Antizyme inhibitor is rapidly induced in growth-stimulated mouse fibroblasts and releases ornithine decarboxylase from antizyme suppression.
ABSTRACT: Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The polyamines are essential for cell growth, but at elevated levels they may be tumorigenic, toxic, or may induce apoptosis. Therefore, ODC activity is highly regulated. It is induced when cells are stimulated to grow, and it is subjected to feedback inhibition by the polyamines. By causing ribosomal frameshifting, polyamines induce the synthesis of antizyme, a 23-kDa protein, which binds to ODC, inhibits its activity and promotes its degradation by the 26 S proteasome. Antizyme, in turn, is inhibited by antizyme inhibitor (AZI). We describe the cloning of a mouse AZI cDNA, encoding a protein with high homology to mouse ODC. Using purified recombinant proteins, we show that AZI (which has no ODC activity) can release enzymically active ODC from antizyme suppression in vitro. We also show that ODC reactivation takes place in mouse fibroblasts upon transient transfection with an AZI-expressing plasmid construct. Finally we demonstrate that the AZI mRNA content of mouse fibroblasts increases significantly within an hour of growth stimulation, i.e. much earlier than ODC transcripts. Our results indicate that induction of AZI synthesis may represent a means of rescuing ODC molecules that have been inactivated and tagged for degradation by antizyme, when culture conditions improve and polyamine production is needed for cell growth and proliferation.
Project description:ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines are essential for cellular growth and differentiation but enhanced ODC activity is associated with cell transformation. Post-translationally, ODC is negatively regulated through members of the antizyme family. Antizymes inhibit ODC activity, promote ODC degradation through the 26 S proteasome and regulate polyamine transport. Besides the ubiquitously expressed antizymes 1 and 2, there is the tissue-specific antizyme 3 and an yet uncharacterized antizyme 4. Antizyme 1 has been shown to be negatively regulated through the AZI (antizyme inhibitor) that binds antizyme 1 with higher affinity compared with ODC. In the present study, we show by yeast two- and three-hybrid protein-protein interaction studies that AZI interacts with all members of the antizyme family and is capable of disrupting the interaction between each antizyme and ODC. In a yeast-based ODC complementation assay, we show that human ODC is able to complement fully the function of the yeast homologue of ODC. Co-expression of antizymes resulted in ODC inhibition and cessation of yeast growth. The antizyme-induced growth inhibition could be reversed by addition of putrescine or by the co-expression of AZI. The protein interactions could be confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the human ODC-antizyme 2-AZI complexes. In summary, we conclude that human AZI is capable of acting as a general inhibitor for all members of the antizyme family and that the previously not yet characterized antizyme 4 is capable of binding ODC and inhibiting its enzymic activity similar to the other members of the antizyme family.
Project description:Antizyme inhibitor (AzI) regulates cellular polyamine homeostasis by binding to the polyamine-induced protein, Antizyme (Az), with greater affinity than ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). AzI is highly homologous to ODC but is not enzymatically active. In order to understand these specific characteristics of AzI and its differences from ODC, we determined the 3D structure of mouse AzI to 2.05 A resolution. Both AzI and ODC crystallize as a dimer. However, fewer interactions at the dimer interface, a smaller buried surface area, and lack of symmetry of the interactions between residues from the two monomers in the AzI structure suggest that this dimeric structure is nonphysiological. In addition, the absence of residues and interactions required for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) binding suggests that AzI does not bind PLP. Biochemical studies confirmed the lack of PLP binding and revealed that AzI exists as a monomer in solution while ODC is dimeric. Our findings that AzI exists as a monomer and is unable to bind PLP provide two independent explanations for its lack of enzymatic activity and suggest the basis for its enhanced affinity toward Az.
