Calsequestrin: more than 'only' a luminal Ca2+ buffer inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
ABSTRACT: In striated muscle, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release/ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel provides the pathway through which stored Ca2+ is released into the myoplasm during excitation-contraction coupling. Various luminal Ca2+-binding proteins are responsible for maintaining the free [Ca2+] at 10(-3)-10(-4) M in the SR lumen; in skeletal-muscle SR, it is mainly calsequestrin. Here we show that, depending on its phosphorylation state, calsequestrin selectively controls the RyR channel activity at 1 mM free luminal [Ca2+]. Calsequestrin exclusively in the dephosphorylated state enhanced the open probability by approx. 5-fold with a Hill coefficient (h) of 3.3, and increased the mean open time by about 2-fold, i.e. solely dephosphorylated calsequestrin regulates Ca2+ release from the SR. Because calsequestrin has been found to occur mainly in the phosphorylated state in the skeletal-muscle SR for the regulation of RyR channel activity, the dephosphorylation of calsequestrin would appear to be a quintessential physiological event.
Project description:Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release in striated muscle is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) channel and the intra-SR Ca(2+) buffering protein calsequestrin (CSQ). Besides its buffering role, CSQ is thought to regulate RyR channel function. Here, CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac (RyR2) channels is explored. Skeletal (CSQ1) or cardiac (CSQ2) calsequestrin were systematically added to the luminal side of single RyR1 or RyR2 channels. The luminal Ca(2+) dependence of open probability (Po) over the physiologically relevant range (0.05-1 mM Ca(2+)) was defined for each of the four RyR/CSQ isoform pairings. We found that the luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR2 channels was substantial when either CSQ isoform was present. In contrast, no significant luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR1 channels was detected in the presence of either CSQ isoform. We conclude that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of single RyR2 channels lacks CSQ isoform specificity, and that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle likely plays a relatively minor (if any) role in regulating the RyR1 channel activity, indicating that the chief role of CSQ1 in this tissue is as an intra-SR Ca(2+) buffer.
Project description:In mature skeletal muscle, excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is thought to be mediated by direct physical interactions between the transverse tubular, voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Although previous attempts at demonstrating interactions between purified RyR and alpha1-DHPR have failed, the cross-linking analysis shown here indicates low-level complex formation between the SR RyR and the junctional alpha1-DHPR. After cross-linking of membranes highly enriched in triads with dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate, distinct complexes of more than 3000 kDa were detected. This agrees with numerous physiological and electron-microscopic findings, as well as co-immunoprecipitation experiments with triad receptors and receptor domain-binding studies. However, a distinct overlap of immunoreactivity between receptors was not observed in crude microsomal preparations, indicating that the triad complex is probably of low abundance. Disulphide-bonded, high-molecular-mass clusters of triadin, the junctional protein proposed to mediate interactions in triads, were confirmed to be linked to the RyR. Calsequestrin and the SR Ca2+-ATPase were not found in cross-linked complexes of the RyR and alpha1-DHPR. Thus, whereas recent studies indicate that the two receptors exhibit temporal differences in their developmental inductions and that receptor interactions are not essential for the formation and maintenance of triads, this study supports the signal transduction hypothesis of direct physical interactions between triad receptors in adult skeletal muscle.
