesis was comparable in each JB6 cell line. The synthesis of PtdCho, but not PtdEtn, was greatly stimulated by PMA in both the P+ and P- clones. The results indicate that decreased synthesis/level of PtdEtn and suboptimal functioning of a PtdCho-specific PLD are common characteristics of the P- JB6 cells examined so far. The observed alterations in phospholipid metabolism may play a role in the resistance of P- cells to the tumour-promoting action of PMA.
Project description:Previously, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor sphingosine was found to stimulate phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated hydrolysis of both phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts [Kiss & Anderson (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7345-7350]. Here we examined the possible relationship between the opposite effects of sphingosine on PKC-mediated protein phosphorylation and PLD activation. After treatments for 3-5 min, sphingosine (25 microM) and the PKC activators phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (100 nM), bryostatin (100 nM) or platelet-derived growth factor (50 ng/ml) synergistically stimulated the hydrolysis of both PtdEtn and PtdCho in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts prelabelled with [14C]ethanolamine or [14C]choline. Inhibition of PMA-induced phospholipid hydrolysis could also be elicited by sphingosine, but this process required prolonged (60 min) treatments of fibroblasts with 40-60 microM-sphingosine. Similarly to sphingosine, the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid also had either potentiating or inhibitory effects on PMA-stimulated PLD activity, depending on the length of incubation time and the concentration of PMA. Consistent with the presence of an inhibitory component in the overall action of PKC, the PKC inhibitor staurosporine and down-regulation of PKC activity by prolonged (24 h) treatment with PMA similarly enhanced PLD activity. Data suggest that (a) sphingosine may enhance PMA-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis by neutralizing the action of an inhibitory PKC isoform, and that (b) the stimulatory PKC isoform is less sensitive to the inhibitory action of sphingosine.
Project description:The regulation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrolysis by Ca2+ and protein kinase C (PKC) was measured in [3H]palmitate-labelled cultured guinea-pig airway smooth-muscle cells as phosphatidylbutanol ([3H]PtdBut) and phosphatidate ([3H]PtdOH) formation in the presence of butanol. The former is a direct measure of phospholipase D (PLD) activity, whereas the latter, in airway smooth muscle, is indicative of net PtdCho-specific phospholipase C (PLC)-like/diacylglycerol (DG) kinase activity. Bradykinin-stimulated responses exhibited a requirement for extracellular Ca2+ influx, since they were inhibited in the presence of EGTA. This influx was independent of voltage-operated channels, since the L-type channel blocker nifedipine (up to 10 microM) was without effect on bradykinin-stimulated responses. In support of this, membrane depolarization with KCl (30 mM) failed to elicit either response. However, bradykinin-stimulated formation of both [3H]PtdBut and [3H]PtdOH was partially inhibited by 100 microM SKF96365. Ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, induced PtdCho hydrolysis to a greater extent than bradykinin, also in an extracellular-Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Thapsigargin-induced emptying of intracellular Ca2+ pools elicited the formation of both [3H]PtdBut and [3H]PtdOH and displayed a requirement for extracellular Ca2+. Bradykinin-stimulated PtdCho-specific PLC-like/DG kinase pathway and PLD responses were unaffected by thapsigargin pretreatment, thereby questioning the role of Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-dependent Ca2+ stores in the receptor stimulation of these activities in airway smooth-muscle cells. In this regard, we have previously demonstrated that the bradykinin-stimulated PtdCho-specific PLD and PLC-like activities can occur under conditions of apparent complete blockade of bradykinin-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation by receptor antagonist in guinea-pig airway smooth muscle. The PKC inhibitor, Ro31-8220, selectively blocked both bradykinin- and ionomycin-stimulated PLD activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 approx. 1 microM), but was without effect on bradykinin-stimulated PtdCho-PLC-like/DG kinase-derived PtdOH formation. In contrast, an inhibitor of PtdCho-PLC, D609, selectively blocked the formation of [3H]PtdOH in the presence of butanol (PtdCho-PLC-like/DG kinase activity), but not [3H]PtdBut formation. In conclusion, PtdCho hydrolysis appears to occur via two distinguishable routes which both require extracellular Ca2+, whereas only the PLD route is regulated by PKC.
