Allosteric regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase by tetrahydrobiopterin and suppression of auto-damaging superoxide.
ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanisms regulating the activity of the family of homodimeric nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and, in particular, the requirement for (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (H(4)Bip) are not fully understood. Here we have investigated possible allosteric and stabilizing effects of H(4)Bip on neuronal NOS (NOS-I) during the conversion of substrate, L-arginine, into L-citrulline and nitric oxide. Indeed, in kinetic studies dual allosteric interactions between L-arginine and H(4)Bip activated recombinant human NOS-I to increase L-arginine turnover. Consistent with this was the observation that H(4)Bip, but not the pterin-based NOS inhibitor 2-amino-4,6-dioxo-3,4,5,6,8,8a,9,10-octahydrooxazolo[1, 2-f]-pteridine (PHS-32), caused an L-arginine-dependent increase in the haem Soret band, indicating an increase in substrate binding to recombinant human NOS-I. Conversely, L-arginine was observed to increase in a concentration-dependent manner H(4)Bip binding to pig brain NOS-I. Secondly, we investigated the stabilization of NOS quaternary structure by H(4)Bip in relation to uncoupled catalysis. Under catalytic assay conditions and in the absence of H(4)Bip, dimeric recombinant human NOS-I dissociated into inactive monomers. Monomerization was related to the uncoupling of reductive oxygen activation, because it was inhibited by both superoxide dismutase and the inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine. Importantly, H(4)Bip was found to react chemically with superoxide (O(2)(-.)) and enzyme-bound H(4)Bip was consumed under O(2)(-.)-generating conditions in the absence of substrate. These results suggest that H(4)Bip allosterically activates NOS-I and stabilizes quaternary structure by a novel mechanism involving the direct interception of auto-damaging O(2)(-.).
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO), a key regulator of cardiovascular function, is synthesized from L-arginine and oxygen by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). This reaction requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor. BH4 is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) and recycled from 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) by dihydrofolate reductase. Under conditions of low BH4 bioavailability relative to NOS or BH2, oxygen activation is "uncoupled" from L-arginine oxidation, and NOS produces superoxide (O (2) (-) ) instead of NO. NOS-derived superoxide reacts with NO to produce peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a highly reactive anion that rapidly oxidizes BH4 and propagates NOS uncoupling. BH4 depletion and NOS uncoupling contribute to overload-induced heart failure, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and atrial fibrillation. L-arginine depletion, methylarginine accumulation, and S-glutathionylation of NOS also promote uncoupling. Recoupling NOS is a promising approach to treating myocardial and vascular dysfunction associated with heart failure.
Project description:This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs), which catalyse the oxidation of L-arginine to L-citrulline and an oxide of nitrogen, possibly NO or nitroxyl (NO-), are subject to autoinhibition by a mechanism that has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study we investigated the actions of NO and other NOS-derived products as possible autoregulators of enzyme activity. With the use of purified NOS-I, L-arginine turnover was found to operate initially at Vmax (0-15 min, phase I) although, despite the presence of excess substrate and cofactors, prolonged catalysis (15-90 min, phase II) was associated with a rapid decline in L-arginine turnover. Taken together, these observations suggested that one or more NOS products inactivate NOS. Indeed, exogenously applied reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNSs) decreased Vmax during phase I, although with different potencies (NO->NO> ONOO-) and efficacies (NO>NO-=ONOO-). The NO scavengers oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2; 100 microM) and 1H-imidazol-1 - yloxy - 2 - (4-carboxyphenyl) - 4,5 - dihydro - 4,4,5,5 - tetramethyl - 3 -oxide (CPTIO; 10 microM) and the ONOO- scavenger GSH (7 mM) had no effect on NOS activity during phase I, except for an endogenous autoinhibitory influence of NO and ONOO-. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD; 300 units/ml), which is thought either to increase the half-life of NO or to convert NO- to NO, lowered Vmax in an NO-dependent manner because this effect was selectively antagonized by HbO2 (100 microM). This latter observation demonstrated the requirement of SOD to reveal endogenous NO-mediated autoinhibition. Importantly, during phase II of catalysis, NOS became uncoupled and began to form H2O2 because catalase, which metabolizes H2O2, increased enzyme activity. Consistent with this, exogenous H2O2 also inhibited NOS activity during phase I. Thus during catalysis NOS is subject to complex autoinhibition by both enzyme-derived RNS and H2O2, differentially affecting enzyme activity.
