A glutamate residue contributes to the exopeptidase specificity in aminopeptidase A.
ABSTRACT: Aminopeptidase A (EC 22.214.171.124, APA) is a 130 kDa membrane-bound aminopeptidase that contains the consensus sequence HEXXH (385-389) found in the zinc metalloprotease family, the zincins. Sequence alignment of the mouse APA with other monozinc-aminopeptidases indicates the presence of a highly conserved glutamate residue (Glu352 in APA) found in the conserved motif GAMEN (349-353). In monozinc-aminopeptidases, the negative charge of the glutamate side-chain carboxylate may constitute the anionic binding site involved in the recognition of the free amino group of substrates or inhibitors. The functional role of Glu352 in APA was investigated by substituting this residue with an aspartate (Asp352), a glycine (Gly352), a glutamine (Gln352) or an arginine (Arg352) residue by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic studies showed that the Km values of the mutant enzymes were unaffected, whereas kcat values were decreased 10-250-fold, resulting in a 10-, 30- 260- and 400-fold reduction in cleavage efficiencies for the mutants Asp352, Gly352, Gln352 and Arg352 respectively. The inhibitory potency of two different classes of inhibitors, a thiol and a phosphonate compound, was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by 10- and 4-fold respectively in the mutated enzymes. Moreover, the inhibitory potency of angiotensin I, used as a competitor of the synthetic substrate alpha-l-glutamyl beta-naphthylamide, displayed a 4-fold reduction (P<0.01) in the mutated enzymes, whereas the Ki values of its N-acetyl derivative were unchanged. These data strongly suggest that Glu352 is involved in the catalytic process of APA and contributes to the exopeptidase activity of this enzyme through interaction with the N-terminal part of substrates or inhibitors.
Project description:Aminopeptidase A (EC 126.96.36.199; APA) is a 130 kDa membrane-bound zinc enzyme that contains the consensus sequence HEXXH (residues 385-389) conserved among the zinc metalloprotease family. In this motif, both histidine residues and the glutamic residue were shown to be involved respectively in zinc co-ordination and catalytic activity. Treatment of APA with N-acetylimidazole results in a loss of enzymic activity; this is prevented by the competitive aminopeptidase inhibitor amastatin, suggesting the presence of an important tyrosine, lysine or cysteine residue at the active site of APA. A tyrosine residue was previously proposed to be involved in the enzymic activity of aminopeptidase N. Furthermore sequence alignment of mouse APA with other monozinc aminopeptidases indicates the presence of a conserved tyrosine (Tyr-471 in APA). The functional role of Tyr-471 in APA was investigated by replacing this residue with a phenylalanine (Phe-471) or a histidine (His-471) residue by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic studies showed that the Km values of both mutants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme, whereas kcat values were decreased by three orders of magnitude and corresponded to a variation in free energy of the rate-limiting step by 4.0 and 4.2 kcal/mol (0.96 and 1.00 kJ/mol) for the Phe-471 and His-471 mutants respectively. The mutation did not modify the inhibitory potency of a thiol-containing inhibitor that strongly chelates the active-site zinc ion, whereas that of a putative analogue of the transition state presumed to mimic the reaction intermediate was reduced. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the Tyr-471 hydroxy group participates in catalysis by stabilizing the transition state complex through interaction with the oxyanion.
Project description:Aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11.) belongs to exoprotease family, which can catalyze the cleavage of peptide bond which connects the N-terminal amino acid to the penultimate residue in a protein. Aminopeptidases catalyze the process of removal of the N-terminal amino acids of target substrates by sequential cleavage of one amino acid residue at a time. Microbial aminopeptidase are of great acceptance as industrial enzymes with varying applications in food and pharma industry since these enzymes possess unique characteristics than aminopeptidases from other sources. This review describes the various applications of microbial aminopeptidases in different industrial sectors. These enzymes are widely used in food industry as a debittering agent as well as in the preparation of protein hydrolysates. In baking, brewing, and cheese making aminopeptidases are extensively used for removing the bitterness of peptides. The inhibitors of these enzymes are found great clinical applications against various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and viral infections. Aminopeptidases are widely used for the synthesis of biopeptides and amino acids, and found to be efficient than chemical synthesis. These enzymes are capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate compounds, thus having biological as well as environmental significance.Key Points• Cleaves the amino-terminal amino acid residues from proteins and peptides.• Microbial aminopeptidase are of great acceptance as both therapeutic and industrial enzyme.• Review describes the potential applications of microbial aminopeptidases.
