Control of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ pump expression in cardiac and smooth muscle.
ABSTRACT: Cardiac muscle expresses sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ pump isoform SERCA2a; stomach smooth muscle expresses SERCA2b. In 2-day-old rabbits, cardiac muscle contained levels of SERCA2 protein that were 100-200-fold those in the stomach smooth muscle. In nuclear run-on assays, the rate of SERCA2 gene transcription in heart nuclei was not significantly higher than in the stomach smooth-muscle nuclei. However, the SERCA2 mRNA levels (mean+/-S.E.M.) were (29+/-4)-fold higher in the heart. In both tissues the SERCA2 mRNA was associated with polyribosomes. In a sucrose-density-gradient sedimentation velocity experiment on polyribosomes, there was no difference in the sedimentation pattern of SERCA2 mRNA between the two tissues, suggesting that the translation efficiency of SERCA2 RNA in the two tissues is quite similar. Thus the main difference in the control of SERCA2 expression in the two tissues is post-transcriptional and pretranslational.
Project description:The expression of the gene 2 sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2(+)-pump isoforms (SERCA2a and SERCA2b) and of phospholamban was studied in pig smooth muscle of the stomach, longitudinal ileum, pulmonary artery and aorta. mRNA levels were determined using an RNAase protection assay. The SERCA2 isoforms and phospholamban were tested on Western blots with a panel of antibodies, some of which were isoform-specific. The pig smooth-muscle tissues all contained comparable SERCA2 mRNA levels, but these levels were 10-20-fold lower than SERCA2 mRNA levels in cardiac muscle. Of the SERCA2 mRNAs in smooth muscle, 72-81% encoded the non-muscle isoform (SERCA2b), and Western blot analysis with isoform-specific antibodies confirmed that the SERCA2b isoform is the predominant endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2(+)-pump in smooth muscle. In contrast with SERCA2 mRNA levels, phospholamban mRNA levels varied by 12-fold between the different pig smooth-muscle tissues, with low and very low levels in the pig pulmonary artery and the pig aorta respectively. The differential expression of phospholamban was also confirmed on Western blots. The finding that the phospholamban content varied between the different smooth-muscle tissues whereas the SERCA2 expression remained rather constant indicates that, in pig smooth muscle, the expression of phospholamban is not coupled with that of SERCA2.
Project description:cDNA clones encoding the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoform PMCA1 were obtained from rabbit stomach smooth muscle. The PMCA1 gene has a 154 base exon which can be alternatively spliced. In splices containing 0, 87 or 114 bases of this exon, the mRNA downstream from this position encodes a protein containing the peptide sequence Lys-Arg-Asn-Ser-Ser (KRNSS), which can be phosphorylated by cyclic-nucleotide-sensitive protein kinase. However, in those splices containing 154 bases, the mRNA encodes a protein that does not contain this sequence. The cDNA clone obtained in this study did not contain the latter exon, and thus it coded for KRNSS. The presence of the various splices of PMCA1 was determined in stomach smooth muscle and other tissues by reverse transcription followed by a polymerase chain reaction. Percentage of transcripts encoding the potentially cyclic-nucleotide-sensitive isoform in various tissues were as follows: liver, 100%; stomach mucosa, 100%; heart, 100%; stomach smooth muscle, 86%; aorta, 83%; brain, 55%. Thus brain was the only tissue which expressed a very high proportion of the isoform of PMCA1 that is insensitive to cyclic-nucleotide-dependent protein kinases.
Project description:Previous biochemical studies suggested that the human platelet Ca2+ATPase system may be cell-specific. To test this hypothesis, we first undertook the molecular cloning of Ca2+ATPase from human erythroleukaemia (HEL) cells, because this human cell line exhibits megakaryocytic features and expresses a Ca2+ATPase that cross-reacts with platelet Ca(2+)-ATPase. For this cloning, an HEL-cell cDNA library was screened with a rat cardiac Ca2+ATPase cDNA probe. The insert of the longest clone isolated was 3.9 kb and its sequence displayed a 100% identity with that of the non-muscle human Ca2+ATPase 2-b isoform, termed SERCA2-b (sarco-endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ATPase). The 3.9 kb cDNA covered a subtotal coding region and part of the 3' non-coding end of the SERCA2-b mRNA. It cross-hybridized with the 4 kb transcript species of cardiac SERCA2-a and with non-muscle SERCA2-b mRNAs, but not with fast-skeletal-muscle SERCA1 mRNA. We next confirmed that SERCA2-b was a component of the platelet Ca2+ATPase system because (1) the platelet clones isolated from a platelet cDNA library exhibited a 100% homology with HEL-cell cDNA; (2) SERCA2-b mRNA was amplified by PCR on total platelet RNA and (3) platelet Ca2+ATPase cross-reacted with a polyclonal SERCA2-b-specific antiserum. Platelets therefore contain a Ca2+ATPase definitely identified as the SERCA2-b isoform of Ca2+ATPase, thus eliminating the possibility that they only contain a single specific Ca2+ATPase.
