Identification of 30 kDa calsequestrin-binding protein, which regulates calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT: In a previous study [Yamaguchi, Kawasaki and Kasai (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 648-653], we showed that the stilbene derivative 4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid activates the Ca2+ channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in rabbit skeletal muscle, and it does not bind to the channel protein itself but to the SR 30 kDa protein. Furthermore, the 30 kDa protein was shown to bind to calsequestrin (CSQ), which is one of the regulators of the Ca2+ release channel in the SR. In the present study, we determined the partial amino acid sequence of the CSQ-binding 30 kDa protein and, consequently, this protein was proved to be highly similar to ADP/ATP translocase (AAT) expressed in the mitochondria in a variety of cells. By Western-blotting analysis, the CSQ-binding 30 kDa protein was recognized by the antibody raised against bovine cardiac AAT and, furthermore, depolarization-induced Ca2+ release monitored in the rabbit skeletal muscle triads was significantly activated by the antibody. As a result of cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding AAT of the rabbit skeletal muscle, the amino acid sequence was found to be the same as that of the CSQ-binding 30 kDa protein determined above. Furthermore, the expressed product of the cDNA encoding AAT in Escherichia coli was proved to bind to CSQ. These results suggest that AAT itself is expressed in the rabbit skeletal muscle SR and regulates the Ca2+ release from the SR; that is, excitation-contraction coupling of the skeletal muscle cell.
Project description:Variations of free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) are powerful intracellular signals, controlling contraction as well as metabolism in muscle cells. To fully understand the role of calcium redistribution upon excitation and contraction in skeletal muscle cells, the local [Ca2+] in different compartments needs to be taken into consideration. Fluorescent probes allow the determination of [Ca2+] in the cytosol where myofibrils are embedded, the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the mitochondrial matrix. Previously, models have been developed describing intracellular calcium handling in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. However, a comprehensive model describing the kinetics of the changes in free calcium concentration in these three compartments is lacking. We designed a new 3D compartmental model of the half sarcomere with radial symmetry, which accounts for diffusion of Ca2+ into the three compartments and simulates its dynamics at rest and at various rates of stimulation in mice skeletal muscle fibers. This model satisfactorily reproduces both the amplitude and time course of the variations of [Ca2+] in the three compartments in mouse fast fibers. As an illustration of the applicability of the model, we investigated the effects of Calsequestrin (CSQ) ablation. CSQ is the main Ca2+ buffer in the SR, localized in close proximity of its calcium release sites and near to the mitochondria. CSQ knock-out mice muscles still preserve a near-normal contractile behavior, but it is unclear whether this is caused by additional SR calcium buffering or a significant contribution of calcium entry from extracellular space, via stored-operated calcium entry (SOCE). The model enabled quantitative assessment of these two scenarios by comparison to measurements of local calcium in the cytosol, the SR and the mitochondria. In conclusion, the model represents a useful tool to investigate the impact of protein ablation and of pharmacological interventions on intracellular calcium dynamics in mice skeletal muscle.
