Autoinhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase: distinct effects of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species on enzyme activity.
ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs), which catalyse the oxidation of L-arginine to L-citrulline and an oxide of nitrogen, possibly NO or nitroxyl (NO-), are subject to autoinhibition by a mechanism that has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study we investigated the actions of NO and other NOS-derived products as possible autoregulators of enzyme activity. With the use of purified NOS-I, L-arginine turnover was found to operate initially at Vmax (0-15 min, phase I) although, despite the presence of excess substrate and cofactors, prolonged catalysis (15-90 min, phase II) was associated with a rapid decline in L-arginine turnover. Taken together, these observations suggested that one or more NOS products inactivate NOS. Indeed, exogenously applied reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNSs) decreased Vmax during phase I, although with different potencies (NO->NO> ONOO-) and efficacies (NO>NO-=ONOO-). The NO scavengers oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2; 100 microM) and 1H-imidazol-1 - yloxy - 2 - (4-carboxyphenyl) - 4,5 - dihydro - 4,4,5,5 - tetramethyl - 3 -oxide (CPTIO; 10 microM) and the ONOO- scavenger GSH (7 mM) had no effect on NOS activity during phase I, except for an endogenous autoinhibitory influence of NO and ONOO-. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD; 300 units/ml), which is thought either to increase the half-life of NO or to convert NO- to NO, lowered Vmax in an NO-dependent manner because this effect was selectively antagonized by HbO2 (100 microM). This latter observation demonstrated the requirement of SOD to reveal endogenous NO-mediated autoinhibition. Importantly, during phase II of catalysis, NOS became uncoupled and began to form H2O2 because catalase, which metabolizes H2O2, increased enzyme activity. Consistent with this, exogenous H2O2 also inhibited NOS activity during phase I. Thus during catalysis NOS is subject to complex autoinhibition by both enzyme-derived RNS and H2O2, differentially affecting enzyme activity.
Project description:Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalysis results in formation of NO or superoxide (O(2)(-.)) depending on the presence or absence of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). In the absence of O(2)(-.) scavengers, net NO formation cannot be detected even at saturating BH4 concentrations, which is thought to be due to O(2)(-.) production by BH4 autoxidation. Because the N-5-methylated analogue of BH4 (5-Me-BH4) sustains NOS catalysis and is autoxidation-resistant, net NO formation by the neuronal isoform of NOS (nNOS) can be observed at saturating 5-Me-BH4 concentrations. Here we compare the effects of 5-Me-BH4 on L-citrulline formation, NADPH oxidation, H(2)O(2) production and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulation. All activities were stimulated biphasically (EC(50) approx. 0.2 microM and more than 1 mM), with an intermediate inhibitory phase at the same pterin concentration as that required for net NO generation and sGC stimulation (4 microM). Concomitantly with inhibition, the NADP(+)/L-citrulline stoichiometry decreased from 2.0 to 1.6. Inhibition occurred only at high enzyme concentrations (IC(50) approx. 10 nM nNOS) and was antagonized by oxyhaemoglobin and by BH4. We ascribe the first stimulatory phase to high-affinity binding of 5-Me-BH4. The inhibitory phase is due to low-affinity binding, resulting in fully coupled catalysis, complete inhibition of O(2)(-.) production and net NO formation. At high enzyme concentrations and thus high NO levels, this causes autoinhibition. NO scavenging by 5-Me-BH4 at concentrations above 1 mM, resulting in the antagonization of inhibition of NOS, explains the second stimulatory phase. In agreement with these assignments 5-Me-BH4 was found to stimulate formation of a haem-NO complex during NOS catalysis. The observation of inhibition with 5-Me-BH4 but not with BH4 implies that, unless O(2)(-.) scavengers are present, a physiological role for NO-induced autoinhibition is unlikely.