Project description:Sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pumps take up Ca2+ from the cytoplasm to maintain the balance of intracellular Ca2+. A decline in expression or activity of SERCA results in persistent store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In cardiomyocytes as well as vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), SERCA2 acts as an important regulator of calcium cycling. The purpose of this study is to identify and better understand the role of transglutaminases2 (TG2) as a key factor involved in SERCA2 serotonination (s-SERCA2) and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. Human pulmonary venous smooth muscle cell in normal pulmonary lobe were isolated and cultured in vitro. Establishment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension model in wild type and TG2 knockout mice. SERCA2 serotonylation was analyzed by co-(immunoprecipitation) IP when the TG2 gene silenced or overexpressed under normoxia and hypoxia in vivo and in vitro. Intracellular calcium ion was measured by using Fluo-4AM probe under normoxia and hypoxia. Real-time (RT)-PCR and Western blot analyzed expression of TG2, TRPC1, and TRPC6 under normoxia and hypoxia. Bioactivity of cells were analyzed by using Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8, flow cytometry, wound healing, RT-PCR, and Western blot under PST-2744 and cyclopiazonic acid. We confirmed that 1) hypoxia enhanced the expression and activity of TG2, and 2) hypoxia increased the basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and SOCE through activating TRPC6 on human pulmonary vein smooth muscle cells (hPVSMC). Then, we investigated the effects of overexpression and downregulation of the TG2 gene on the activity of SERCA2, s-SERCA2, basal [Ca2+]i, and SOCE under normoxia and hypoxia in vitro, and investigated the activity of SERCA2 and s-SERCA2 in vivo, respectively. We confirmed that SERCA2 serotonylation inhibited the activity of SERCA2 and increased the Ca2+ influx, and that hypoxia induced TG2-mediated SERCA2 serotonylation both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of TG2 activity on the biological behavior of hPVSMC by using an inhibitor and agonist of SERCA2, respectively. Finally, we confirmed that chronic hypoxia cannot increase vessel wall thickness, the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) of vascular smooth muscle-specific Tgm2-/- mice. These results indicated that hypoxia promoted TG2-mediated SERCA2 serotonylation, thereby leading to inhibition of SERCA2 activity, which further increased the calcium influx through the TRPC6 channel. Furthermore, tissue-specific conditional TG2 knockout mice prevents the development of pulmonary hypertension caused by hypoxia. In summary, we uncovered a new target (TG2) for treatment of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH).
Project description:1. The influence of hydrocortisone, insulin and diet on the size distribution of ribosomes in a post-mitochondrial supernatant prepared from rat skeletal muscle was studied by sedimentation analysis with a linear 15-40% (w/v) sucrose gradient. 2. Within 4hr. after the injection of 5mg. of hydrocortisone to well-nourished rats, a decrease in the yield per g. of muscle and proportion of total RNA due to polyribosomes was observed. Similar results were obtained in rats given a protein-free diet for 3 days before administration of the hormone. 3. Insulin injection increased the yield and proportion of polyribosomes within 2hr. and decreased the proportion of the lighter ribosomal aggregates. Similar results were noted in rats given a protein-free diet for 3 days before injection. A protein-free diet given for 3 days decreased the yield and proportion of polyribosomes. Insulin did not increase the yield of polyribosomes if rats were starved for 52hr. before injection, but decreased the yield and proportion of the lighter ribosome species. 4. A 52hr. period of starvation or 2,4-dinitrophenol (15mg./kg. body wt.) given 1hr. before the rats were killed resulted in a decreased yield and proportion of polyribosomes, and, within 6hr. of re-feeding the rats with protein-free diets, an increased concentration of polyribosomes was noted. 5. The effects of a protein-free diet, hydrocortisone and insulin on the sedimentation of muscle ribosomes were found to be in accord with their net effects on muscle protein synthesis.
Project description:1. A method is described for the sucrose-gradient sedimentation analysis of ribosomes in a post-mitochondrial supernatant of rat skeletal muscle. 2. An essential feature of the method involves the use of buffer of ionic strength 0.3 for homogenization of the muscle tissue. 3. Polyribosomes can be prepared by precipitation from post-mitochondrial supernatant of skeletal muscle by adjustment of the potassium chloride content of the medium. These polyribosomes stimulate cell-free amino acid incorporation in vitro in an energy-dependent system. 4. Ribosome aggregates of uniform size distribution can be obtained by adjustment of the ionic strength of the post-mitochondrial supernatant, followed by differential sucrose-gradient centrifugation. 5. In vivo, rat skeletal-muscle polyribosomes became labelled by (14)C-labelled amino acid within 15min., and radioactivity was associated with the light ribosome species within 45min. 6. Electron microscopy of the polyribosomes revealed aggregations containing more than 40 single ribosomes.