Project description:Activation of a calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase associated with rabbit skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) results in the phosphorylation of polypeptides of 450, 360, 165, 105, 89, 60, 34 and 20 kDa. Radioligand-binding studies indicated that a membrane-bound 60 kDa polypeptide contained both CaM- and ATP-binding domains. Under renaturing conditions on nitrocellulose blots, the 60 kDa polypeptide of the membrane exhibited CaM-dependent autophosphorylation activity, suggesting that it was the CaM-dependent protein kinase of SR. Ca2+/CaM-independent autophosphorylation of polypeptides of 62 and 45 kDa was found to occur in the light SR, whereas the Ca2+/CaM-dependent autophosphorylation activity was enriched in the heavy SR. Both these kinase activities were absent from transverse tubules, although these membranes were enriched in CaM-binding polypeptides of 160, 100 and 80 kDa. In the absence of Ca2+, CaM bound to a 33 kDa polypeptide of the membrane. The purified ryanodine receptor was not phosphorylated by the purified CaM kinase, although it was a substrate for protein kinase C. Affinity-purified antibodies to brain CaM kinase II cross-reacted with the 60 kDa polypeptide in Western blots and immunoprecipitated the 60 kDa polypeptide, along with the 360, 105, 89, 34 and 20 kDa phosphoproteins, from Nonidet-P-40-solubilized SR membranes. Antibodies raised against the 60 kDa kinase polypeptide did not cross-react with the other phosphoproteins, suggesting that these polypeptides were distinct and unrelated. Subcellular distribution of the 60 kDa kinase indicated the specific association of the polypeptide with the junctional-face membrane of SR. The CaM-dependent incorporation of 32P into various membrane proteins was inhibited by the CaM kinase II fragment (290-309), with an IC50 value of 2 nM for the inhibition of incorporation into the 60 kDa kinase polypeptide. Recent studies [Wang and Best (1992) Nature (London) 359, 739-741] have shown that a CaM kinase activity intrinsic to the membrane can inactivate the Ca(2+)-release channel of skeletal muscle SR. Since our results demonstrate that the 60 kDa polypeptide of SR is a CaM-dependent protein kinase, we suggest that this kinase, through its associations, may be responsible for gating the Ca(2+)-release channel.
Project description:Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release in striated muscle is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) channel and the intra-SR Ca(2+) buffering protein calsequestrin (CSQ). Besides its buffering role, CSQ is thought to regulate RyR channel function. Here, CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac (RyR2) channels is explored. Skeletal (CSQ1) or cardiac (CSQ2) calsequestrin were systematically added to the luminal side of single RyR1 or RyR2 channels. The luminal Ca(2+) dependence of open probability (Po) over the physiologically relevant range (0.05-1 mM Ca(2+)) was defined for each of the four RyR/CSQ isoform pairings. We found that the luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR2 channels was substantial when either CSQ isoform was present. In contrast, no significant luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR1 channels was detected in the presence of either CSQ isoform. We conclude that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of single RyR2 channels lacks CSQ isoform specificity, and that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle likely plays a relatively minor (if any) role in regulating the RyR1 channel activity, indicating that the chief role of CSQ1 in this tissue is as an intra-SR Ca(2+) buffer.
Project description:Calsequestrins (CSQ) are high capacity, medium affinity, calcium-binding proteins present in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac and skeletal muscles. CSQ sequesters Ca²? during muscle relaxation and increases the Ca²?-storage capacity of the SR. Mammalian CSQ has been well studied as a model of human disease, but little is known about the environmental adaptation of CSQ isoforms from poikilothermic organisms. The mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, is an intertidal fish that experiences significant daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations and is an interesting study system for investigations of adaptation at the protein level. We determined the full-length coding sequence of a CSQ isoform from skeletal muscle of F. heteroclitus (FCSQ) and characterized the function and structure of this CSQ. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of FCSQ is relatively insensitive to changes in temperature and pH, thus indicating that FCSQ is a eurytolerant protein. We identified and characterized a highly conserved salt bridge network in FCSQ that stabilizes the formation of front-to-front dimers, a process critical to CSQ function. The functional profile of FCSQ correlates with the natural history of F. heteroclitus suggesting that the eurytolerant function of FCSQ may be adaptive.
Project description:The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ATPases (SERCAs) are the main Ca2+ pumps which decrease the intracellular Ca2+ level by reaccumulating Ca2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The neonatal SERCA1b is the major Ca2+ pump in myotubes and young muscle fibers. To understand its role during skeletal muscle differentiation its synthesis has been interfered with specific shRNA sequence. Stably transfected clones showing significantly decreased SERCA1b expression (cloneC1) were selected for experiments. The expression of the regulatory proteins of skeletal muscle differentiation was examined either by Western-blot at the protein level for MyoD, STIM1, calsequestrin (CSQ), and calcineurin (CaN) or by RT-PCR for myostatin and MCIP1.4. Quantitative analysis revealed significant alterations in CSQ, STIM1, and CaN expression in cloneC1 as compared to control cells. To examine the functional consequences of the decreased expression of SERCA1b, repeated Ca2+-transients were evoked by applications of 120 mM KCl. The significantly higher [Ca2+]i measured at the 20th and 40th seconds after the beginning of KCl application (112±3 and 110±3 nM vs. 150±7 and 135±5 nM, in control and in cloneC1 cells, respectively) indicated a decreased Ca2+-uptake capability which was quantified by extracting the maximal pump rate (454±41 ?M/s vs. 144±24 ?M/s, in control and in cloneC1 cells). Furthermore, the rate of calcium release from the SR (610±60 vs. 377±64 ?M/s) and the amount of calcium released (843±75 ?M vs. 576±80 ?M) were also significantly suppressed. These changes were also accompanied by a reduced activity of CaN in cells with decreased SERCA1b. In parallel, cloneC1 cells showed inhibited cell proliferation and decreased myotube nuclear numbers. Moreover, while cyclosporineA treatment suppressed the proliferation of parental cultures it had no effect on cloneC1 cells. SERCA1b is thus considered to play an essential role in the regulation of [Ca2+]i and its ab ovo gene silencing results in decreased skeletal muscle differentiation.
