Comparative aspects of the diffusion of norfloxacin, cefepime and spermine through the F porin channel of Enterobacter cloacae.
ABSTRACT: In Enterobacteriaceae, the permeability of the outer membrane to hydrophilic antibiotics is associated with the presence of pore-forming proteins. We tested the diffusion of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin in four Enterobacter cloacae strains: a clinical isolate and three derivatives variously producing or lacking the D and F porins. We analysed the entry of norfloxacin into E. cloacae cells in the presence of either the polyamine spermine or the recently developed cefepime, which are known to penetrate through the Escherichia coli OmpF porin. Uptake of the fluoroquinolone was decreased in both cases; the initial rate of penetration decreased as more spermine blocked the channel. Our results indicate that, like beta-lactam molecules, fluoroquinolones translocate through the outer membrane via the F porin and that cefepime and norfloxacin entries are polyamine-sensitive. This suggests that the closure of the F porin channel by polyamines might modulate the susceptibility of E. cloacae to both fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin antibiotics.
Project description:Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, converts the antibacterial fluoroquinolone norfloxacin to N-acetylnorfloxacin and three other metabolites. Because N-acetylation results in loss of antibacterial activity, identification of the enzyme responsible is important for understanding fluoroquinolone resistance. The enzyme was identified as glutamine synthetase (GS); N-acetylnorfloxacin was produced only under conditions associated with GS expression. The GS gene (glnA) was cloned, and the protein (53 kDa) was heterologously expressed and isolated. Optimal conditions and biochemical properties (K(m) and V(max)) of purified GS were characterized; the purified enzyme was inhibited by Mn(2+), Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP. The contribution of GS to norfloxacin resistance was shown by using a norfloxacin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain carrying glnA derived from Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2. The GS of Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2 was shown to act as an N-acetyltransferase for norfloxacin, which produced low-level norfloxacin resistance. Structural and docking analysis identified potential binding sites for norfloxacin at the ADP binding site and for acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) at a cleft in GS. The results suggest that environmental bacteria whose enzymes modify fluoroquinolones may be able to survive in the presence of low fluoroquinolone concentrations.
Project description:Norfloxacin belongs to the group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics which has been approved for treatment in animals. However, its residues in animal products can pose adverse side effects to consumer. Therefore, detection of the residue in different food matrices must be concerned. In this study, a single chain variable fragment (scFv) that recognizes norfloxacin antibiotic was constructed. The cDNA was synthesized from total RNA of hybridoma cells against norfloxacin. Genes encoding VH and VL regions of monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155) were amplified and size of VH and VL fragments was 402 bp and 363 bp, respectively. The scFv of Nor155 was constructed by an addition of (Gly4Ser)3 as a linker between VH and VL regions and subcloned into pPICZ?A, an expression vector of Pichia pastoris. The sequence of scFv Nor155 (GenBank No. AJG06891.1) was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The complementarity determining regions (CDR) I, II, and III of VH and VL were specified by Kabat method. The obtained recombinant plasmid will be useful for production of scFv antibody against norfloxacin in P. pastoris and further engineer scFv antibody against fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Shigella is a human pathogen that causes shigellosis, an acute invasive intestinal infection. Recent studies in the model bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) provided evidence that small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) can contribute to antimicrobial resistance or susceptibility. One of the sRNAs is SdsR, which increases sensitivity of E. coli against fluoroquinolone by repressing the drug efflux pump, TolC. However, no reports exist about the effect of SdsR on fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei). In this study, we established the effect of SdsR on the sensitivity of S. sonnei to norfloxacin. DATA DESCRIPTION:We tested the effects of SdsR and SdsRv2 on fluoroquinolone resistance in S. sonnei in vivo. SdsRv2 is a synthetic version which promotes higher binding stability to tolC mRNA. Overexpression of either SdsR or SdsRv2 lowers the expression of tolC mRNA. Interestingly, SdsR and SdsRv2 promote the growth of S. sonnei in the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of norfloxacin. Mutant carrying SdsRv2 showed the highest growth advantage. This phenotype is opposite to the effect of SdsR reported in E. coli. This study is an example that demonstrates the difference in the phenotypic effect of a highly conserved sRNA in two closely related bacteria.
