Localization of a carboxylic residue possibly involved in the inhibition of vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase by N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide.
ABSTRACT: A vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52) that catalyses PP(i) hydrolysis and the electrogenic translocation of protons from the cytosol to the vacuole lumen, was purified from etiolated hypocotyls of mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L.). Group-specific modification was used to identify a carboxylic residue involved in the inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase. Carbodi-imides, such as N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodi-imide, and Woodward's reagent K caused a progressive decline in the enzymic activity of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The stoichiometry of labelling of the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase by [(14)C]DCCD determined that DCCD modifies one carboxylic residue per subunit of the enzyme. Protection studies suggest that the DCCD-reactive carboxylic residue resides at or near the substrate-binding site. Furthermore, peptide mapping analysis reveals that Asp(283), located in the putative loop V of a tentative topological model of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase on the cytosolic side, was labelled by radioactive [(14)C]DCCD. Cytosolic loop V contains both DCCD-sensitive Asp(283) and a conserved motif sequence, rendering it a candidate for the catalytic site of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase. A topological picture of the active domain of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase is tentatively proposed.
Project description:Bilirubin can be coupled covalently to albumin by using water-soluble carbodi-imide as coupling reagent. The optimal specificity in the attachment of bilirubin to the high-affinity site on the albumin molecule was obtained by treating an albumin-bilirubin complex with carbodi-imide in low concentrations and for a short period. The product was reduced, carboxymethylated and digested with trypsin. By fractionation on Sephadex G-50 (superfine grade) a peptide fraction containing most of the bilirubin label was isolated. Further purification by paper chromatography gave one peptide, consisting of residues 240-258. The peptide containined a single lysine residue, 240, and had an intact disulphide bridge. The results indicate that bilirubin is bound to lysine residue 240 at its high-affinity site on human serum albumin.
Project description:The present study was initiated to characterize the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-binding site in human platelets that is involved in Ca2+ release. InsP3 binding to platelet membranes was measured in two ways; (1) by displacement of labelled InsP3 with unlabelled InsP3, as in previous studies, and (2) directly, using only radioactive InsP3 as ligand, over the concentration range 0.25-100 nM. At physiological pH (7.1) the binding data were best fitted by a model for a single saturable binding site, with KD = 11.8 nM and Bmax. = 1.4 pmol/mg of protein. At alkaline pH values (8.3 and 9.4) binding was best fitted by a two-site model, the second site being of higher affinity (KD = 0.75-1.2 nM) but lower concentration (Bmax. = 0.195-0.6 pmol/mg of protein). All binding of InsP3 was blocked by polymeric sulphates (heparin, dextran sulphate, polyvinyl sulphate) regardless of pH. The specific arginine-modifying reagent p-hydroxyphenylglyoxal irreversibly blocked InsP3 binding, suggesting the presence of arginine at the recognition site for InsP3 binding. NN'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodi-imide (ECCD), which are carboxy-group-specific reagents, blocked Ca2+ release, but not InsP3 binding, indicating the existence of another site that regulates Ca2+ release apart from the active centre for InsP3.
Project description:N-Bromosuccinimide completely inactivated the cellulase, and titration experiments showed that oxidation of one tryptophan residue per cellulase molecule coincided with 100% inactivation. CM-cellulose protected the enzyme from inactivation by N-bromosuccinimide. The cellulase was inhibited by active benzyl halides, and reaction with 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide resulted in the incorporation of 2.3 hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl groups per enzyme molecule; one tryptophan residue was shown to be essential for activity. Diazocarbonyl compounds in the presence of Cu2+ ions inhibited the enzyme. The pH-dependence of inactivation was consistent with the reaction occurring with a protonated carboxyl group. Carbodi-imide inhibited the cellulase, and kinetic analysis indicated that there was an average of 1 mol of carbodi-imide binding to the cellulase during inactivation. Treatment of the cellulase with diethyl pyrocarbonate resulted in the modification of two out of the four histidine residues present in the cellulase. The modified enzyme retained 40% of its original activity. Inhibition of cellulase activity by the metal ions Ag+ and Hg2+ was ascribed to interaction with tryptophan residues, rather than with thiol groups.
Project description:1,2-alpha-D-Mannosidase from Penicillium citrinum was inactivated by chemical modification with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodi-imide (EDC). Most of the activity was lost after modification in the absence of a nucleophile, glycine ethyl ester. 1-Deoxymannojirimycin (dMM), a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, showed partial protection against the inactivation. After the modification by EDC without the presence of a nucleophile, proteolytic digests of the enzyme were analysed by reversed-phase h.p.l.c. and a unique peptide was shown to decrease when dMM was present during the modification. The peptide was absent from the digests of unmodified enzyme. The amino acid sequence of the peptide (A; Ile-Gly-Pro) was identical in part with that of the adjacent peptide (B; Ile-Gly-Pro-Asp-Ser-Trp-Gly-Trp-Asp-Pro-Lys). When cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) was modified by EDC alone, the modified peptide could be separated from unmodified peptide by reversed-phase h.p.i.c., and Edman degradation was stopped before the modified aspartic acid residue. This suggested that, in the enzyme, peptide A was derived from peptide B by the modification. Consequently, Asp-4 in peptide B was assumed to be masked by dMM during the modification, and to be involved in the interaction of the enzyme with its substrate.