Project description:Localization microscopy is a fairly recently introduced super-resolution fluorescence imaging modality capable of achieving nanometre-scale resolution. We have applied the dSTORM variation of this method to image intracellular molecular assemblies in skeletal muscle fibres which are large cells that critically rely on nanoscale signalling domains, the triads. Immunofluorescence staining in fixed adult rat skeletal muscle sections revealed clear differences between fast- and slow-twitch fibres in the molecular organization of ryanodine receptors (RyRs; the primary calcium release channels) within triads. With the improved resolution offered by dSTORM, abutting arrays of RyRs in transverse view of fast fibres were observed in contrast to the fragmented distribution on slow-twitch muscle that were approximately 1.8 times shorter and consisted of approximately 1.6 times fewer receptors. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we have quantified the nanometre-scale spatial association between triadic proteins using multi-colour super-resolution, an analysis difficult to conduct with electron microscopy. Our findings confirm that junctophilin-1 (JPH1), which tethers the sarcoplasmic reticulum ((SR) intracellular calcium store) to the tubular (t-) system at triads, was present throughout the RyR array, whereas JPH2 was contained within much smaller nanodomains. Similar imaging of the primary SR calcium buffer, calsequestrin (CSQ), detected less overlap of the triad with CSQ in slow-twitch muscle supporting greater spatial heterogeneity in the luminal Ca2+ buffering when compared with fast twitch muscle. Taken together, these nanoscale differences can explain the fundamentally different physiologies of fast- and slow-twitch muscle.
Project description:Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) along with Orai1 mediates extracellular Ca2+ entry into the cytosol through a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mechanism in various tissues including skeletal muscle. However, the role(s) of STIM2, a homolog of STIM1, in skeletal muscle has not been well addressed. The present study, first, was focused on searching for STIM2-binding proteins from among proteins mediating skeletal muscle functions. This study used a binding assay, quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and co-immunoprecipitation assay with bona-fide STIM2- and SERCA1a-expressing rabbit skeletal muscle. The region for amino acids from 453 to 729 of STIM2 binds to sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1a (SERCA1a). Next, oxalate-supported 45Ca2+-uptake experiments and various single-myotube Ca2+ imaging experiments using STIM2-knockdown mouse primary skeletal myotubes have suggested that STIM2 attenuates SERCA1a activity during skeletal muscle contraction, which contributes to the intracellular Ca2+ distribution between the cytosol and the SR at rest. In addition, STIM2 regulates Ca2+ movement through RyR1 during skeletal muscle contraction as well as SOCE. Therefore, via regulation of SERCA1a activity, STIM2 regulates both intracellular Ca2+ distribution and Ca2+ movement in skeletal muscle, which makes it both similar to, yet different from, STIM1.