Project description:Antizyme (AZ) is a protein with 228 amino acid residues that regulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by binding to ODC and dissociating its homodimer, thus inhibiting its enzyme activity. Antizyme inhibitor (AZI) is homologous to ODC, but has a higher affinity than ODC for AZ. In this study, we quantified the biomolecular interactions between AZ and ODC as well as AZ and AZI to identify functional AZ peptides that could bind to ODC and AZI and inhibit their function as efficiently as the full-length AZ protein. For these AZ peptides, the inhibitory ability of AZ_95-228 was similar to that of AZ_WT. Furthermore, AZ_95-176 displayed an inhibition (IC(50): 0.20 µM) similar to that of AZ-95-228 (IC(50): 0.16 µM), even though a large segment spanning residues 177-228 was deleted. However, further deletion of AZ_95-176 from either the N-terminus or the C-terminus decreased its ability to inhibit ODC. The AZ_100-176 and AZ_95-169 peptides displayed a noteworthy decrease in ability to inhibit ODC, with IC(50) values of 0.43 and 0.37 µM, respectively. The AZ_95-228, AZ_100-228 and AZ_95-176 peptides had IC(50) values comparable to that of AZ_WT and formed AZ-ODC complexes with K(d,AZ-ODC) values of 1.5, 5.3 and 5.6 µM, respectively. Importantly, our data also indicate that AZI can rescue AZ peptide-inhibited ODC enzyme activity and that it can bind to AZ peptides with a higher affinity than ODC. Together, these data suggest that these truncated AZ proteins retain their AZI-binding ability. Thus, we suggest that AZ_95-176 is the minimal AZ peptide that is fully functioning in the binding of ODC and AZI and inhibition of their function.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. It is a short-lived protein and negatively regulated by its products, polyamines. Its degradation is accelerated by the binding of antizyme, an ODC-inhibitory protein induced by polyamines. To evaluate the physiological importance of antizyme we examined the effect of forced expression of antizyme on cellular ODC and polyamine levels and cell growth. Antizyme almost completely abolished the induction of ODC by growth stimuli. This may have been caused by antizyme-induced rapid degradation of newly synthesized ODC, since the half-life of ODC complexes with antizyme was less than 5 min. Forced expression of antizyme caused reductions of cellular putrescine and spermidine levels, and inhibited cell growth, which was partially restored by the addition of putrescine. These observations suggested a critically important role of antizyme in polyamine metabolism.
Project description:The regulation of polyamine transport by antizyme, a protein that is involved in the rapid degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), was studied in FM3A mouse cells overproducing ODC. Both artificial (Z1) and natural antizymes not only inhibited polyamine uptake but also stimulated polyamine excretion. The properties of the polyamine transporter regulated by antizyme were characterized. The uptake of radiolabelled polyamines was inhibited by excess acetylpolyamines and a protonophore, CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), whereas the excretion of radiolabelled polyamines was stimulated by unlabelled polyamines, acetylpolyamines and CCCP in the medium. Furthermore, it is shown that polyamines and acetylpolyamines are excreted from cells. On the basis of the results, it is discussed how antizyme regulates polyamine transport negatively.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the first enzyme involved in polyamine biosynthesis, and it catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to putrescine. ODC is a dimeric enzyme, whereas antizyme inhibitor (AZI), a positive regulator of ODC that is homologous to ODC, exists predominantly as a monomer and lacks decarboxylase activity. The goal of this paper was to identify the essential amino acid residues that determine the dimerization of AZI. The nonconserved amino acid residues in the putative dimer interface of AZI (Ser-277, Ser-331, Glu-332, and Asp-389) were substituted with the corresponding residues in the putative dimer interface of ODC (Arg-277, Tyr-331, Asp-332, and Tyr-389, respectively). Analytical ultracentrifugation analysis was used to determine the size distribution of these AZI mutants. The size-distribution analysis data suggest that residue 331 may play a major role in the dimerization of AZI. Mutating Ser-331 to Tyr in AZI (AZI-S331Y) caused a shift from a monomer configuration to a dimer. Furthermore, in comparison with the single mutant AZI-S331Y, the AZI-S331Y/D389Y double mutant displayed a further reduction in the monomer-dimer K(d), suggesting that residue 389 is also crucial for AZI dimerization. Analysis of the triple mutant AZI-S331Y/D389Y/S277R showed that it formed a stable dimer (K(d) value = 1.3 microm). Finally, a quadruple mutant, S331Y/D389Y/S277R/E332D, behaved as a dimer with a K(d) value of approximately 0.1 microm, which is very close to that of the human ODC enzyme. The quadruple mutant, although forming a dimer, could still be disrupted by antizyme (AZ), further forming a heterodimer, and it could rescue the AZ-inhibited ODC activity, suggesting that the AZ-binding ability of the AZI dimer was retained.
