A novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus: new insights into the evolution of steroid-hormone signalling.
ABSTRACT: 17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) from the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl) catalyses the reduction of steroids and of several o- and p-quinones. After purification of the enzyme, its partial amino acid sequence was determined. A PCR fragment amplified with primers derived from peptide sequences was generated for screening the Coch. lunatus cDNA library. Three independent full-length cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced, revealing an 810-bp open reading frame encoding a 270-amino-acid protein. After expression in Escherichia coli and purification to homogeneity, the enzyme was found to be active towards androstenedione and menadione, and was able to form dimers of Mr 60000. The amino acid sequence of the novel 17beta-HSD demonstrated high homology with fungal carbonyl reductases, such as versicolorin reductase from Emericella nidulans (Aspergillus nidulans; VerA) and Asp. parasiticus (Ver1), polyhydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, the product of the Brn1 gene from Coch. heterostrophus and a reductase from Colletotrichum lagenarium, which are all members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. 17beta-HSDcl is the first discovered fungal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase belonging to this family. The primary structure of this enzyme may therefore help to elucidate the evolutionary history of steroid dehydrogenases.
Project description:17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl) is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme that preferentially catalyses the oxidoreduction of oestrogens and androgens. The enzyme belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and is the only fungal hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase known to date. 17beta-HSDcl has recently been characterized and cloned and has been the subject of several functional studies. Although several hypotheses on the physiological role of 17beta-HSDcl in fungal metabolism have been formulated, its function is still unclear. An X-ray crystallographic study has been undertaken and the optimal conditions for crystallization of 17beta-HSDcl (apo form) were established, resulting in well shaped crystals that diffracted to 1.7 A resolution. The space group was identified as I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.14, c = 266.77 A. Phasing was successfully performed by Patterson search techniques. A catalytic inactive mutant Tyr167Phe was also engineered, expressed, purified and crystallized for functional and structural studies.
Project description:To this day, a significant proportion of the human genome remains devoid of functional characterization. In this study, we present evidence that the previously functionally uncharacterized product of the human DHRS10 gene is endowed with 17beta-HSD (17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) activity. 17beta-HSD enzymes are primarily involved in the metabolism of steroids at the C-17 position and also of other substrates such as fatty acids, prostaglandins and xenobiotics. In vitro, DHRS10 converts NAD+ into NADH in the presence of oestradiol, testosterone and 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol. Furthermore, the product of oestradiol oxidation, oestrone, was identified in intact cells transfected with a construct plasmid encoding the DHRS10 protein. In situ fluorescence hybridization studies have revealed the cytoplasmic localization of DHRS10. Along with tissue expression data, this suggests a role for DHRS10 in the local inactivation of steroids in the central nervous system and placenta. The crystal structure of the DHRS10 apoenzyme exhibits secondary structure of the SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) family: a Rossmann-fold with variable loops surrounding the active site. It also reveals a broad and deep active site cleft into which NAD+ and oestradiol can be docked in a catalytically competent orientation.
Project description:The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of genistein and equol on 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17beta-HSD3) in human and rat testis microsomes. These enzymes (3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3), along with two others (cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17-20 lyase), catalyze the reactions that convert the steroid cholesterol into the sex hormone testosterone. Genistein inhibited 3beta-HSD activity (0.2 micromol L(-1) pregnenolone) with half-maximal inhibition or a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 87 +/- 15 (human) and 636 +/- 155 nmol L(-1) (rat). Genistein's mode of action on 3beta-HSD activity was competitive for the substrate pregnenolonrge and noncompetitive for the cofactor NAD(+). There was no difference in genistein's potency of 3beta-HSD inhibition between intact rat Leydig cells and testis microsomes. In contrast to its potent inhibition of 3beta-HSD, genistein had lesser effects on human and rat 17beta-HSD3 (0.1 micromol L(-1) androstenedione), with an IC(50) >or= 100 micromol L(-1). On the other hand, equol only inhibited human 3beta-HSD by 42%, and had no effect on 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3 in rat tissues. These observations imply that the ability of soy isoflavones to regulate androgen biosynthesis in Leydig cells is due in part to action on Leydig cell 3beta-HSD activity. Given the increasing intake of soy-based food products and their potential effect on blood androgen levels, these findings are greatly relevant to public health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl) is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. SDR proteins usually function as dimers or tetramers and 17beta-HSDcl is also a homodimer under native conditions. RESULTS:We have investigated here which secondary structure elements are involved in the dimerization of 17beta-HSDcl and examined the importance of dimerization for the enzyme activity. Sequence similarity with trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea indicated that Arg129 and His111 from the alphaE-helices interact with the Asp121, Glu117 and Asp187 residues from the alphaE and alphaF-helices of the neighbouring subunit. The Arg129Asp and His111Leu mutations both rendered 17beta-HSDcl monomeric, while the mutant 17beta-HSDcl-His111Ala was dimeric. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conservation of the secondary structure in both monomers. The three mutant proteins all bound coenzyme, as shown by fluorescence quenching in the presence of NADP+, but both monomers showed no enzymatic activity. CONCLUSION:We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis and structure/function analysis that 17beta-HSDcl dimerization involves the alphaE and alphaF helices of both subunits. Neighbouring subunits are connected through hydrophobic interactions, H-bonds and salt bridges involving amino acid residues His111 and Arg129. Since the substitutions of these two amino acid residues lead to inactive monomers with conserved secondary structure, we suggest dimerization is a prerequisite for catalysis. A detailed understanding of this dimerization could lead to the development of compounds that will specifically prevent dimerization, thereby serving as a new type of inhibitor.