Project description:The effect of a number of growth factors on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) turnover in Swiss-3T3 cells was studied. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), bombesin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vasopressin rapidly stimulated PtdCho hydrolysis, diacylglycerol (DAG) production, and PtdCho synthesis. Insulin and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulated PtdCho synthesis, but not its breakdown, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bradykinin were without effect. Stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis by the above ligands resulted in increased production of phosphocholine and DAG (due to phospholipase C activity) and significant amounts of choline, suggesting activation of a phospholipase D as well. CDP-choline and glycerophosphocholine levels were unchanged. Down-regulation of protein kinase C with PMA (400 nM, 40 h) abolished the stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis and PtdCho synthesis by PMA, bombesin, PDGF and vasopressin, but not the stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by insulin and PGF2 alpha. PtdCho hydrolysis therefore occurs predominantly by activation of protein kinase C (either by PMA or PtdIns hydrolysis) leading to elevation of DAG levels derived from non-PtdIns(4,5)P2 sources. PtdCho synthesis occurs by both a protein kinase C-dependent pathway (stimulated by PMA, PDGF, bombesin and vasopressin) and a protein kinase C-independent pathway (stimulated by insulin and PGF2 alpha). DAG production from PtdCho hydrolysis is not the primary signal to activate protein kinase C, but may contribute to long-term activation of this kinase.
Project description:Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated radiolabelled choline uptake and incorporation into phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in wild-type NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The accumulation of labelled choline induced by PMA was paralled by an increase in choline mass. The results implicate protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of choline uptake. In order to address the PKC-subtype specificity of this response, a study was undertaken in Swiss 3T3 fibroblast cells, which normally express very low levels of PKC alpha. A retroviral expression system was used to introduce the genes for PKC alpha and neomycin resistance (used for selection) into the cells. Two resulting lines expressed PKC alpha at levels that were 20-fold higher than those found in the control (neomycin-resistant) line, or in the wild-type cells. In control Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, 1 microM PMA elevated choline levels by only 30%, whereas, in Swiss 3T3 cell lines that stably over-expressed PKC alpha, PMA caused a 5-fold enhancement in [14C]choline accumulation. This concentration of PMA significantly increased [14C]PtdCho levels in both control and PKC alpha-over-expressing lines, although the effect in the latter was significantly greater. The effects of PMA were inhibited by the PKC antagonist sphingosine. These results implicate PKC alpha in the regulation of choline accumulation and phospholipid synthesis in fibroblasts. Although additional PKC subtypes appear to participate in the control of PtdCho synthesis in these cells, PMA-stimulated choline uptake in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts is almost entirely dependent on the presence of PKC alpha.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) mass formation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts with a lag time of some 30 s. The response was biphasic, with the second phase being sustained over time. PDGF also stimulated the formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 with a similar lag time to the DAG response, suggesting that DAG is derived from PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis at this time point. PDGF-stimulated phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrolysis in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, as measured by the formation of water-soluble choline metabolites and phosphatidylbutanol (PtdBut) accumulation, was by a phospholipase D (PLD)-catalysed pathway which was kinetically downstream of initial PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. Accumulation of PtdBut increased up to 15 min, suggesting that PLD activity is not rapidly densitized in response to PDGF. The kinetics of PtdCho hydrolysis closely paralleled the second phase of DAG formation, strongly suggesting that during prolonged stimulation periods PtdCho is a major source of DAG in these cells. However, since PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown was also prolonged, PDGF-stimulated DAG may be derived from both phospholipids. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC), by pre-treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, abolished both [3H]choline and [3H]PtdBut formation, suggesting that PLD-catalysed PtdCho hydrolysis may be dependent on PKC activation, supporting its dependence on prior PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis.