Project description:Both ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and its regulatory protein, antizyme inhibitor (AZI), can bind with antizyme (AZ), but the latter has a higher AZ-binding affinity. The results of this study clearly identify the critical amino acid residues governing the difference in AZ-binding affinities between human ODC and AZI. Inhibition experiments using a series of ODC mutants suggested that residues 125 and 140 may be the key residues responsible for the differential AZ-binding affinities. The ODC_N125K/M140K double mutant demonstrated a significant inhibition by AZ, and the IC(50) value of this mutant was 0.08 µM, three-fold smaller than that of ODC_WT. Furthermore, the activity of the AZ-inhibited ODC_N125K/M140K enzyme was hardly rescued by AZI. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of the [ODC_N125K/M140K]-AZ heterodimer was approximately 0.02 µM, which is smaller than that of WT_ODC by approximately 10-fold and is very close to the K(d) value of AZI_WT, suggesting that ODC_N125K/M140K has an AZ-binding affinity higher than that of ODC_WT and similar to that of AZI. The efficiency of the AZI_K125N/K140M double mutant in the rescue of AZ-inhibited ODC enzyme activity was less than that of AZI_WT. The K(d) value of [AZI_K125N/K140M]-AZ was 0.18 µM, nine-fold larger than that of AZI_WT and close to the K(d) value of ODC_WT, suggesting that AZI_K125N/K140M has an AZ-binding affinity lower than that of AZI_WT and similar to that of ODC. These data support the hypothesis that the differences in residues 125 and 140 in ODC and AZI are responsible for the differential AZ-binding affinities.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome, is a homodimeric protein with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines regulate ODC levels by a feedback mechanism mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ). Higher cellular polyamine levels trigger the synthesis of OAZ and also inhibit its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. OAZ binds ODC monomers and targets them to the proteasome. Here, we report that polyamines, aside from their role in the control of OAZ synthesis and stability, directly enhance OAZ-mediated ODC degradation by the proteasome. Using a stable mutant of OAZ, we show that polyamines promote ODC degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells even when OAZ levels are not changed. Furthermore, polyamines stimulated the in vitro degradation of ODC by the proteasome in a reconstituted system using purified components. In these assays, spermine shows a greater effect than spermidine. By contrast, polyamines do not have any stimulatory effect on the degradation of ubiquitin-dependent substrates.
Project description:Polyamines are essential organic cations with multiple cellular functions. Their synthesis is controlled by a feedback regulation whose main target is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. In mammals, ODC has been shown to be inhibited and targeted for ubiquitin-independent degradation by ODC antizyme (AZ). The synthesis of mammalian AZ was reported to involve a polyamine-induced ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. High levels of polyamine therefore inhibit new synthesis of polyamines by inducing ODC degradation. We identified a previously unrecognized sequence in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding an orthologue of mammalian AZ. We show that synthesis of yeast AZ (Oaz1) involves polyamine-regulated frameshifting as well. Degradation of yeast ODC by the proteasome depends on Oaz1. Using this novel model system for polyamine regulation, we discovered another level of its control. Oaz1 itself is subject to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the proteasome. Degradation of Oaz1, however, is inhibited by polyamines. We propose a model, in which polyamines inhibit their ODC-mediated biosynthesis by two mechanisms, the control of Oaz1 synthesis and inhibition of its degradation.
Project description:Antizyme and its endogenous antizyme inhibitor have recently emerged as prominent regulators of cell growth, transformation, centrosome duplication, and tumorigenesis. Antizyme was originally isolated as a negative modulator of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), an essential component of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Antizyme binds ODC and facilitates proteasomal ODC degradation. Antizyme also facilitates degradation of a set of cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, Smad1, and Aurora A kinase, as well as Mps1, a protein that regulates centrosome duplication. Antizyme has been reported to function as a tumor suppressor and to negatively regulate tumor cell proliferation and transformation. Antizyme inhibitor binds to antizyme and suppresses its known functions, leading to increased polyamine synthesis, increased cell proliferation, and increased transformation and tumorigenesis. Gene array studies show antizyme inhibitor to be amplified in cancers of the ovary, breast, and prostate. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the role of antizyme and antizyme inhibitor in cancer, discuss how the ratio of antizyme to antizyme inhibitor can influence tumor growth, and suggest strategies to target this axis for tumor prevention and treatment.