Contribution of copper binding to the inhibition of lipid oxidation by plasmalogen phospholipids.
ABSTRACT: The role of plasmalogen phospholipids for copper-induced lipid oxidation was evaluated. Using 1H-NMR we observed that the copper (CuSO4)-promoted oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in micellar solution was dose-dependently attenuated by the plasmalogen lysoplasmenylethanolamine from bovine brain (lysoBP-PtdEtn). This was due to a direct interaction of copper ions with the plasmalogen-specific enol ether double bond. The enol ether methine 1H signal decreased on the addition of copper, saturation being reached at a molar ratio of lysoBP-PtdEtn to copper of 1:1. The original 1H signal was recovered almost completely after the addition of EDTA. Enrichment of micelles and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) with plasmalogen phospholipids led to a decrease in the Cu(II) concentration in the aqueous media. After loading of LDLs in vitro with BP-PtdEtn, the LDL-dependent formation of Cu(I) was decreased, in particular in particles experimentally supplemented with alpha-tocopherol. The suppression of copper-promoted lipid oxidation that was observed in the presence of plasmalogen phospholipids plus alpha-tocopherol was greater than the sum of the protective effects elicited by the two substances alone. In conclusion, the formation of a complex between copper ions and the plasmalogens accounts partly for their inhibition of copper-induced lipid oxidation.
Project description:The oxidative degradation of plasmalogen (alkenylacyl) phospholipids was analysed in the absence and the presence of polyunsaturated ester phospholipids by 1H-NMR and by chemical determination. Brain lysoplasmenylethanolamine (lyso-P-PE), brain P-PE and erythrocyte P-PE, containing an increasing number of intrachain double bonds at sn2, were oxidized with 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH; 2 or 10 mM) in Triton X-100 micelles (detergent/phospholipid 1:5, mol/mol). The formation of two peroxyl radicals was accompanied by the degradation of approx. one molecule of brain lyso-P-PE. On oxidation of brain P-PE or erythrocyte P-PE (320 nmol) with 2 mM AAPH, the (alpha-vinyl) methine 1H signal of the enol ether decreased more rapidly than the methine proton peak of intrachain double bonds. The rate of enol ether degradation increased in the order: erythrocyte P-PE>brain P-PE>brain lyso-P-PE. The disappearance of the polyunsaturated ester phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:2-PC) (100 nmol), as induced by 10 mM AAPH, was nearly completely inhibited by the plasmalogens (25 nmol) in the first 30 and 60 min of incubation respectively, and was delayed at later time points. Plasmalogens and vitamin E (4-25 nmol) mitigated the decreases in 16:0/[3H]20:4-PC (100 nmol) induced by 2 mM AAPH in a similar manner. The initial rate of degradation of intrachain double bonds of 16:0/20:4-PC and 16:0/18:2-PC (320 nmol; 2 mM AAPH) was decreased by 59% and 81% respectively in the presence of 80 nmol of brain lyso-P-PE. In conclusion, plasmalogens markedly delay the oxidative degradation of intrachain double bonds under in vitro conditions. Interactions of enol ether double bonds with initiating peroxyl radicals as well as with products generated by prior oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids are proposed to be responsible for this capacity of plasmalogens. Furthermore, the products of enol ether oxidation apparently do not propagate the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Project description:Exposure of plasmalogen-deficient variants of the murine cell line RAW 264.7 to short-term (0-100 min) treatment with electron transport inhibitors antimycin A or cyanide (chemical hypoxia) resulted in a more rapid loss of viability than in the parent strain. Results suggested that plasmalogen-deficient cells were more sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during chemical hypoxia; the mutants could be rescued from chemical hypoxia by using the antioxidant Trolox, an alpha-tocopherol analogue, and they were more sensitive to ROS generation by plumbagin or by rose bengal treatment coupled with irradiation. In addition, the use of buffers containing 2H2O greatly enhanced the cytotoxic effect of chemical hypoxia, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen. We used the unique enzymic deficiencies displayed by the mutants to differentially restore either plasmenylethanolamine (the major plasmalogen species normally found in this cell line) or its biosynthetic precursor, plasmanylethanolamine. Restoration of plasmenylethanolamine, which contains the vinyl ether, resulted in wild-type-like resistance to chemical hypoxia and ROS generators, whereas increasing levels of its precursor, which bears the saturated ether, had no effect on cell survival. These findings identify the vinyl ether double bond as a crucial element in cellular protection under these conditions and support the hypothesis that plasmalogens, through the vinyl ether, act as antioxidants to protect cells against ROS. These phospholipids might protect cells from ROS-mediated damage during events such as chemical hypoxia.
