Biogenesis of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in Ca2+ signalling during megakaryocytic differentiation: an in vitro study.
ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in Ca(2+) signalling through Ca(2+) release via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)-Rs) and Ca(2+) uptake by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs). Here, we investigated the organization of platelet ER and its biogenesis during megakaryocytopoiesis. First, erythro/megakaryoblastic MEG 01, UT7, M-O7e and CHRF 288-11 cell lines, platelets and thrombopoietin-induced UT7-Mpl cells were selected for the study of SERCA2b and SERCA3 proteins by Western blotting using the antibodies IID8 and PL/IM430, respectively. As judged by platelet glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) expression, an increase in SERCA3 proteins was observed while that of SERCA2b remained unchanged throughout maturation. Second, these studies were extended to the newly described alternatively spliced SERCA3a-c RNAs and InsP(3)-Rs using the in vitro model of PMA-induced differentiation of MEG 01 cells. Time-course and dose-response studies showed a maximal approx. 4-fold up-regulation of SERCA3 proteins using 10(-8) M PMA for 3 days, which paralleled induction of GPIIIa expression. SERCA3 induction was found to occur at the level of mRNA. The modulation of the different SERCA3 species (i.e. 3a, 3b and 3c) was isoform-specific: while SERCA3a was slightly increased, an approx. 3-fold induction of SERCA3b, and a 4-fold induction of SERCA3c, was observed after 24 h of PMA treatment. Isoform-specific Western blotting and/or reverse transcriptase PCR studies showed that InsP(3)-R types I, II and III are expressed in MEG 01 cells, as well as in platelets. Study of the expression of these InsP(3)-R types in PMA-induced MEG 01 cells revealed that: (i) InsP(3)-RI protein and mRNA showed no changes; (ii) InsP(3)-RII mRNA was up-regulated and peaked at hour 48 and (iii) InsP(3)-RIII mRNA and protein showed a transitory maximal 3- and 2.3-fold increase at hours 6 and 30, respectively. Upon PMA treatment of CHRF 288-11 cells, in which GPIIIa is not induced upon treatment, a similar pattern of regulation of InsP(3)-R types II and III was seen, but a distinct pattern of SERCA3 regulation was observed. These results suggest a profound reorganization of ER-protein patterns during megakaryocytopoiesis and underline the role of SERCA3 gene regulation in the control of Ca(2+)-dependent platelet functions.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes dengue fever in humans, which can lead to thrombocytopenia showing a marked reduction in platelet counts, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The virus may cause thrombocytopenia either by destroying the platelets or by interfering with their generation via the process of megakaryopoiesis. MEG-01 is the human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line that can be differentiated in vitro by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) treatment to produce platelet-like-particles (PLPs). We have studied DENV infection of MEG-01 cells to understand its effect on megakaryopoiesis and the generation of PLPs. We observed that DENV could infect only naive MEG-01 cells, and differentiated cells were refractory to virus infection/replication. However, DENV-infected MEG-01 cells, when induced for differentiation with PMA, supported an enhanced viral replication. Following the virus infection, the MEG-01 cells showed a marked reduction in the surface expression of platelet markers (CD41, CD42a, and CD61), a decreased polyploidy, and significantly reduced PLP counts. DENV infection caused an enhanced Notch signaling in MEG-01 cells where the virus envelope protein was shown to interact with TAL-1, a host protein important for megakaryopoiesis. These observations provide new insight into the role of DENV in modulating the megakaryopoiesis and platelet production process.
Project description:We retrospectively evaluated 48 essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients who were treated in our institute (male/female, 14/34, median age, 61.5 years). In 14 patients treated with anagrelide (ANA), the degree of platelet count reduction (median, -56.6%) was strongly correlated with increase of mean platelet volume (MPV) (median, +11.7%) (R = 0.777). This correlation was not observed in ET patients treated with hydroxycarbamide alone (R = 0.245). The change in size of platelets strongly suggested that ANA affected the final process of platelet production. Thus, we hypothesized that ANA modifies the process by which platelets are released from proplatelets. To verify the association in an in vitro setting, we compared MEG-01 cells treated with PMA ± ANA. The number of platelet-like particles (PLPs) was decreased (P < 0.05) and the size of PLPs estimated by using flow cytometry was significantly increased when MEG-01 cells were treated with PMA + ANA (P < 0.05 vs PMA alone), recapitulating the clinical findings. The cytoplasmic protrusions extending from MEG-01 cells were shorter and thicker and the number of proplatelets was decreased when MEG-01 cells were treated with PMA + ANA (P < 0.01 vs PMA alone). Western blotting analysis showed that ANA treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation of MLC2 and reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The morphological change of proplatelets were reversed by blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of myosin II. These findings indicated that ANA modulates the FAK-RhoA-ROCK-MLC2-myosine IIA pathway and suppresses proplatelet maturation, leading to a decrease in platelet count and increase in MPV.