Project description:The ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR-2) functions as a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) channel on intracellular Ca2+ stores and is distributed in most excitable cells with the exception of skeletal muscle cells. RyR-2 is abundantly expressed in cardiac muscle cells and is thought to mediate Ca2+ release triggered by Ca2+ influx through the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel to constitute the cardiac type of excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Here we report on mutant mice lacking RyR-2. The mutant mice died at approximately embryonic day (E) 10 with morphological abnormalities in the heart tube. Prior to embryonic death, large vacuolate sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and structurally abnormal mitochondria began to develop in the mutant cardiac myocytes, and the vacuolate SR appeared to contain high concentrations of Ca2+. Fluorometric Ca2+ measurements showed that a Ca2+ transient evoked by caffeine, an activator of RyRs, was abolished in the mutant cardiac myocytes. However, both mutant and control hearts showed spontaneous rhythmic contractions at E9.5. Moreover, treatment with ryanodine, which locks RyR channels in their open state, did not exert a major effect on spontaneous Ca2+ transients in control cardiac myocytes at E9.5-11.5. These results suggest no essential contribution of the RyR-2 to E-C coupling in cardiac myocytes during early embryonic stages. Our results from the mutant mice indicate that the major role of RyR-2 is not in E-C coupling as the CICR channel in embryonic cardiac myocytes but it is absolutely required for cellular Ca2+ homeostasis most probably as a major Ca2+ leak channel to maintain the developing SR.
Project description:In cardiac myocytes, clusters of type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via a positive feedback mechanism in which fluxed Ca2+ activates nearby RyRs. Although the general principles of this are understood, less is known about how single-RyR gating properties define the RyR group dynamics in an array of many channels. Here, we examine this using simulations with three models of RyR gating that have identical open probabilities: the commonly used two-state Markov gating model, one that utilizes multiple exponentials to fit single-channel open time (OT) and closed time (CT) distributions, and an extension of this multiexponential model that also includes experimentally measured correlations between single-channel OTs and CTs. The simulations of RyR clusters that utilize the multiexponential gating model produce infrequent Ca2+ release events with relatively few open RyRs. Ca2+ release events become even smaller when OT/CT correlations are included. This occurs because the correlations produce a small but consistent bias against recruiting more RyRs to open during the middle of a Ca2+ release event, between the initiation and termination phases (which are unaltered compared to the uncorrelated simulations). In comparison, the two-state model produces frequent, large, and long Ca2+ release events because it had a recruitment bias in favor of opening more RyRs. This difference stems from the two-state model's single-RyR OT and CT distributions being qualitatively different from the experimental ones. Thus, the details of single-RyR gating can profoundly affect SR Ca2+ release even if open probability and mean OTs and CTs are identical. We also show that Ca2+ release events can terminate spontaneously without any reduction in SR [Ca2+], luminal regulation, Ca2+-dependent inactivation, or physical coupling between RyRs when Ca2+ flux is below a threshold value. This supports and extends the pernicious attrition/induction decay hypothesis that SR Ca2+ release events terminate below a threshold Ca2+ flux.
Project description:Although the primary abnormality in dystrophin is the underlying cause for mdx (X-chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy), abnormal Ca2+ handling after sarcolemmal microrupturing appears to be the pathophysiological mechanism leading to muscle weakness. To develop novel pharmacological strategies for eliminating Ca2+-dependent proteolysis, it is crucial to determine the fate of Ca2+-handling proteins in dystrophin-deficient fibres. In the present study, we show that a key luminal Ca2+-binding protein SAR (sarcalumenin) is affected in mdx skeletal-muscle fibres. One- and two-dimensional immunoblot analyses revealed the relative expression of the 160 kDa SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum) protein to be approx. 70% lower in mdx fibres when compared with normal skeletal muscles. This drastic reduction in SAR was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Patchy internal labelling of SAR in dystrophic fibres suggests an abnormal formation of SAR domains. Differential co-immunoprecipitation experiments and chemical cross-linking demonstrated a tight linkage between SAR and the SERCA1 (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1) isoform of the SR Ca2+-ATPase. However, the relative expression of the fast Ca2+ pump was not decreased in dystrophic membrane preparations. This implies that the reduction in SAR and calsequestrin-like proteins plays a central role in the previously reported impairment of Ca2+ buffering in the dystrophic SR [Culligan, Banville, Dowling and Ohlendieck (2002) J. Appl. Physiol. 92, 435-445]. Impaired Ca2+ shuttling between the Ca2+-uptake SERCA units and calsequestrin clusters via SAR, as well as an overall decreased luminal ion-binding capacity, might indirectly amplify the Ca2+-leak-channel-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels. This confirms the idea that abnormal Ca2+ cycling is involved in Ca2+-induced myonecrosis. Hence, manipulating disturbed Ca2+ handling might represent new modes of abolishing proteolytic degradation in muscular dystrophy.
