Identification of protein components of the microsomal glucose 6-phosphate transporter by photoaffinity labelling.
ABSTRACT: The glucose-6-phosphatase system catalyses the terminal step of hepatic glucose production from both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and is thus a key regulatory factor of blood glucose homoeostasis. To identify the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, we have performed photoaffinity labelling of human and rat liver microsomes by using the specific photoreactive glucose-6-phosphate translocase inhibitors S 0957 and S 1743. Membrane proteins of molecular mass 70, 55, 33 and 31 kDa were labelled in human microsomes by [3H]S 0957, whereas in rat liver microsomes bands at 95, 70, 57, 54, 50, 41, 33 and 31 kDa were detectable. The photoprobe [3H]S 1743 led to the predominant labelling of a 57 kDa and a 50 kDa protein in the rat. Stripping of microsomes with 0.3% CHAPS retains the specific binding of T1 inhibitors; photoaffinity labelling of such CHAPS-treated microsomes resulted in the labelling of membrane proteins of molecular mass 55, 33 and 31 kDa in human liver and 50, 33 and 31 kDa in rat liver. Photoaffinity labelling of human liver tissue samples from a healthy individual and from liver samples of patients with a diagnosed glycogen-storage disease type 1b (GSD type 1b; von Gierke's disease) revealed the absence of the 55 kDa protein from one of the patients with GSD type 1. These findings support the identity of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, with endoplasmic reticulum protein of molecular mass 50 kDa in rat liver and 55 kDa in human liver.
Project description:Glucose 6-phosphate transport has been well characterized in liver microsomes. The transport is required for the functioning of the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme that is situated in the lumen of the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum. The genetic deficiency of the glucose 6-phosphate transport activity causes a severe metabolic disease termed type 1b glycogen storage disease. The cDNA encoding a liver transporter for glucose 6-phosphate was cloned and was found to be mutated in patients suffering from glycogen storage disease 1b. While related mRNAs have been described in liver and other tissues, the encoded protein(s) has not been immunologically characterized yet. In the present study, we report (using antibodies against three different peptides of the predicted amino acid sequence) that a major protein encoded by the glucose 6-phosphate transporter gene is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum membranes of rat and human liver. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of approx. 33 kDa using SDS/PAGE, but several lines of evidence indicate that its real molecular mass is 46 kDa, as expected. The glucose 6-phosphate transporter protein was also immunodetected in kidney microsomes, but not in microsomes derived from human fibrocytes, rat spleen and lung, and a variety of cell lines. Moreover, little or no expression of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter protein was found in liver microsomes obtained from three glycogen storage disease 1b patients, even bearing mutations that do not directly interfere with protein translation, which can be explained by a (proteasome-mediated) degradation of the mutated transporter.
Project description:Cerebellar granule neurons in primary culture express increasing levels of two glucose transporter isoforms, GLUT1 and GLUT3, as they differentiate in vitro. We have determined the relative abundance of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in these neurons by three different labelling methods. (1) Photoaffinity cell surface labelling of neurons with an impermeant bis-mannose photolabel revealed 6-10-fold more GLUT3 than GLUT1 and dissociation constants (Kd) for the photolabel of 55-68 microM (GLUT3) and 146-169 microM (GLUT1). Binding to both transporters was inhibited by cytochalasin B. (2) Photoaffinity labelling of neuronal membranes with a permeant forskolin derivative showed 5.5-8-fold more GLUT3 than GLUT1, whereas in rat brain membranes containing both neuronal and glial membranes, GLUT3 and GLUT1 were detected in similar proportions. (3) Biosynthetic labelling of neurons with [35S]methionine and [35S]cysteine showed GLUT3 to be 6-10-fold more abundant than GLUT1. Thus GLUT3 is quantitatively the predominant glucose-transport isoform in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.
Project description:A 23 kDa protein (p23) was identified in microsomal extracts from maize coleoptiles by photoaffinity labelling with 5-azido-[7-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid ([3H]N3IAA). Labelling of p23 was blocked by unlabelled IAA, N3IAA, indol-3-ylbutyric acid and indol-3-yl-lactate. In addition, labelling was efficiently decreased by tryptophan, as well as by the scavenger p-aminobenzoic acid. Labelling was, however, not affected by synthetic auxins such as 1-naphthylacetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Competition data suggest that the label was probably bound via the indole ring, and hence labelling was not specific for auxins. The 23 kDa protein was solubilized from crude microsomes by extraction with Triton X-100 and purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange, size-exclusion and reversed-phase chromatography. After electroblotting, the amino acid sequences of the p23 N-terminus as well as the several tryptic peptides were obtained. Database comparisons revealed sequence identity with a maize manganese superoxide dismutase. We conclude that photoaffinity labelling of p23 was pseudo-affinity, and therefore the binding site for IAA is not specific.