Project description:Mammalian 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3beta-HSD) is a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase. It is a key steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the multienzyme pathway conversion of circulating dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone to active steroid hormones. A three dimensional model of a ternary complex of human 3beta-HSD type 1 (3beta-HSD_1) with an NAD cofactor and androstenedione product has been developed based upon X-ray structures of the ternary complex of E. coli UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (UDPGE) with an NAD cofactor and substrate (PDB_AC: 1NAH) and the ternary complex of human type 1 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD_1) with an NADP cofactor and androstenedione (PDB_AC: 1QYX). The dimeric structure of the enzyme was built from two monomer models of 3beta-HSD_1 by respective 3D superposition with A and B subunits of the dimeric structure of Streptococcus suis DTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (PDB_AC: 1KEP). The 3D model structure of 3beta-HSD_1 has been successfully used for the rational design of mutagenic experiments to further elucidate the key substrate binding residues in the active site as well as the basis for dual function of the 3beta-HSD_1 enzyme. The structure based mutant enzymes, Asn100Ser, Asn100Ala, Glu126Leu, His232Ala, Ser322Ala and Asn323Leu, have been constructed and functionally characterized. The mutagenic experiments have confirmed the predicted roles of the His232 and Asn323 residues in recognition of the 17-keto group of the substrate and identified Asn100 and Glu126 residues as key residues that participate for the dehydrogenase and isomerization reactions, respectively.
Project description:The neurosteroid 3alpha-hydroxysteroid-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone) acts as a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid at gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and hence is a powerful anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and anesthetic agent. Allopregnanolone is synthesized from progesterone by reduction to 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone, mediated by 5alpha-reductase, and by reduction to allopregnanolone, mediated by 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD). Previous reports suggested that some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) could alter concentrations of allopregnanolone in human cerebral spinal fluid and in rat brain sections. We determined whether SSRIs directly altered the activities of either 5alpha-reductase or 3alpha-HSD, using an in vitro system containing purified recombinant proteins. Although rats appear to express a single 3alpha-HSD isoform, the human brain contains several isoforms of this enzyme, including a new isoform we cloned from human fetal brains. Our results indicate that the SSRIs fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine decrease the K(m) of the conversion of 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone to allopregnanolone by human 3alpha-HSD type III 10- to 30-fold. Only sertraline inhibited the reverse oxidative reaction. SSRIs also affected conversions of androgens to 3alpha- and 3alpha, 17beta-reduced or -oxidized androgens mediated by 3alpha-HSD type II(Brain). Another antidepressant, imipramine, was without any effect on allopregnanolone or androstanediol production. The region-specific expression of 3alpha-HSD type II(Brain) and 3alpha-HSD type III mRNAs suggest that SSRIs will affect neurosteroid production in a region-specific manner. Our results may thus help explain the rapid alleviation of the anxiety and dysphoria associated with late luteal phase dysphoria disorder and major unipolar depression by these SSRIs.