Project description:Dantrolene inhibits and ryanodine stimulates calcium release from skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the former by an unknown mechanism, and the latter by activating the ryanodine receptor (RyR), the primary Ca2+-release channel of SR. Dantrolene is used to treat malignant hyperthermia (MH), a genetic predisposition to excessive intracellular Ca2+ release upon exposure to volatile anaesthetics. Porcine MH results from a point mutation in the SR RyR that alters the open probability of the channel, and is reflected in altered [3H]ryanodine binding parameters. Specific binding sites for [3H]dantrolene and [3H]ryanodine co-distribute on SR that has been isolated by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. If the two drug-binding sites are functionally linked, [3H]dantrolene binding might be affected both by pharmacological and by genetic modulators of the functional state of the RyR. Accordingly, we compared the characteristics of [3H]dantrolene binding to porcine malignant-hyperthermia-susceptible and normal-skeletal-muscle SR, and examined the effects of RyR modulators on [3H]dantrolene binding to these membranes. Additionally, the feasibility of separating the SR binding sites for [3H]dantrolene and [3H]ryanodine was investigated. No significant differences in [3H]dantrolene binding characteristics to SR membranes from the two muscle types were detected, and the Bmax ratio for [3H]dantrolene/[3H]ryanodine was 1.4(+/-0.1):1 in both muscle types. [3H]Dantrolene binding is unaffected by the RyR modulators caffeine, ryanodine, Ruthenium Red and calmodulin, and neither dantrolene nor azumolene have any effect on [3H]ryanodine binding. Additionally, distinct peaks of [3H]dantrolene and [3H]ryanodine binding are detected in SR membranes fractionated by linear sucrose centrifugation, although no differences in protein patterns are detected by SDS/PAGE or Western-blot analysis. We suggest that the binding sites for these two drugs are pharmacologically distinct, and may exist on separate molecules.
Project description:A large (565 kDa) junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein, the ryanodine receptor (RYR), may play both a structural and a functional role in the mechanism of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. Recently, the primary amino acid sequence of the RYR has been elucidated. In this paper, we introduce an immunological approach to examine the functional (electrophysiological) properties of the RYR when it is incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. The effects of two polyclonal antibodies against the SR junctional face membrane (JFM) and the RYR (anti-JFM and anti-RYR) were tested on the single-channel gating properties of the RYR SR Ca2(+)-release channel. Junctional SR vesicles were fused into planar lipid bilayers in solutions containing caesium salts. Solutions were designed to minimize the background conductances of the SR K+ and Cl- channels. Three actions of the anti-JFM antibody were distinguished on the basis of single-channel gating and conductance. The anti-RYR antibody had a single action, a simultaneous decrease in single-channel open probability (Po) and conductance. Both antibodies appear to alter single-channel gating by disrupting the Ca2(+)-activation mechanism of the channel. Anti-RYR-antibody-induced gating abnormalities were reversed by ATP, although the ATP-re-activated channels had altered gating kinetics. Two antigenic regions, recognizing the anti-RYR antibody, in the C-terminal end of the RYR primary amino acid sequence contain or are closely associated with putative ligand (Ca2+ and ATP)-binding sites identified previously. Our results demonstrate (1) that the antibodies induced abnormal gating (decreased open probability and stabilization of subconducting states) of SR release channels, and (2) that abnormal gating is not associated with physical obstruction or alteration of the conduction pathway. Thus antibodies directed at specific regions of the RYR (e.g. putative ligand-binding sites) can be used as effective probes with which to study the structural and functional properties of the SR Ca2(+)-release channel gating at the single-channel level.