Project description:To investigate membrane lipid metabolism during smooth-muscle activation, the role of phospholipase D (PLD) in the production of phosphatidate (PA) was studied in rat small arteries stimulated with noradrenaline. Incubation with [3H]myristate preferentially labelled phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and in the presence of 0.5% ethanol [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEt) was formed, demonstrating PLD activity. Noradrenaline (NA) stimulation resulted in an increase in PtdCho derived [3H]PA and [3H]PEt formation, indicating PLD activation. Stimulation of [14C]choline release confirmed PLD-mediated hydrolysis of PtdCho. Propranolol, an inhibitor of PA phosphohydrolase, increased [3H]PA levels in non-stimulated tissue and decreased the rate of degradation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEt, implying that this is an active route for PA metabolism in small arteries. However, [3H]diacylglycerol levels were not increased during NA stimulation. Fluoroaluminate increased [3H]PEt formation and [14C]choline release, whereas high K+ in the presence of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade did not. Pervanadate increased phosphotyrosine levels in small arteries, and markedly stimulated [3H]PEt formation and [14C]choline release. The combination of pervanadate and NA stimulation resulted in a dramatic increase in [3H]PEt formation, which was greater than the sum of the individual responses to the two agonists. Pervanadate and fluoroaluminate in combination appeared to give an additive response, whereas high K+ did not alter the pervanadate-induced formation of [3H]PEt. Phosphotyrosine levels were increased by NA in the presence of tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. This effect was blocked by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These data demonstrate that in NA-stimulated small arteries PLD-induced PtdCho hydrolysis contributes to accumulation of PA, but not of diacylglycerol. Furthermore, regulation of PLD activity appears to require G-protein and tyrosine-phosphorylation-linked pathways.
Project description:The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the stimulatory effects of protein kinase C activators, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and bryostatin, on the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and on PtdCho synthesis. The cell lines used were selected because of their differential responses to protein kinase C activators and included rat-1 fibroblasts, untransformed and A-raf-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and human HL60 leukaemia cells. Exposure of rat-1 and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to 100 nM-PMA stimulated phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of phospholipids about 2- and 6-fold respectively. In contrast, 100 nM-PMA had similar (2.5-3.0-fold) stimulatory effects on PtdCho synthesis in these cell lines. In the untransformed NIH 3T3 cells, both PMA and bryostatin stimulated both phospholipid hydrolysis and PtdCho synthesis, with 100 nM-bryostatin being somewhat less potent than 100 nM-TPA. In contrast, in A-raf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells or in HL60 cells, only TPA, but not bryostatin, stimulated PtdCho synthesis. In these transformed cells, bryostatin had 3-fold, or higher, stimulatory effects on phospholipid hydrolysis. Addition of ionomycin, a Ca2(+)-elevating agent, partially restored the stimulatory effect of bryostatin on PtdCho synthesis, but it failed to modify the effect of bryostatin on phospholipid hydrolysis. These data indicate that increased phospholipid hydrolysis is not necessarily associated with increased PtdCho synthesis.
Project description:The antagonization of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis by the phospholipid analogue hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC) in MDCK cells was investigated and compared with the corresponding influence in HeLa cells. In both cell lines, PMA-stimulated PtdCho biosynthesis was antagonized by 50 microM HePC. However, subsequent experiments provided evidence that PMA enhances PtdCho biosynthesis by at least two mechanisms: (i) by stimulation of choline uptake and (ii) by translocation of CTP:choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase to membranes. In MDCK cells, 5 nM PMA caused a 4-fold increase in [methyl-3H]choline incorporation into PtdCho, which was paralleled by an approx. 2-fold stimulation of choline uptake. These data indicate that choline uptake might play an important role in the regulation of PtdCho biosynthesis in this cell line, especially since we could not detect any significant increase in membrane-bound cytidyltransferase activity in PMA-treated MDCK cells. In contrast, enhanced PtdCho biosynthesis in HeLa cells is achieved by a 2-fold increase in particulate cytidylyltransferase activity after PMA stimulation. Translocation of cytidylyltransferase from the cytosol to membranes is therefore important in HeLa cells. Nevertheless, in both cell lines, the main target of HePC seems to be the translocation process. In MDCK cells, addition of 50 microM HePC decreases membrane-bound cytidylyltransferase activity by about 45%, compared with control cells and PMA-treated cells. In HeLa cells, PMA-induced translocation of cytidylyltransferase to membranes is totally abolished by HePC.