Project description:Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline through the intermediate N(?)-hydroxy-L-arginine (NHA), producing nitric oxide, an important mammalian signaling molecule. Several disease states are associated with improper regulation of nitric oxide production, making NOS a therapeutic target. The first step of the NOS reaction has been well-characterized and is presumed to proceed through a compound I heme species, analogous to the cytochrome P450 mechanism. The second step, however, is enzymatically unprecedented and is thought to occur via a ferric peroxo heme species. To gain insight into the details of this unique second step, we report here the synthesis of NHA analogues bearing guanidinium methyl or ethyl substitutions and their investigation as either inhibitors of or alternate substrates for NOS. Radiolabeling studies reveal that N(?)-methoxy-L-arginine, an alternative NOS substrate, produces citrulline, nitric oxide, and methanol. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanism for the second step of NOS catalysis in which a methylated nitric oxide species is released and is further metabolized by NOS. Crystal structures of our NHA analogues bound to nNOS have been determined, revealing the presence of an active site water molecule only in the presence of singly methylated analogues. Bulkier analogues displace this active site water molecule; a different mechanism is proposed in the absence of the water molecule. Our results provide new insights into the steric and stereochemical tolerance of the NOS active site and substrate capabilities of NOS.
Project description:Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) have a bidomain structure comprised of an N-terminal oxygenase domain and a C-terminal reductase domain. The oxygenase domain binds haem, (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin (tetrahydrobiopterin) and arginine, is the site where nitric oxide synthesis takes place and contains determinants for dimeric interactions. A novel scintillation proximity assay has been established for equilibrium and kinetic measurements of substrate, inhibitor and cofactor binding to a recombinant N-terminal haem-binding domain of rat neuronal NOS (nNOS). Apparent Kd values for nNOS haem-domain-binding of arginine and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (nitroarginine) were measured as 1.6 microM and 25 nM respectively. The kinetics of [3H]nitroarginine binding and dissociation yielded an association rate constant of 1.3x10(4) s-1.M-1 and a dissociation rate constant of 1.2x10(-4) s-1. These values are comparable to literature values obtained for full-length nNOS, suggesting that many characteristics of the arginine binding site of NOS are conserved in the haem-binding domain. Additionally, apparent Kd values were compared and were found to be similar for the inhibitors, L-NG-monomethylarginine, S-ethylisothiourea, N-iminoethyl-L-ornithine, imidazole, 7-nitroindazole and 1400W (N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine). [3H]Tetrahydrobiopterin bound to the nNOS haem domain with an apparent Kd of 20 nM. Binding was inhibited by 7-nitroindazole and stimulated by S-ethylisothiourea. The kinetics of interaction with tetrahydrobiopterin were complex, showing a triphasic binding process and a single off rate. An alternating catalytic site mechanism for NOS is proposed.
Project description:Dietary supplementation with L-arginine was shown to improve immune responses in various inflammatory models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying L-arginine effects on immune cells remain unrecognized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a limitation of L-arginine could lead to the uncoupled state of murine macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase and, therefore, increase inducible nitric-oxide-synthase-derived superoxide anion formation. Importantly, we demonstrated that L-arginine dose- and time dependently potentiated superoxide anion production in bacterial endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, although it did not influence NADPH oxidase expression and activity. Detailed analysis of macrophage activation showed the time dependence between LPS-induced iNOS expression and increased O(2)(∙-) formation. Moreover, downregulation of macrophage iNOS expression, as well as the inhibition of iNOS activity by NOS inhibitors, unveiled an important role of this enzyme in controlling O(2)(∙-) and peroxynitrite formation during macrophage stimulation. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that simultaneous induction of NADPH oxidase, together with the iNOS enzyme, can result in the uncoupled state of iNOS resulting in the production of functionally important levels of O(2)(∙-) soon after macrophage activation with LPS. Moreover, we demonstrated, for the first time that increased concentrations of L-arginine further potentiate iNOS-dependent O(2) (∙-) formation in inflammatory macrophages.