Project description:Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 ?M copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 ?M copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Divalent ions are known to have a severe effect on the translocation of several antibiotic molecules into (pathogenic) bacteria. In the present study we have investigated the effect of divalent ions on the permeability of norfloxacin across the major outer membrane channels from <i>E. coli</i> (OmpF and OmpC) and <i>E. aerogenes</i> (Omp35 and Omp36) at the single channel level. To understand the rate limiting steps in permeation, we reconstituted single porins into planar lipid bilayers and analyzed the ion current fluctuations caused in the presence of norfloxacin. Moreover, to obtain an atomistic view, we complemented the experiments with millisecond-long free energy calculations based on temperature-accelerated Brownian dynamics simulations to identify the most probable permeation pathways of the antibiotics through the respective pores. Both, the experimental analysis and the computational modelling, suggest that norfloxacin is able to permeate through the larger porins, <i>i.e.</i>, OmpF, OmpC, and Omp35, whereas it only binds to the slightly narrower porin Omp36. Moreover, divalent ions can bind to negatively charged residues inside the porin, reversing the ion selectivity of the pore. In addition, the divalent ions can chelate with the fluoroquinolone molecules and alter their physicochemical properties. The results suggest that the conjugation with either pores or molecules must break when the antibiotic molecules pass the lumen of the porin, with the conjugation to the antibiotic being more stable than that to the respective pore. In general, the permeation or binding process of fluoroquinolones in porins occurs irrespective of the presence of divalent ions, but the presence of divalent ions can vary the kinetics significantly. Thus, a detailed investigation of the interplay of divalent ions with antibiotics and pores is of key importance in developing new antimicrobial drugs.
Project description:A new cocrystal of Norfloxacin, a poorly soluble fluoroquinolone antibiotic, has been synthetized by a solvent-mediated transformation experiment in toluene, using resorcinol as a coformer. The new cocrystal exists in both anhydrous and monohydrate forms with the same (1:1) Norfloxacin/resorcinol stoichiometry. The solubility of Norfloxacin and the hydrated cocrystal were determined by the shake-flask method. While Norfloxacin has a solubility of 0.32 ± 0.02 mg/mL, the cocrystal has a solubility of 2.64 ± 0.39 mg/mL, approximately 10-fold higher. The dissolution rate was tested at four biorelevant pH levels of the gastrointestinal tract: 2.0, 4.0, 5.5, and 7.4. In a first set of comparative tests, the dissolution rate of Norfloxacin and the cocrystal was determined separately at each pH value. Both solid forms showed the highest dissolution rate at pH 2.0, where Norfloxacin is totally protonated. Then, the dissolution rate decreases as pH increases. In a second set of experiments, the dissolution of the cocrystal was evaluated by a unique dissolution test, in which the pH dynamically changed from 2.0 to 7.4, stepping 30 min at each of the four biorelevant pH values. Results were quite different in this case, since dissolution at pH 2 affects the behavior of Norfloxacin at the rest of the pH values.
Project description:Antimicrobial residues found in municipal wastewater may increase selective pressure on microorganisms for development of resistance, but studies with mixed microbial cultures derived from wastewater have suggested that some bacteria are able to inactivate fluoroquinolones. Medium containing N-phenylpiperazine and inoculated with wastewater was used to enrich fluoroquinolone-modifying bacteria. One bacterial strain isolated from an enrichment culture was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as a Microbacterium sp. similar to a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Microbacterium azadirachtae (99.70%), and a nematode pathogen, "M. nematophilum" (99.02%). During growth in medium with norfloxacin, this strain produced four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses as 8-hydroxynorfloxacin, 6-defluoro-6-hydroxynorfloxacin, desethylene norfloxacin, and N-acetylnorfloxacin. The production of the first three metabolites was enhanced by ascorbic acid and nitrate, but it was inhibited by phosphate, amino acids, mannitol, formate, and thiourea. In contrast, N-acetylnorfloxacin was most abundant in cultures supplemented with amino acids. This is the first report of defluorination and hydroxylation of a fluoroquinolone by an isolated bacterial strain. The results suggest that some bacteria may degrade fluoroquinolones in wastewater to metabolites with less antibacterial activity that could be subject to further degradation by other microorganisms.