Project description:The ryanodine receptor, a Ca(2+)-releasing channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), plays an important role in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle. In a previous study [Hirata, Nakahata and Ohizumi (2000) Mol. Pharmacol. 57, 1235-1242], we reported that mastoparan caused Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor from the heavy fraction of SR (HSR) isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle, and that it specifically bound to a 97 kDa protein which was distinct from Ca(2+)-pump or triadin. The present study was undertaken to identify and characterize the 97 kDa mastoparan-binding protein. The 97 kDa protein was purified from solubilized HSR by DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography and preparative SDS/PAGE. The partial amino acid sequence of the purified 97 kDa protein was matched with that of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). The proteolytic cleavage pattern of the 97 kDa protein was identical with that of GP. Furthermore, [(125)I-Tyr(3)]mastoparan specifically bound to GP. Interestingly, mastoparan-induced Ca(2+) release was inhibited by exogenous addition of GP-a, and mastoparan dissociated GP from HSR. These results indicate that the 97 kDa mastoparan-binding protein is GP, which negatively regulates Ca(2+) release from HSR. There may be a functional cross-talk between Ca(2+) release from HSR and glycogenolysis for energy supply mediated through GP in skeletal muscles.
Project description:The junctional face membrane plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle. A protein of 350 kDa, tentatively identified as a component of the junctional feet, connects transverse tubules to terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum [Kawamoto, Brunschwig, Kim & Caswell (1986) J. Cell Biol. 103, 1405-1414]. The membrane topology and protein composition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-release channels of rabbit skeletal muscle were investigated using an immunological approach, with anti-(junctional face membrane) and anti-(350 kDa protein) polyclonal antibodies. Upon preincubation of the terminal cisternae with anti-(junctional face membrane) antibodies, Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+-loading activities were not affected, whereas anti-(350 kDa protein) antibodies stimulated Ca2+-ATPase activity by 25% and inhibited Ca2+-loading activity by 50% (at an antibody/terminal cisternae protein ratio of 1:1). Specific photolabelling of terminal cisternae proteins with [14C]doxorubicin was prevented by both anti-(junctional face membrane) and anti-(350 kDa protein) antibodies. Stimulation of Ca2+ release by doxorubicin was prevented by both anti-(junctional face membrane) and anti-(350 kDa protein) antibodies. Half-maximal inhibition was obtained at an antibody/terminal cisternae protein ratio of 1:1. Kinetic measurements of Ca2+ release indicated that anti-(350 kDa protein) antibodies prevented Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, whereas the ATP-stimulation and the inhibition by Mg2+ were not affected. These results suggest that: (i) Ca2+- and doxorubicin-induced Ca2+ release is mediated by Ca2+ channels which are selectively localized in the junctional face membrane; (ii) the 350 kDa protein is a component of the Ca2+-release channel in native terminal cisternae vesicles; and (iii) the Ca2+-activating site of the channel is separate from other allosteric sites.
Project description:The cytosolic free Ca(2+) transients elicited by muscle fiber excitation are well characterized, but little is known about the free [Ca(2+)] dynamics within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). A targetable ratiometric FRET-based calcium indicator (D1ER Cameleon) allowed us to investigate SR Ca(2+) dynamics and analyze the impact of calsequestrin (CSQ) on SR [Ca(2+)] in enzymatically dissociated flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from WT and CSQ-KO mice lacking isoform 1 (CSQ-KO) or both isoforms [CSQ-double KO (DKO)]. At rest, free SR [Ca(2+)] did not differ between WT, CSQ-KO, and CSQ-DKO fibers. During sustained contractions, changes were rather small in WT, reflecting powerful buffering of CSQ, whereas in CSQ-KO fibers, significant drops in SR [Ca(2+)] occurred. Their amplitude increased with stimulation frequency between 1 and 60 Hz. At 60 Hz, the SR became virtually depleted of Ca(2+), both in CSQ-KO and CSQ-DKO fibers. In CSQ-KO fibers, cytosolic free calcium detected with Fura-2 declined during repetitive stimulation, indicating that SR calcium content was insufficient for sustained contractile activity. SR Ca(2+) reuptake during and after stimulation trains appeared to be governed by three temporally distinct processes with rate constants of 50, 1-5, and 0.3 s(-1) (at 26 °C), reflecting activity of the SR Ca(2+) pump and interplay of luminal and cytosolic Ca(2+) buffers and pointing to store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). SOCE might play an essential role during muscle contractures responsible for the malignant hyperthermia-like syndrome in mice lacking CSQ.