Project description:M1 family metallo-aminopeptidases fulfill a wide range of critical and in some cases medically relevant roles in humans and human pathogens. The specificity of M1-aminopeptidases is dominated by the interaction of the well defined S1 subsite with the side chain of the first (P1) residue of the substrate and can vary widely. Extensive natural variation occurs at one of the residues that contributes to formation of the cylindrical S1 subsite. We investigated whether this natural variation contributes to diversity in S1 subsite specificity. Effects of 11 substitutions of the S1 subsite residue valine 459 in the Plasmodium falciparum aminopeptidase PfA-M1 and of three substitutions of the homologous residue methionine 260 in Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N were characterized. Many of these substitutions altered steady-state kinetic parameters for dipeptide hydrolysis and remodeled S1 subsite specificity. The most dramatic change in specificity resulted from substitution with proline, which collapsed S1 subsite specificity such that only substrates with P1-Arg, -Lys, or -Met were appreciably hydrolyzed. The structure of PfA-M1 V459P revealed that the proline substitution induced a local conformational change in the polypeptide backbone that resulted in a narrowed S1 subsite. The restricted specificity and active site backbone conformation of PfA-M1 V459P mirrored those of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2, a human enzyme with proline in the variable S1 subsite position. Our results provide compelling evidence that changes in the variable residue in the S1 subsite of M1-aminopeptidases have facilitated the evolution of new specificities and ultimately novel functions for this important class of enzymes.
Project description:Human laeverin/aminopeptidase Q (LVRN/APQ) is a novel member of the M1 family of zinc aminopeptidases and is specifically expressed on the cell surface of human extravillous trophoblasts. Multiple sequence alignment of human M1 aminopeptidase revealed that the first Gly residue within the conserved exopeptidase motif of the M1 family, GXMEN motif, is uniquely substituted for His in human LVRN/APQ. In this study, we evaluated the roles of nonconserved His(379), comprising the exopeptidase motif in the enzymatic properties of human LVRN/APQ. We revealed that the substitution of His(379) with Gly caused significant changes in substrate specificity both toward fluorogenic substrates and natural peptide hormones. In addition, the susceptibilities of bestatin, a sensitive inhibitor for human LVRN/APQ, and natural inhibitory peptides were decreased in the H379G mutant. A molecular model suggested a conformational difference between wild-type and H379G human LVRN/APQs. These results indicate that His(379) of the enzyme plays essential roles in its distinctive enzymatic properties and contributes to maintaining the appropriate structure of the catalytic cavity of the enzyme. Our data may bring new insight into the biological significance of the unique exopeptidase motif of LVRN/APQ obtained during the evolution of primates.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase is a potential target of future antibacterial and anticancer drugs. Structural analysis of complexes of the enzyme with its inhibitors provides valuable information for structure-based drug design efforts.Five new X-ray structures of such enzyme-inhibitor complexes were obtained. Analysis of these and other three similar structures reveals the adaptability of a surface-exposed loop bearing Y62, H63, G64 and Y65 (the YHGY loop) that is an integral part of the substrate and inhibitor binding pocket. This adaptability is important for accommodating inhibitors with variations in size. When compared with the human isozymes, this loop either becomes buried in the human type I enzyme due to an N-terminal extension that covers its position or is replaced by a unique insert in the human type II enzyme.The adaptability of the YHGY loop in E. coli methionine aminopeptidase, and likely in other bacterial methionine aminopeptidases, enables the enzyme active pocket to accommodate inhibitors of differing size. The differences in this adaptable loop between the bacterial and human methionine aminopeptidases is a structural feature that can be exploited to design inhibitors of bacterial methionine aminopeptidases as therapeutic agents with minimal inhibition of the corresponding human enzymes.
Project description:Aminopeptidases process the N-terminal amino acids of target substrates by sequential cleavage of one residue at a time. They are found in all cell compartments of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, being implicated in the major proteolytic events of cell survival, defense, growth, and development. We present a new approach for the fast and reliable evaluation of the substrate specificity of individual aminopeptidases. Using solid phase chemistry with the 7-amino-4-carbamoylmethylcoumarin fluorophore, we have synthesized a library of 61 individual natural and unnatural amino acids substrates, chosen to cover a broad spectrum of the possible interactions in the S1 pocket of this type of protease. As proof of concept, we determined the substrate specificity of human, pig, and rat orthologs of aminopeptidase N (CD13), a highly conserved cell surface protease that inactivates enkephalins and other bioactive peptides. Our data reveal a large and hydrophobic character for the S1 pocket of aminopeptidase N that is conserved with aminopeptidase Ns. Our approach, which can be applied in principle to all aminopeptidases, yields useful information for the design of specific inhibitors, and more importantly, reveals a relationship between the kinetics of substrate hydrolysis and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition.
Project description:The insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) has been proposed as an important therapeutic target for indications including Alzheimer's disease and immune disorders. To date, a number of IRAP inhibitor designs have been investigated but the total number of molecules investigated remains quite small. As a member the M1 aminopeptidase family, IRAP shares numerous structural features with the other M1 aminopeptidases. The study of those enzymes and the development of inhibitors provide key learnings and new approaches and are potential sources of inspiration for future IRAP inhibitors.