Project description:Ultraviolet B light (UVB) activates nitric oxide synthase(s) (NOSs) and nitric oxide (NO()) production, which plays a role in regulation of apoptosis. However, the role of NO() in UVB-induced apoptosis remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed expression and activation of constitutive NOSs (cNOSs) and their roles in UV-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes. Our data showed that the expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) was increased while endothelial NOS (eNOS) was uncoupled in the early phase (0-6 h) post-UVB. The expression of both cNOSs peaked at 12h post-UVB and NO() was transiently elevated with 30 min and then steadily rose from 6 to 18 h post-UVB. The expression of iNOS was detected at 6h post-UVB and then sturdily increased. Inhibition of cNOSs with L-NAME reduced the inducibility of NO(*) in the early and late phases of irradiation. Along with the eNOS uncoupling, an increased level of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) was detected in the early phase, but not in the late phase post-UVB. Inhibition of cNOSs reduced the production of ONOO(-) in the early time, but led to an increase of ONOO(-) in the late time after UVB-irradiation. The results indicate that cNOSs regulate NO()/ONOO(-) imbalance after UVB-irradiation. Our data suggested that the activation of cNOSs in the early phase post-UVB leads to NO()/ONOO(-) imbalance and promotes apoptosis via a caspase 3-independent pathway. The elevation of NO() in the late phase of UVB-irradiation is mainly produced by inducible NOS (iNOS). However, cNOSs also contribute to the NO() production and to maintain a higher NO()/ONOO(-) ratio, which reduces caspase 3 activity and protects cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) oxidation controls excitability and viability. While hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) affects Ca(2+)-activated CaMKII in vitro, Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced CaMKIIδ signaling in cardiomyocytes is Ca(2+) independent and requires NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide, but not its dismutation product H2O2. To better define the biological regulation of CaMKII activation and signaling by Ang II, we evaluated the potential for peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) to mediate CaMKII activation and downstream Kv4.3 channel mRNA destabilization by Ang II. In vitro experiments show that ONOO(-) oxidizes and modestly activates pure CaMKII in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM. Remarkably, this apokinase stimulation persists after mutating known oxidation targets (M281, M282, C290), suggesting a novel mechanism for increasing baseline Ca(2+)-independent CaMKII activity. The role of ONOO(-) in cardiac and neuronal responses to Ang II was then tested by scavenging ONOO(-) and preventing its formation by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase. Both treatments blocked Ang II effects on Kv4.3, tyrosine nitration and CaMKIIδ oxidation and activation. Together, these data show that ONOO(-) participates in Ang II-CaMKII signaling. The requirement for ONOO(-) in transducing Ang II signaling identifies ONOO(-), which has been viewed as a reactive damaging byproduct of superoxide and nitric oxide, as a mediator of GPCR-CaMKII signaling.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO), a key regulator of cardiovascular function, is synthesized from L-arginine and oxygen by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). This reaction requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor. BH4 is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) and recycled from 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) by dihydrofolate reductase. Under conditions of low BH4 bioavailability relative to NOS or BH2, oxygen activation is "uncoupled" from L-arginine oxidation, and NOS produces superoxide (O (2) (-) ) instead of NO. NOS-derived superoxide reacts with NO to produce peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a highly reactive anion that rapidly oxidizes BH4 and propagates NOS uncoupling. BH4 depletion and NOS uncoupling contribute to overload-induced heart failure, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and atrial fibrillation. L-arginine depletion, methylarginine accumulation, and S-glutathionylation of NOS also promote uncoupling. Recoupling NOS is a promising approach to treating myocardial and vascular dysfunction associated with heart failure.
Project description:Using high throughput screening-compatible assays for superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, we identified potential inhibitors of the NADPH oxidase (Nox2) isoform from a small library of bioactive compounds. By using multiple probes (hydroethidine, hydropropidine, Amplex Red, and coumarin boronate) with well defined redox chemistry that form highly diagnostic marker products upon reaction with superoxide (O2 (??)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), the number of false positives was greatly decreased. Selected hits for Nox2 were further screened for their ability to inhibit ONOO(-)formation in activated macrophages. A new diagnostic marker product for ONOO(-)is reported. We conclude that the newly developed high throughput screening/reactive oxygen species assays could also be used to identify potential inhibitors of ONOO(-)formed from Nox2-derived O2 (??)and nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sensory neuropathy develops in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. diabetes, dyslipidemia), but its pathological consequences in the heart are unclear. We have previously shown that systemic sensory chemodenervation by capsaicin leads to impaired myocardial relaxation and diminished cardiac nitric oxide (NO) content. Here we examined the mechanism of diminished NO formation and if it may lead to a reduction of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-induced S-nitrosylation of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Wistar rats were treated with capsaicin for 3 days to induce sensory chemodenervation. Seven days later, myocardial function and biochemical parameters were measured. KEY RESULTS: Capsaicin pretreatment significantly increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) decreased cardiac NO level, Ca(2+)-dependent NO synthase (NOS) activity, and NOS-3 mRNA. Myocardial superoxide content, xanthine oxidoreductase and NADPH oxidase activities did not change, although superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased. Myocardial and serum ONOO(-) concentration and S-nitrosylation of SERCA2a were significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our results show that sensory chemodenervation decreases cardiac NO via decreased expression and activity of Ca(2+)-dependent NOS and increases SOD activity, thereby leading to decreased basal ONOO(-) formation and reduction of S-nitrosylation of SERCA2a, which causes impaired myocardial relaxation characterized by increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). This suggests that capsaicin sensitive sensory neurons regulate myocardial relaxation via maintaining basal ONOO(-) formation and SERCA S-nitrosylation.