Project description:An osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma cell line (U2-OS) has been shown to possess a vitamin K-dependent carboxylation system which is similar to the system in human HepG2 cells and in liver and lung from the rat. In an 'in vitro' system prepared from these cells, vitamin K1 was shown to overcome warfarin inhibition of gamma-carboxylation carried out by the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The data suggest that osteoblasts, the cells involved in synthesis of vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone, can use vitamin K1 as an antidote to warfarin poisoning if enough vitamin K1 can accumulate in the tissue. Five precursors of vitamin K-dependent proteins were identified in osteosarcoma and HepG2 cells respectively. In microsomes (microsomal fractions) from the osteosarcoma cells these precursors revealed apparent molecular masses of 85, 78, 56, 35 and 31 kDa. When osteosarcoma cells were cultured in the presence of warfarin, vitamin K-dependent 14C-labelling of the 78 kDa precursor was enhanced. Selective 14C-labelling of one precursor was also demonstrated in microsomes from HepG2 cells and from rat lung after warfarin treatment. In HepG2 cells this precursor was identified as the precursor of (clotting) Factor X. This unique 14C-labelling pattern of precursors of vitamin K-dependent proteins in microsomes from different cells and tissues reflects a new mechanism underlying the action of warfarin.
Project description:The glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a group of enzymes responsible for a wide range of molecular detoxications. The photoaffinity label S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione was used to study the hydrophobic region of the active site of the rat liver GST 1-1 and 2-2 isoenzymes (class Alpha) as well as the rat class-Mu GST 3-3. Photoaffinity labelling was carried out using a version of S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione tritiated in the arylazido ring. The labelling occurred with higher levels of radioisotope incorporation for the Mu than the Alpha families. Taking rat GST 3-3, 1.18 (+/- 0.05) mol of radiolabel from S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione was incorporated per mol of dimeric enzyme, which could be blocked by the presence of the strong competitive inhibitor, S-tritylglutathione (Ki = 1.4 x 10(-7) M). Radiolabelling of the protein paralleled the loss of enzyme activity. Photoaffinity labelling by tritiated S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione on a preparative scale (in the presence and absence of S-tritylglutathione) followed by tryptic digestion and purification of the labelled peptides indicated that GST 3-3 was specifically photolabelled; the labelled peptides were sequenced. Similarly, preparative photoaffinity labelling by S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione of the rat liver 1-1 isoenzyme, the human GST A1-1 and the human-rat chimaeric GST, H1R1/1, was carried out with subsequent sequencing of radiolabelled h.p.l.c.-purified tryptic peptides. The results were interpreted by means of molecular-graphics analysis to locate photoaffinity-labelled peptides using the X-ray-crystallographic co-ordinates of rat GST 3-3 and human GST A1-1. The molecular-graphical analysis indicated that the labelled peptides are located within the immediate vicinity of the region occupied by S-substituted glutathione derivatives bound in the active-site cavity of the GSTs investigated.
Project description:A tritiated photoaffinity labelling analogue of tamoxifen, [(2-azido-4-benzyl)-phenoxy]-N-ethylmorpholine (azido-MBPE), was used to identify the anti-oestrogen-binding site (AEBS) in rat liver tissue [Poirot, Chailleux, Fargin, Bayard and Faye (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 17039-17043]. UV irradiation of rat liver microsomal proteins incubated with tritiated azido-MBPE led to the characterization of two photolabelled proteins of molecular masses 40 and 50 kDa. The amino acid sequences of proteolytic products from the 50 kDa protein were identical with those from rat microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Treatment of hepatocytes with anti-sense mRNA directed against mEH abolished AEBS in these cells. In addition we found that tamoxifen and N-morpholino-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy]ethanamine, a selective ligand of AEBS, were potent inhibitors of the catalytic hydration of styrene oxide by mEH. However, functional overexpression of the human mEH did not significantly modify the binding capacity of [3H]tamoxifen. Taken together, these results suggest that the 50 kDa protein, mEH, is necessary but not sufficient to reconstitute AEBS.