Project description:Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) regulation was studied in Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites by using the fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. Their mean baseline pHi (7.07+/-0.06; n=5) was not significantly affected in the absence of extracellular Na+, K+ or HCO3(-) but was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by low concentrations of N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) or bafilomycin A1. Bafilomycin A1 also inhibited the recovery of tachyzoite pHi after an acid load with sodium propionate. Similar concentrations of DCCD, NEM and bafilomycin A1 produced depolarization of the plasma membrane potential as measured with bis-(1,3-diethylthiobarbituric)trimethineoxonol (bisoxonol), and DCCD prevented the hyperpolarization that accompanies acid extrusion after the addition of propionate, in agreement with the electrogenic nature of this pump. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that, in addition to being located in cytoplasmic vacuoles, the vacuolar (V)-H+-ATPase of T. gondii tachyzoites is also located in the plasma membrane. Surface localization of the V-H+-ATPase was confirmed by experiments using biotinylation of cell surface proteins and immunoprecipitation with antibodies against V-H+-ATPases. Taken together, the results are consistent with the presence of a functional V-H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane of these intracellular parasites and with an important role of this enzyme in the regulation of pHi homoeostasis in these cells.
Project description:Horse heart and tuna heart cytochromes c were treated with the water-soluble carbodi-imide 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodi-imide. When the reaction is followed spectroscopically two kinetic phases are apparent. Alteration of the reactivity of the proteins with such ligands as CO, however, occurs in a single phase identical with the faster phase detected spectroscopically. The modified proteins both show spectroscopic and redox properties identical with those described for the tuna heart cytochrome c derivative by Timkovich [Biochem. J. (1980) 185, 47-57]. The use of radiolabelled carbodi-imide identifies two or three sites of reactivity. However, the addition of glycine methyl ester to the reaction mixture leads to the addition of nine glycine moieties in the case of the horse protein and seven in the case of the tuna protein, indicating a larger number of reactive sites than previously reported. A further set of reaction sites was identified by peptide mapping of the modified proteins, and these sites take part in intramolecular reactions leading to internal cross-linking and the formation of an enzymically indigestible 'core particle'. The haem group was identified as a site of reaction with the carbodi-imide, and is as a consequence covalently linked to the peptide by a bond in addition to the thioether bonds normally present. In the light of these findings, the alterations in the properties of the tuna protein, subsequent to reaction with the carbodi-imide, which have been previously explained in structural terms, must be re-evaluated. This study also highlights the importance of internal cross-link formation, which can occur by intramolecular nucleophilic attack, a process that has often been overlooked by investigators employing carbodi-imide modification of carboxylate groups in proteins.
Project description:1. The role of the ionized carboxyl groups of proteins of the erythrocyte membrane as Ca(2+) receptor sites was investigated. A water-soluble carbodi-imide [1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodi-imide methotoluene-p-sulphonate], referred to as carbodi-imide reagent, and glycine methyl ester were used to modify the free carboxyl groups of the membrane. The degree of modification was estimated from amino acid analyses, which showed the amount of glycine incorporated. As the concentration of carbodi-imide reagent was raised (0.1-0.4m) incorporation of glycine increased and Ca(2+) binding decreased by about 77%. At 0.4m-carbodi-imide reagent all of the binding of Ca(2+) to protein was abolished and it was estimated that about 37% of the side-chain carboxyl groups of aspartic acid plus glutamic acid had been blocked by glycine. 2. Acetylation of all of the free amino groups was achieved by incubating the erythrocyte ;ghosts' at pH10.3 with acetic anhydride (10-15mg/10mg of ;ghost' protein). Acetylation increased by 1.5-fold the capacity of the ;ghost' to bind Ca(2+), indicating that the remaining carboxyl groups of aspartic acid and glutamic acid were made available for Ca(2+) binding by this procedure. These findings support the concept that in normal ;ghosts', at pH7.4, Ca(2+) binding to free carboxyl groups is partially hindered by the presence of charged amino groups. 3. Treatment of ;ghosts' with N-acetylneuraminidase, which removed 94% of sialic acid residues, and treatment with 1mm-p-chloromercuribenzoate did not alter Ca(2+) binding. The major effect of 5.8mm-p-chloromercuribenzoate upon ;ghosts' was to cause a solubilization of a calcium-membrane complex, which included about one-third of the ;ghost' protein. The molar ratio of Ca(2+): protein in the solubilized material was the same as that in the intact (untreated) ;ghosts'.
Project description:The inhibition of the membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatase of Escherichia coli by DCCD (dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide) is studied under conditions of varying KCl concentration. An increase in K+ concentration and in other cations causes an increase in the DCCD sensitivity of the enzyme, as well as significant changes in the kinetic parameters.
Project description:Dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD) inhibition of NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase was studied in submitochondrial particles and in the isolated form, together with the binding of the reagent to the enzyme. DCCD inhibited the isolated enzyme in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Over the concentration range studied, a maximum inhibition of 85% was attained within 60 min. The time course for the binding of DCCD to the enzyme was similar to that of activity inhibition. The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity of the submitochondrial particles was also sensitive to DCCD, and the locus of binding of the inhibitor was studied by subsequent resolution of the enzyme into subunit polypeptides. Only two subunits (molecular masses 13.7 and 21.5 kDa) were labelled by [14C]DCCD, whereas, when the enzyme in its isolated form was treated with [14C]DCCD, six subunits (13.7, 16.1, 21.5, 39, 43 and 53 kDa) were labelled. Comparison with the subunit labelling of F1F0-ATPase and ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase indicated that the labelling pattern of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, and enzyme complex with a multitude of subunits, is unique and not due to contamination by other inner-membrane proteins. The correlation between the electron- and proton-transport functions and the DCCD-binding components remains to be established.
Project description:Proton extrusion during ferricyanide reduction by NADH-generating substrates or succinate was studied in isolated rat liver mitochondria with the use of optical indicators. NN'-Dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD) caused a decrease of 84% in the H+/e- ratio of NADH:cytochrome c reduction, but a decrease of only 49% in that of succinate:cytochrome c reduction, even though electron transfer was decreased equally in both spans. The data indicate that a DCCD-sensitive channel operates in the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase region of the respiratory chain.