Project description:Hypoxia-induced generation of vasoconstrictors reduces cerebral blood flow (CBF) while nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) and microRNAs (miRNA) in endothelial cells (ECs) suppress vasoconstriction. Safflor yellow B (SYB), a natural plant compound, previously attenuated angiotensin II-mediated injury of ECs and maintained endothelial function. This study investigated the putative involvement of NOS and miRNAs in SYB-mediated resistance to hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction. In vivo, chronic hypoxia was induced in rats, and SYB was administered intravenously. In vitro, rat primary aortic ECs were cultured under oxygen and glucose deprivation. After treatment with anti-microR-199a, as well as the NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, SYB, or both, cell viability, NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) levels, NOS expression, and miRNA levels were evaluated. SYB significantly alleviated hypoxia-mediated vasoconstriction and increased CBF endothelium-dependently. SYB upregulated miR-199a, increased EC viability, decreased endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and suppressed hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) expression. Furthermore, the SYB-mediated reduction of inducible NOS reduced ONOO- levels. In addition, SYB downregulated miR-138 and, thereby, enhanced S100A1 and endothelial NOS activity. Hypoxia-mediated regulation of miR-138 and miR-199a inhibited endothelial NOS expression and activation, which triggered ET-1 release and vasoconstriction. Therefore, SYB treatment reduced hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction through miR-199a/endothelial NOS signaling.
Project description:Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) may be uncoupled to produce superoxide rather than nitric oxide (NO) under pathological conditions such as diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, leading to cardiac contractile anomalies. Nonetheless, the role of NOS uncoupling in insulin resistance-induced cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. Given that folic acid may produce beneficial effects for cardiac insufficiency partially through its NOS recoupling capacity, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of folic acid on insulin resistance-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction in a sucrose-induced insulin resistance model. Mice were fed a sucrose or starch diet for 8 weeks before administration of folic acid in drinking water for an additional 4 weeks. Cardiomyocyte contractile and Ca(2+) transient properties were evaluated and myocardial function was assessed using echocardiography. Our results revealed whole body insulin resistance after sucrose feeding associated with diminished NO production, elevated peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) levels, and impaired echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte function along with a leaky ryanodine receptor (RYR) and intracellular Ca(2+) handling derangement. Western blot analysis showed that insulin resistance significantly promoted Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation, which might be responsible for the leaky RYR and cardiac mechanical dysfunction. NOS recoupling using folic acid reversed insulin resistance-induced changes in NO and ONOO(-), CaMKII phosphorylation, and cardiac mechanical abnormalities. Taken together, these data demonstrated that treatment with folic acid may reverse cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies through ablation of CaMKII phosphorylation and RYR Ca(2+) leak.
Project description:Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a potent oxidizing agent generated by the interaction of nitric oxide (NO) and the superoxide anion. In physiological solution, ONOO- rapidly decomposes to a hydroxyl radical, one of the most reactive free radicals, and nitrogen dioxide, another species able to cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the effect of ONOO- on the expression of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible protein that is highly up-regulated by oxidative stress. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells to ONOO- (250-1000 microM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in haem oxygenase activity and HO-1 protein expression. This effect was completely abolished by the ONOO- scavengers uric acid and N-acetylcysteine, and partly attenuated by 1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea, a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals. ONOO- also produced a concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis and cytotoxicity, which were considerably decreased by uric acid and N-acetylcysteine. A 70% decrease in apoptosis was observed when cells were exposed to ONOO- in the presence of 10 microM tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), an inhibitor of haem oxygenase activity. When SnPPIX was added 5 min after ONOO-, apoptosis decreased by only 40%, which suggests that an interaction between ONOO- and the protoporphyrin occurs in our system. Increased haem oxygenase activity by pretreatment of cells with haemin resulted in elevated bilirubin production and was associated with a substantial decrease (35%) in ONOO--mediated apoptosis. These results indicate the ability of ONOO- to modulate the expression of the stress protein HO-1 and suggest that the haem oxygenase pathway contributes to protection against the cytotoxic action of ONOO-.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite both inhibit respiration by brain submitochondrial particles, the former reversibly at cytochrome c oxidase, the latter irreversibly at complexes I-III. Both GSH (IC50 =10 microM) and glucose (IC50 = 8 mM) prevented inhibition of respiration by peroxynitrite (ONOO-), but neither glucose (100 mM) nor GSH (100 microM) affected that by NO. Thus, unless ONOO- is formed within mitochondria it is unlikely to inhibit respiration in cells directly, because of reactions with cellular thiols and carbohydrates. However, the reversible inhibition of respiration cytochrome c oxidase by NO is likely to occur (e.g. in the brain during ischaemia) and could be responsible for cytotoxicity.