Project description:We report 2 independent patients from whom carbapenem and ceftazidime-avibactam-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex strains were identified. The ceftazidime-avibactam resistance was attributed to a 2-amino acid deletion in the R2 loop of AmpC β-lactamase, which concurrently caused resistance to cefepime and reduced susceptibility to cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin.
Project description:The outer membrane of mycobacteria presents an effective permeability barrier for many antibiotics. Transport pathways across this membrane are unknown for most drugs. Here, we examined which antibiotics utilize the porin pathway across the outer membrane of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. Deletion of the porins MspA and MspC drastically increased the resistance of M. smegmatis ML10 to beta-lactam antibiotics, while its beta-lactamase activity remained unchanged. These results are consistent with the ninefold-reduced outer membrane permeability of the M. smegmatis porin mutants for cephaloridine and strongly indicate that beta-lactam antibiotics rely on the porin pathway. The porin mutant ML10 accumulated less chloramphenicol and norfloxacin and was less susceptible to these antibiotics than wild-type M. smegmatis. These results demonstrated that small and hydrophilic antibiotics use the Msp porins for entering the cell. In contrast to norfloxacin, the hydrophobic moxifloxacin was 32-fold more effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis, presumably because it was able to diffuse through the lipid membrane. Structural models indicated that erythromycin, kanamycin, and vancomycin are too large to move through the MspA channel. This study presents the first experimental evidence that hydrophilic fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol diffuse through porins in mycobacteria. Thus, mutations resulting in less efficient porins or lower porin expression levels are likely to represent a mechanism for the opportunistic pathogens M. avium, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum, which have Msp-like porins, to acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones.
Project description:Despite many years of clinical experience with cefepime, data regarding the outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Enterobacter cloacae (Ecl) are scarce. To address the gap in our knowledge, 57 Ecl responsible for 51 BSIs were analysed implementing phenotypic and molecular methods (microarrays, PCRs for bla and other genes, rep-PCR to analyse clonality). Only two E. cloacae (3.5%) were ESBL-producers, whereas 34 (59.6%) and 18 (31.6%) possessed inducible (Ind-Ecl) or derepressed (Der-Ecl) AmpC enzymes, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Der-Ecl were highly resistant to ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam (both MIC???256 ?g/mL), whereas cefepime retained its activity (MIC?? of 3 ?g/mL). rep-PCR indicated that the isolates were sporadic, but Ecl collected from the same patients were indistinguishable. In particular, three BSIs initially due to Ind-Ecl evolved (under ceftriaxone or piperacillin/tazobactam treatment) into Der-Ecl because of mutations or a deletion in ampD or insertion of IS4321 in the promoter. These last two mechanisms have never been described in Ecl. Mortality was higher for BSIs due to Der-Ecl than Ind-Ecl (3.8% vs. 29.4%; P=0.028) and was associated with the Charlson co-morbidity index (P=0.046). Using the following directed treatments, patients with BSI showed a favourable treatment outcome: cefepime (16/18; 88.9%); carbapenems (12/13; 92.3%); ceftriaxone (4/7; 57.1%); piperacillin/tazobactam (5/7; 71.4%); and ciprofloxacin (6/6; 100%). Cefepime represents a safe therapeutic option and an alternative to carbapenems to treat BSIs due to Ecl when the prevalence of ESBL-producers is low.