Project description:The kinetic parameters, steroid substrate specificity and identities of reaction products were determined for four homogeneous recombinant human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) isoforms of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. The enzymes correspond to type 1 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C4), type 2 3alpha(17beta)-HSD (AKR1C3), type 3 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C2) and 20alpha(3alpha)-HSD (AKR1C1), and share at least 84% amino acid sequence identity. All enzymes acted as NAD(P)(H)-dependent 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductases and as 3alpha-, 17beta- and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidases. The functional plasticity of these isoforms highlights their ability to modulate the levels of active androgens, oestrogens and progestins. Salient features were that AKR1C4 was the most catalytically efficient, with k(cat)/K(m) values for substrates that exceeded those obtained with other isoforms by 10-30-fold. In the reduction direction, all isoforms inactivated 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one; 5alpha-DHT) to yield 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-androstanediol). However, only AKR1C3 reduced Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to produce significant amounts of testosterone. All isoforms reduced oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone). In the oxidation direction, only AKR1C2 converted 3alpha-androstanediol to the active hormone 5alpha-DHT. AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 oxidized testosterone to Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione. All isoforms oxidized 17beta-oestradiol to oestrone, and 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone. Discrete tissue distribution of these AKR1C enzymes was observed using isoform-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR. AKR1C4 was virtually liver-specific and its high k(cat)/K(m) allows this enzyme to form 5alpha/5beta-tetrahydrosteroids robustly. AKR1C3 was most prominent in the prostate and mammary glands. The ability of AKR1C3 to interconvert testosterone with Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, but to inactivate 5alpha-DHT, is consistent with this enzyme eliminating active androgens from the prostate. In the mammary gland, AKR1C3 will convert Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone (a substrate aromatizable to 17beta-oestradiol), oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and this concerted reductive activity may yield a pro-oesterogenic state. AKR1C3 is also the dominant form in the uterus and is responsible for the synthesis of 3alpha-androstanediol which has been implicated as a parturition hormone. The major isoforms in the brain, capable of synthesizing anxiolytic steroids, are AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. These studies are in stark contrast with those in rat where only a single AKR with positional- and stereo-specificity for 3alpha-hydroxysteroids exists.
Project description:The maturation-inducing hormone 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was first identified in the amago salmon. However, although carbonyl reductase-like 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CR/20beta-HSD) was reported to convert 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-P) to DHP in rainbow trout, we previously found that CR/20beta-HSD mRNA was not up-regulated in stimulated granulosa cells from masu salmon, which suggests that DHP is synthesized by a different enzyme. Accordingly, the present study aimed to identify the specific 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD) responsible for DHP production by granulosa cells during final oocyte maturation in masu salmon. Granulosa layers were isolated from ovarian follicles at one month before ovulation and incubated with or without forskolin, which was used to mimic luteinizing hormone. Subsequent RNA-sequencing yielded ~12 million reads, with an average length of 51 bp, and 71,062 contigs of >100 bp were constructed. Of the 953 contigs that were exclusively constructed from the reads of forskolin-induced granulosa layers, tBlastx analysis identified one contig (#f103496) that matched 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12. We found that mammalian cells transfected with full-length omhsd17beta12l exhibited considerable 20beta-HSD activity, as indicated by efficient conversion of exogenous 17alpha-P to DHP. In addition, we found that omhsd17beta12l mRNA levels were consistently low in follicles during vitellogenic growth; however, the levels increased significantly during final oocyte maturation. The levels of omhsd17beta12l mRNA were also considerably increased in granulosa layers in which 20beta-HSD activity was induced by salmon pituitary extract. Therefore, we suggest that omhsd17beta12l, not CR/20beta-HSD, is the 20beta-HSD responsible for DHP production by granulosa cells in masu salmon during final oocyte maturation. Comparison of mRNA levels between control and forskolin-incubated sample.
Project description:Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1) for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.
Project description:17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyse the conversion of 17beta-OH (-hydroxy)/17-oxo groups of steroids, and are essential in mammalian hormone physiology. At present, eleven 17beta-HSD isoforms have been defined in mammals, with different tissue-expression and substrate-conversion patterns. We analysed 17beta-HSD type 10 (17beta-HSD10) from humans and Drosophila, the latter known to be essential in development. In addition to the known hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3alpha-OH and 17beta-OH activities with sex steroids, we here demonstrate novel activities of 17beta-HSD10. Both species variants oxidize the 20beta-OH and 21-OH groups in C21 steroids, and act as 7beta-OH dehydrogenases of ursodeoxycholic or isoursodeoxycholic acid (also known as 7beta-hydroxylithocholic acid or 7beta-hydroxyisolithocholic acid respectively). Additionally, the human orthologue oxidizes the 7alpha-OH of chenodeoxycholic acid (5beta-cholanic acid, 3alpha,7alpha-diol) and cholic acid (5beta-cholanic acid). These novel substrate specificities are explained by homology models based on the orthologous rat crystal structure, showing a wide hydrophobic cleft, capable of accommodating steroids in different orientations. These properties suggest that the human enzyme is involved in glucocorticoid and gestagen catabolism, and participates in bile acid isomerization. Confocal microscopy and electron microscopy studies reveal that the human form is localized to mitochondria, whereas Drosophila 17beta-HSD10 shows a cytosolic localization pattern, possibly due to an N-terminal sequence difference that in human 17beta-HSD10 constitutes a mitochondrial targeting signal, extending into the Rossmann-fold motif.