Project description:The nitric oxide synthase-like protein from Bacillus cereus (bcNOS) has been cloned, expressed, and characterized. This small hemeprotein (356 amino acids in length) has a mass of 43 kDa and forms a dimer. The recombinant protein showed similar spectral shifts to the mammalian NOS proteins and could bind the substrates L-arginine and N(G)-hydroxy-L-arginine as well as the ligand imidazole. Low levels of activity were recorded for the hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation of N(G)-hydroxy-L-arginine and L-arginine by bcNOS, while a reconstituted system with the rat neuronal NOS reductase domain showed no activity. The recombinant bcNOS protein adds to the complement of bacterial NOS-like proteins that are used for the investigation of the mechanism and function of NO in microorganisms.
Project description:Arginase is an enzyme that converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, an essential substrate for the polyamine pathway supporting Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication and its survival in the mammalian host. L-arginine is also the substrate of macrophage nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that kills the parasite. This competition can define the fate of Leishmania infection.The transcriptomic profiling identified a family of oxidoreductases in L. (L.) amazonensis wild-type (La-WT) and L. (L.) amazonensis arginase knockout (La-arg-) promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. We highlighted the identification of an oxidoreductase that could act as nitric oxide synthase-like (NOS-like), due to the following evidences: conserved domain composition, the participation of NO production during the time course of promastigotes growth and during the axenic amastigotes differentiation, regulation dependence on arginase activity, as well as reduction of NO amount through the NOS activity inhibition. NO quantification was measured by DAF-FM labeling analysis in a flow cytometry.We described an arginase-dependent NOS-like activity in L. (L.) amazonensis and its role in the parasite growth. The increased detection of NO production in the mid-stationary and late-stationary growth phases of La-WT promastigotes could suggest that this production is an important factor to metacyclogenesis triggering. On the other hand, La-arg- showed an earlier increase in NO production compared to La-WT, suggesting that NO production can be arginase-dependent. Interestingly, La-WT and La-arg- axenic amastigotes produced higher levels of NO than those observed in promastigotes. As a conclusion, our work suggested that NOS-like is expressed in Leishmania in the stationary growth phase promastigotes and amastigotes, and could be correlated to metacyclogenesis and amastigotes growth in a dependent way to the internal pool of L-arginine and arginase activity.
Project description:Oxidative stress has been shown to convert endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) from an NO-producing enzyme to an enzyme that generates superoxide, a process termed NOS uncoupling. This uncoupling of eNOS converts it to function as an NADPH oxidase with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation. eNOS uncoupling has been associated with many pathophysiologic conditions, such as heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. The mechanisms implicated in the uncoupling of eNOS include oxidation of the critical NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, depletion of L-arginine, and accumulation of methylarginines. All of these prior mechanisms of eNOS-derived reactive oxygen species formation occur primarily at the heme of the oxygenase domain and are blocked by heme blockers or the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methylester. Recently, we have identified another unique mechanism of redox regulation of eNOS through S-glutathionylation that was shown to be important in cell signaling and vascular disease. Herein, we briefly review the mechanisms of eNOS uncoupling as well as their interrelationships and the evidence for their importance in disease.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Heart failure is a common antecedent to atrial fibrillation; both heart failure and atrial fibrillation are associated with increased myocardial oxidative stress. Chronic canine heart failure reduces atrial action potential duration and atrial refractoriness. We hypothesized that inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) contributes to atrial oxidative stress and electrophysiologic alterations.<h4>Methods and results</h4>A 16-week canine tachypacing model of heart failure was used (n= 21). At 10 weeks, dogs were randomized to either placebo (n = 12) or active treatment (n = 9) with NOS cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4), 50 mg), and NOS substrate (L-arginine, 3 g) twice daily for 6 weeks. A group of matched controls (n = 7) was used for comparison. Heart failure increased atrial NOS2 and reduced atrial BH(4), while L-arginine was unchanged. Treatment reduced inducible atrial fibrillation and normalized the heart failure-induced shortening of the left atrial myocyte action potential duration. Treatment increased atrial [BH(4)] while [L-arginine] was unchanged. Treatment did not improve left ventricular function or dimensions. Heart failure-induced reductions in atrial [BH(4)] resulted in NOS uncoupling, as measured by NO and superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)) production, while BH(4) and L-arginine treatment normalized NO and O(2)(·-). Heart failure resulted in left atrial oxidative stress, which was attenuated by BH(4) and L-arginine treatment.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Chronic non-ischaemic heart failure results in atrial oxidative stress and electrophysiologic abnormalities by depletion of BH(4) and uncoupling of NOS2. Modulation of NOS2 activity by repletion of BH(4) may be a safe and effective approach to reduce the frequency of atrial arrhythmias during heart failure.