Project description:Ozone is a common environmental toxicant to which individuals are exposed to on a daily basis. While biochemical end points such as increased mortality, decrements in pulmonary function, and initiation of inflammatory processes are known, little is actually understood regarding the chemical mechanisms underlying changes in pulmonary health, especially for low concentrations of ozone. This study was undertaken to investigate ozone-induced oxidation of endogenous lipids that are potentially exposed to environmental ozone within lung, specifically focusing on plasmalogen glycerophospholipids present in pulmonary surfactant. Sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were developed to follow oxidation of diacyl and plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) phospholipids and to identify and quantitate products generated by ozonolysis. Using a unilamellar vesicle system containing a 1:1 molar mixture of 1-O-octadec-1'-enyl-2-octadecenoyl-PE and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-PC, these studies revealed that the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens was oxidized preferentially at low concentrations of ozone (100 ppb), when compared to olefinic bond oxidation on omega-9 of the fatty acyl chain in the same phospholipids. Major phospholipid products generated were identified as 1-formyl-2-octadecenoyl-PE and 1-hydroxy-2-octadecenoyl-PE. Heptadecanal and heptadecanoic acid production was also quantitated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and production was consistent with oxidation of the vinyl ether, at low concentrations of ozone. Analysis of murine lung surfactant from C57Bl/6 mice revealed several plasmalogen PE lipid species, encompassing approximately 38% of total PE species. Upon exposure of ozone (0 and 100 ppb) to murine surfactant, plasmalogen PE molecular species preferentially reacted, as compared to diacyl PE molecular species. Lysophospholipids, pentadecanal, and nonanal were found to be the primary products of surfactant ozone oxidation.
Project description:Alkenyl ether phospholipids are a major sub-class of ethanolamine- and choline-phospholipids in which a long chain fatty alcohol is attached at the sn-1 position through a vinyl ether bond. Biosynthesis of ethanolamine-containing alkenyl ether phospholipids, plasmalogens, is regulated by modulating the stability of fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (Far1) in a manner dependent on the level of cellular plasmalogens. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of plasmalogen synthesis remain poorly understood. Here we show that degradation of Far1 is accelerated by inhibiting dynamin-, Src kinase-, or flotillin-1-mediated endocytosis without increasing the cellular level of plasmalogens. By contrast, Far1 is stabilized by sequestering cholesterol with nystatin. Moreover, abrogation of the asymmetric distribution of plasmalogens in the plasma membrane by reducing the expression of CDC50A encoding a ?-subunit of flippase elevates the expression level of Far1 and plasmalogen synthesis without reducing the total cellular level of plasmalogens. Together, these results support a model that plasmalogens localised in the inner leaflet of the plasma membranes are sensed for plasmalogen homeostasis in cells, thereby suggesting that plasmalogen synthesis is spatiotemporally regulated by monitoring cellular level of plasmalogens.
Project description:Plasmalogens are a class of phospholipids containing vinyl ether linked aliphatic groups at the sn-1 position. Plasmalogens are known to contain 16- and 18-carbon aliphatic groups at the sn-1 position. Here, we reveal that the human neutrophil plasmenylethanolamine pool uniquely includes molecular species with very long carbon chain (VLC) aliphatic groups, including 20-, 22- and 24-carbon vinyl ether linked aliphatic groups at the sn-1 position. We identified these novel VLC plasmalogen species by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods. VLC plasmalogens were only found in the neutrophil plasmenylethanolamine pool. During neutrophil activation, VLC plasmenylethanolamines undergo myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation to produce VLC 2-chlorofatty aldehyde and its oxidation product, 2-chlorofatty acid (2-ClFA). Furthermore, plasma concentrations of VLC 2-ClFA are elevated in human sepsis. These studies demonstrate for the first time VLC plasmenylethanolamine molecular species, their myeloperoxidase-mediated chlorolipid products and the presence of these chlorolipids in human sepsis.