Project description:Actinonin is a pseudotripeptide that displays a high affinity towards metalloproteases including peptide deformylases (PDFs) and M1 family aminopeptidases. PDF and M1 family aminopeptidases belong to thermolysin-metzincin superfamily. One of the major differences in terms of substrate binding pockets between these families is presence (in M1 aminopeptidases) or absence (in PDFs) of an S1 substrate pocket. The binding mode of actinonin to PDFs has been established previously; however, it is not clear how the actinonin, without a P1 residue, would bind to the M1 aminopeptidases. Here we describe the crystal structure of Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N (ePepN), a model protein of the M1 family aminopeptidases in complex with actinonin. For comparison we have also determined the structure of ePepN in complex with a well-known tetrapeptide inhibitor, amastatin. From the comparison of the actinonin and amastatin ePepN complexes, it is clear that the P1 residue is not critical as long as strong metal chelating head groups, like hydroxamic acid or ?-hydroxy ketone, are present. Results from this study will be useful for the design of selective and efficient hydroxamate inhibitors against M1 family aminopeptidases.
Project description:M1 aminopeptidase enzymes are a diverse family of metalloenzymes characterized by conserved structure and reaction specificity. Excluding viruses, M1 aminopeptidases are distributed throughout all phyla, and have been implicated in a wide range of functions including cell maintenance, growth and development, and defense. The structure and catalytic mechanism of M1 aminopeptidases are well understood, and make them ideal candidates for the design of small-molecule inhibitors. As a result, many research groups have assessed their utility as therapeutic targets for both infectious and chronic diseases of humans, and many inhibitors with a range of target specificities and potential therapeutic applications have been developed. Herein, we have aimed to address these studies, to determine whether the family of M1 aminopeptidases does in fact present a universal target for the treatment of a diverse range of human diseases. Our analysis indicates that early validation of M1 aminopeptidases as therapeutic targets is often overlooked, which prevents the enzymes from being confirmed as drug targets. This validation cannot be neglected, and needs to include a thorough characterization of enzymes' specific roles within complex physiological pathways. Furthermore, any chemical probes used in target validation must be carefully designed to ensure that specificity over the closely related enzymes has been achieved. While many drug discovery programs that target M1 aminopeptidases remain in their infancy, certain inhibitors have shown promise for the treatment of a range of conditions including malaria, hypertension, and cancer.
Project description:Snake bite is a major neglected public health issue within poor communities living in the rural areas of several countries throughout the world. An estimated 2.5 million people are bitten by snakes each year and the cost and lack of efficacy of current anti-venom therapy, together with the lack of detailed knowledge about toxic components of venom and their modes of action, and the unavailability of treatments in rural areas mean that annually there are around 125,000 deaths worldwide. In order to develop cheaper and more effective therapeutics, the toxic components of snake venom and their modes of action need to be clearly understood. One particularly poorly understood component of snake venom is aminopeptidases. These are exo-metalloproteases, which, in mammals, are involved in important physiological functions such as the maintenance of blood pressure and brain function. Although aminopeptidase activities have been reported in some snake venoms, no detailed analysis of any individual snake venom aminopeptidases has been performed so far. As is the case for mammals, snake venom aminopeptidases may also play important roles in altering the physiological functions of victims during envenomation. In order to further understand this important group of snake venom enzymes we have isolated, functionally characterised and analysed the sequence-structure relationships of an aminopeptidase from the venom of the large, highly venomous West African gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.The venom of B. g. rhinoceros was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and fractions with aminopeptidase activities were isolated. Fractions with aminopeptidase activities showed a pure protein with a molecular weight of 150 kDa on SDS-PAGE. In the absence of calcium, this purified protein had broad aminopeptidase activities against acidic, basic and neutral amino acids but in the presence of calcium, it had only acidic aminopeptidase activity (APA). Together with the functional data, mass spectrometry analysis of the purified protein confirmed this as an aminopeptidase A and thus this has been named as rhiminopeptidase A. The complete gene sequence of rhiminopeptidase A was obtained by sequencing the PCR amplified aminopeptidase A gene from the venom gland cDNA of B. g. rhinoceros. The gene codes for a predicted protein of 955 amino acids (110 kDa), which contains the key amino acids necessary for functioning as an aminopeptidase A. A structural model of rhiminopeptidase A shows the structure to consist of 4 domains: an N-terminal saddle-shaped beta domain, a mixed alpha and beta catalytic domain, a beta-sandwich domain and a C-terminal alpha helical domain.This study describes the discovery and characterisation of a novel aminopeptidase A from the venom of B. g. rhinoceros and highlights its potential biological importance. Similar to mammalian aminopeptidases, rhiminopeptidase A might be capable of playing roles in altering the blood pressure and brain function of victims. Furthermore, it could have additional effects on the biological functions of other host proteins by cleaving their N-terminal amino acids. This study points towards the importance of complete analysis of individual components of snake venom in order to develop effective therapies for snake bites.