Project description:Three GTP-binding proteins of 50 kDa, 45 kDa and 28 kDa were identified by photoaffinity labelling with [gamma-32P]GTP-gamma-azidoanilide (A-GTP) in the rat liver plasma membrane. Pertussis toxin catalysed ADP-ribosylation of a single protein of 40 kDa. A-GTP had no effect on the basal labeling by pertussis toxin. After u.v. irradiation of the membrane in the presence of A-GTP, the GTP-dependent ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin was increased, while the basal labelling was not affected. These results suggest that A-GTP interacts specifically with the activatory GTP-binding protein (Gs) and does not interact with the inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi). The effects of partial photoinactivation of Gs of the rat liver plasma membrane adenylate cyclase system by A-GTP were studied. U.v. irradiation in the presence of increasing concentrations of the analogue caused progressive decrease in the maximal extent of activation by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, but the Ka was not affected. The rate of activation of liver adenylate cyclase by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate is temperature-dependent. The lag time increased from 0.5 min at 30 degrees C to 2.0-2.5 min at 15 degrees C in the presence of 10 microM-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. However, Ka remains unaffected by lowering the temperature. Photoinactivation by A-GTP or competitive inhibition by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate decreases the maximal extent of activation by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio] triphosphate, but the lag time remains unaffected. The present results support the idea that Gs is tightly associated with the catalytic subunit under basal conditions. The present results also indicate that the transition of an inactive Gs to its active form is the rate-limiting step of the activation of adenylate cyclase by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate in the intact rat liver plasma membranes.
Project description:In this study, we clarify the structural aspects of the oligosaccharides associated with the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor in two muscle cell lines. Photoaffinity labelling of intact BC3H1 or DDT1 muscle cells with 2-[4-(4-azido-3-[125I]iodobenzoyl)piperazin-1-yl]-4-amino-6, 7-dimethoxyquinazoline ([125I]azidoprazosin) followed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and autoradiography revealed specifically labelled proteins of molecular mass = 87,000 and 81,000, respectively. Treatment of photoaffinity-labelled receptors in DDT1 cells with 33 u. of endoglycosidase F/ml for 24 h resulted in the loss of the 81 kDa receptor and the appearance of a 52.5 kDa protein. When lower concentrations of glycosidase or shorter incubation times were used, the 81 kDa receptor was converted to a 66 kDa protein. Treatment of the photoaffinity-labelled BC3H1 receptor with endoglycosidase F resulted in the appearance of a 50.5 kDa protein. Neither alpha-mannosidase nor endoglycosidase H had an effect on the photoaffinity labelling patterns of the receptor from the two cell types. alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors, solubilized from membranes prepared from BC3H1 and DDT1 cells, bound to wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and were displaced by N-acetylglucosamine. Taken together, these results indicate that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in BC3H1 and DDT1 cells contain complex, but not high, mannose oligosaccharide chains; differences in the composition or number of chains partially accounts for the different molecular mass of the receptor in the two cell lines. The results further indicate that the oligosaccharide chains contribute substantially to the apparent molecular mass of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, as detected by SDS/PAGE, and that the protein backbone of these receptors is likely to be approximately 50 kDa.
Project description:The photoaffinity labelling of platelet cyclic GMP (cGMP)-binding proteins by [32P]cGMP was studied; at least five labelled proteins (110, 80, 55, 49 and 38 kDa) were detected in platelet cytosol and four (80, 65, 49 and 38 kDa) in platelet membranes. The 110 kDa species was identified as cGMP-inhibited cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE III) by immunoprecipitation and by the inhibition of photolabelling by specific inhibitors of this enzyme. Similarly, the 80 kDa species was identified as cGMP-dependent protein kinase by immunoprecipitation and by the effects of cGMP analogues on photolabelling. Addition of cAMP greatly enhanced the labelling of this 80 kDa protein, implying the existence of a potentially important interaction between the effects of cGMP and cAMP. The 65 kDa photolabelled protein appears to be a novel platelet cyclic-nucleotide-binding protein. In contrast, the 49 and 55 kDa photolabelled species are probably the RI and RII regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and the 38 kDa protein(s) may be proteolytic fragment(s) of RI and/or RII.
Project description:A 52 kDa polypeptide in rat liver microsomes was identified as a glucose-binding protein by its ability to weakly bind cytochalasin B and by its cross-reactivity to an antibody raised against the human erythrocyte glucose transport protein. The microsomal glucose binding polypeptide was purified by affinity chromatography and an antibody was raised against it. The inhibitory effect of this antibody on rat microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase activity and on glucose transport out of microsomal vesicles indicates that this protein is a microsomal glucose transport protein.