Project description:Each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat contains a retrotransposed gene encoding the DUX4 double-homeobox transcription factor. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by deletion of a subset of the D4Z4 units in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4. Although it has been reported that the deletion of D4Z4 units induces the pathological expression of DUX4 mRNA, the association of DUX4 mRNA expression with FSHD has not been rigorously investigated, nor has any human tissue been identified that normally expresses DUX4 mRNA or protein. We show that FSHD muscle expresses a different splice form of DUX4 mRNA compared to control muscle. Control muscle produces low amounts of a splice form of DUX4 encoding only the amino-terminal portion of DUX4. FSHD muscle produces low amounts of a DUX4 mRNA that encodes the full-length DUX4 protein. The low abundance of full-length DUX4 mRNA in FSHD muscle cells represents a small subset of nuclei producing a relatively high abundance of DUX4 mRNA and protein. In contrast to control skeletal muscle and most other somatic tissues, full-length DUX4 transcript and protein is expressed at relatively abundant levels in human testis, most likely in the germ-line cells. Induced pluripotent (iPS) cells also express full-length DUX4 and differentiation of control iPS cells to embryoid bodies suppresses expression of full-length DUX4, whereas expression of full-length DUX4 persists in differentiated FSHD iPS cells. Together, these findings indicate that full-length DUX4 is normally expressed at specific developmental stages and is suppressed in most somatic tissues. The contraction of the D4Z4 repeat in FSHD results in a less efficient suppression of the full-length DUX4 mRNA in skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, FSHD represents the first human disease to be associated with the incomplete developmental silencing of a retrogene array normally expressed early in development.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The transcription factors FOXF1 and FOXF2 have been implicated in the development of the gastrointestinal tract but their role in adults or in gastrointestinal diseases is poorly understood. We have recently shown that expression of serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor whose activity is modulated by FOXF proteins, is decreased in the stomach muscularis of patients with gastroparesis. The aim of the current study was to determine whether FOXF expression is decreased in gastroparesis patients and whether loss of FOXF1 and/or FOXF2 from adult smooth muscle is sufficient to impair gastric emptying in mice. METHODS:Full-thickness stomach biopsy samples were collected from control subjects and from patients with gastroparesis. mRNA was isolated from the muscularis externa, and FOXF mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Foxf1 and Foxf2 were knocked out together and separately from smooth muscle cells in adult mice, and the subsequent effect on liquid gastric emptying and contractile protein expression was determined. KEY RESULTS:Expression of FOXF1 and FOXF2 is decreased in smooth muscle tissue from gastroparesis patients. Knockout of Foxf1 and Foxf2 together, but not alone, from mouse smooth muscle resulted in delayed liquid gastric emptying. Foxf1/2 double knockout mice had decreased expression of smooth muscle contractile proteins, SRF, and myocardin in stomach muscularis. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES:Our findings suggest that decreased expression of FOXF1 and FOXF2 may be contributing to the impaired gastric emptying seen in gastroparesis patients.
Project description:Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors.
Project description:Rabbit stomach smooth muscle contains mRNA for an internal Ca2+ pump identical in sequence to that reported for rabbit uterus [Lytton, Zarain-Herzberg, Periasamy & MacLennan (198) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7059-7065]. This is an alternatively spliced form (Is) of the cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (Ic). The splicing results in replacement of the last 4 amino acids (Ala-Ile-Leu-Glu) present in Ic by 49 amino acids and by a different 3'-non-coding region. Using cDNA probes against the conserved and the alternatively spliced regions, we determined that poly(A+) RNA isolated from rabbit stomach smooth muscle did not contain any transcripts for Ic. The poly(A+) RNA from cardiac muscle contained transcripts mostly for Ic, but also some for Is. The abundance of the Ca2(+)-pump transcripts as measured by the binding of a cDNA probe against the conserved region to poly(A+) RNA was 6-8 times higher in cardiac than in smooth muscle. The amount of the corresponding pump protein, measured using two antibodies, was 60-80 times higher in cardiac membranes than in smooth muscle membranes. Thus the protein-to-transcript level was approx. 10-fold higher in the cardiac muscle. We conclude that the regulation of the abundance of this protein occurs at steps leading to the formation of the mature mRNA for the two splices, which may differ in their translation efficiency.