Project description:Junctin, a non-catalytic splice variant encoded by the aspartate-?-hydroxylase (Asph) gene, is inserted into the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) store where it modifies Ca(2+) signalling in the heart and skeletal muscle through its regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Junctin is required for normal muscle function as its knockout leads to abnormal Ca(2+) signalling, muscle dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmia. However, the nature of the molecular interaction between junctin and RyRs is largely unknown and was assumed to occur only in the SR lumen. We find that there is substantial binding of RyRs to full junctin, and the junctin luminal and, unexpectedly, cytoplasmic domains. Binding of these different junctin domains had distinct effects on RyR1 and RyR2 activity: full junctin in the luminal solution increased RyR channel activity by ?threefold, the C-terminal luminal interaction inhibited RyR channel activity by ?50%, and the N-terminal cytoplasmic binding produced an ?fivefold increase in RyR activity. The cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and RyR is required for luminal binding to replicate the influence of full junctin on RyR1 and RyR2 activity. The C-terminal domain of junctin binds to residues including the S1-S2 linker of RyR1 and N-terminal domain of junctin binds between RyR1 residues 1078 and 2156.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a central role in cellular stress responses via mobilization of ER stress coping responses, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The inositol-requiring 1? (IRE1?) is an ER stress sensor and component of the UPR. Muscle cells also have a well-developed and highly subspecialized membrane network of smooth ER called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) surrounding myofibrils and specialized for Ca2+ storage, release, and uptake to control muscle excitation-contraction coupling. Here, we describe 2 distinct pools of IRE1? in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, one localized at the perinuclear ER and the other at the junctional SR. We discovered that, at the junctional SR, calsequestrin binds to the ER luminal domain of IRE1?, inhibiting its dimerization. This novel interaction of IRE1? with calsequestrin, one of the highly abundant Ca2+ handling proteins at the junctional SR, provides new insights into the regulation of stress coping responses in muscle cells.-Wang, Q., Groenendyk, J., Paskevicius, T., Qin, W., Kor, K. C., Liu, Y., Hiess, F., Knollmann, B. C., Chen, S. R. W., Tang, J., Chen, X.-Z., Agellon, L. B., Michalak, M. Two pools of IRE1? in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondria are locally coupled to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release in myoblasts and to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release in differentiated muscle fibers in order to regulate cytoplasmic calcium dynamics and match metabolism with cell activity. However, the mechanism of the developmental transition from ER to SR coupling remains unclear. We have studied mitochondrial sensing of IP3 receptor (IP3R)- and ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated Ca2+ signals in H9c2 myoblasts and differentiating myotubes, as well as the attendant changes in mitochondrial morphology. Mitochondria in myoblasts were largely elongated, luminally connected and relatively few in number, whereas the myotubes were densely packed with globular mitochondria that displayed limited luminal continuity. Vasopressin, an IP3-linked agonist, evoked a large cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) increase in myoblasts, whereas it elicited a smaller response in myotubes. Conversely, RyR-mediated Ca2+ release induced by caffeine, was not observed in myoblasts, but triggered a large [Ca2+]c signal in myotubes. Both the IP3R and the RyR-mediated [Ca2+]c rise was closely associated with a mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) signal. Every myotube that showed a [Ca2+]c spike also displayed a [Ca2+]m response. Addition of IP3 to permeabilized myoblasts and caffeine to permeabilized myotubes also resulted in a rapid [Ca2+]m rise, indicating that Ca2+ was delivered via local coupling of the ER/SR and mitochondria. Thus, as RyRs are expressed during muscle differentiation, the local connection between RyR and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake sites also appears. When RyR1 was exogenously introduced to myoblasts by overexpression, the [Ca2+]m signal appeared together with the [Ca2+]c signal, however the mitochondrial morphology remained unchanged. Thus, RyR expression alone is sufficient to induce the steps essential for their alignment with mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake sites, whereas the mitochondrial proliferation and reshaping utilize either downstream or alternative pathways.