Project description:1. The kinetics of the depletion of alpha-tocopherol in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured during macrophage-mediated and cell-free oxidation. The formation of oxidatively modified, high-uptake species of LDL in these systems was not detectable until all of the endogenous alpha-tocopherol had been consumed. 2. Supplementation of the alpha-tocopherol content of LDL by loading in vivo extended the duration of the lag period during which no detectable oxidative modification occurred. 3. The addition of a flavonoid (morin) prevented both alpha-tocopherol consumption and oxidative modification of LDL. 4. The alpha-tocopherol contents of LDLs from a range of individual donors could not be used to predict their relative resistance to oxidation, indicating that other endogenous antioxidants may also be present, and quantitatively significant, in human LDL.
Project description:1. There was a significant decrease in the amount of endogenous ethanolamine phospholipids when preparations of whole brain were incubated in bicarbonate-Ringer solutions, leading in particular to the hydrolysis of vinyl ether groups. 2. The hydrolysis of ethanolamine phospholipids in such preparations was abolished in the absence of bivalent cations. 3. An enzyme present in extracts of acetone-dried brain powders that cleaved the vinyl ether linkage in ethanolamine plasmalogen maximally at pH 7.4 required Mg(2+) for activity. 4. The cleavage of the vinyl ether linkage of an ethanolamine lysoplasmalogen was enhanced in the presence of Mg(2+) but the requirement was not absolute.
Project description:A study of the polar lipids of Clostridium novyi NT has revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cardiolipin as major phospholipids with smaller amounts of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), lysyl-PG and alanyl-PG. Other minor phospholipids included phosphatidic acid, CDP-diacylglycerol, phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylthreonine (PT). PE, PG and amino acyl PG were present in both the diacyl and alk-1'-enyl acyl (plasmalogen) forms and cardiolipin plasmalogens were found to contain one or two alk-1'-enyl chains. In contrast, the precursor lipids phosphatidic acid, CDP-diacylglycerol and PS were present almost exclusively as diacyl phospholipids. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that plasmalogens are formed from diacylated phospholipids at a late stage of phospholipid formation in Clostridium species. This novel pathway contrasts with the route in animals in which a saturated ether bond is formed at an early stage of plasmalogen biosynthesis and the alk-1-enyl bond is formed by an aerobic mechanism.
Project description:The phospholipid composition of lipoproteins is determined by the specificity of hepatic phospholipid biosynthesis. Plasma phospholipid 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 concentrations are higher in women than in men. We used this sex difference in a lipidomics analysis of the impact of endocrine factors on the phospholipid class and molecular species composition of fasting plasma from young men and women. Diester species predominated in all lipid classes measured. 20/54 Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) species were alkyl ester, 15/48 phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) species were alkyl ester, and 12/48 PtdEtn species were alkenyl ester. There were no significant differences between sexes in the proportions of alkyl PtdCho species. The proportion of alkyl ester PtdEtn species was greater in women than men, while the proportion of alkenyl ester PtdEtn species was greater in men than women. None of the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) or phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) molecular species contained ether-linked fatty acids. The proportion of PtdCho16:0_22:6, and the proportions of PtdEtn O-16:0_20:4 and PtdEtn O-18:2_20:4 were greater in women than men. There were no sex differences in PtdIns and PtdSer molecular species compositions. These findings show that plasma phospholipids can be modified by sex. Such differences in lipoprotein phospholipid composition could contribute to sexual dimorphism in patterns of health and disease.
Project description:1. A modified method for the analysis of phospholipid mixtures by selective hydrolysis is described. 2. The phospholipid compositions of normal human bone marrow and of the bone marrows of patients who died with anaemia or various forms of leukaemia were investigated. 3. Phospholipids from normal bone marrow comprised about 44% of lecithin, 4% of choline plasmalogen, 7% of glyceryl ether phospholipid (choline base), 10% of sphingomyelin, 22% of phosphatidylethanolamine plus phosphatidylserine, 8% of ethanolamine plasmalogen and 5% of glyceryl ether phospholipid (ethanolamine base). 4. The proportion of kephalin (i.e. phosphatidylethanolamine plus phosphatidylserine) in the pathological bone marrows tended to be lower than normal. No other consistent differences were observed between the normal and pathological samples. 4. A ceramide dihexoside was isolated from normal bone marrow.