Project description:The release of calcium ions (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and related store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) regulate maturation of normal megakaryocytes. The <i>N</i>-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) provides an additional mechanism for Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx in megakaryocytic cells, but its role remains unclear. We created a model of NMDAR hypofunction in Meg-01 cells using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated knockout of the <i>GRIN1</i> gene, which encodes an obligate, GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR. We found that compared with unmodified Meg-01 cells, Meg-01-<i>GRIN1</i> <sup>-/-</sup> cells underwent atypical differentiation biased toward erythropoiesis, associated with increased basal ER stress and cell death. Resting cytoplasmic Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels were higher in Meg-01-<i>GRIN1</i> <sup>-/-</sup> cells, but ER Ca<sup>2+</sup> release and SOCE were lower after activation. Lysosome-related organelles accumulated including immature dense granules that may have contributed an alternative source of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup>. Microarray analysis revealed that Meg-01-<i>GRIN1</i> <sup>-/-</sup> cells had deregulated expression of transcripts involved in Ca<sup>2+</sup> metabolism, together with a shift in the pattern of hematopoietic transcription factors toward erythropoiesis. In keeping with the observed pro-cell death phenotype induced by <i>GRIN1</i> deletion, memantine (NMDAR inhibitor) increased cytotoxic effects of cytarabine in unmodified Meg-01 cells. In conclusion, NMDARs comprise an integral component of the Ca<sup>2+</sup> regulatory network in Meg-01 cells that help balance ER stress and megakaryocytic-erythroid differentiation. We also provide the first evidence that megakaryocytic NMDARs regulate biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, including dense granules. Our results argue that intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis may be more important for normal megakaryocytic and erythroid differentiation than currently recognized; thus, modulation may offer therapeutic opportunities.
Project description:Megakaryocytopoiesis is a complex differentiation process driven by the hormone thrombopoietin by which haematopoietic progenitor cells give rise to megakaryocytes, the giant bone marrow cells that in turn break down to form blood platelets. The Tribbles Pseudokinase 3 gene (TRIB3) encodes a pleiotropic protein increasingly implicated in the regulation of cellular differentiation programmes. Previous studies have hinted that TRIB3 could be also involved in megakaryocytopoiesis but its role in this process has so far not been investigated. Using cellular model systems of haematopoietic lineage differentiation here we demonstrate that TRIB3 is a negative modulator of megakaryocytopoiesis. We found that in primary cultures derived from human haematopoietic progenitor cells, thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation led to a time and dose-dependent decrease in TRIB3 mRNA levels. In the haematopoietic cell line UT7/mpl, silencing of TRIB3 increased basal and thrombopoietin-stimulated megakaryocyte antigen expression, as well as basal levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In primary haematopoietic cell cultures, silencing of TRIB3 facilitated megakaryocyte differentiation. In contrast, over-expression of TRIB3 in these cells inhibited the differentiation process. The in-vitro identification of TRIB3 as a negative regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis suggests that in-vivo this gene could be important for the regulation of platelet production.
Project description:We report the first purification of a native human form of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 (InsP3) receptor. This receptor, isolated from platelets, has an apparent molecular mass on SDS/PAGE of 252 kDa and is chromatographed by gel filtration as an oligomer of about 1 x 10(6) kDa. [3H]InsP3 bound to a single class of sites on the purified receptor protein with a Kd of 27 nM and a Bmax. of 2.2 nmol/mg of protein. The platelet InsP3 receptor, like the rodent cerebellar receptors, was identified immunochemically as a type 1 receptor, but unlike its brain counterparts bound poorly to concanavalin A and other lectins and was not significantly phosphorylated by protein kinase A. All cultured megakaryocytic leukaemia cell lines (e.g. Dami, CHRF-288 and Meg-01) and HEL cells were also immunopositive for type 1 receptor, which was substantially increased in some cases by DMSO or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) which induce further megakaryocytic differentiation. Normal mixed lymphocyte and granulocyte fractions and an enriched T-cell fraction from human blood had measurable InsP3-binding activity, but no detectable type 1 protein. In contrast, Jurkat E6-1 (T-cell lymphoma) cells and the transformed B-cell line RPMI 8392 were immunopositive for type 1 receptor. HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukaemia) cells had no detectable type 1 receptor unless they were stimulated to differentiate along monocyte/macrophage lines by PMA. We conclude that: (1) of the major normal blood cells only platelets contain type 1 InsP3 receptors; (2) some neoplastic transformed blood cell lines also express type 1 receptors, in contrast to their normal counterparts; and (3) increased levels of type 1 InsP3 receptor are induced in some transformed cells under conditions that favour their further terminal differentiation.
Project description:Little is known about the global transcriptional program underlying megakaryocytic (Mk) differentiation, maturation, and apoptosis. Using DNA microarrays and Q-RT-PCR, we examined the transcriptional profile of phorbol-ester-induced Mk differentiation of the megakaryoblastic CHRF-288-11 (CHRF) cell line â a model system for investigating megakaryopoiesis. The goals of this study were to (1) verify the megakaryocytic nature of the CHRF cell line at the transcriptional level, and (2) extract novel insights into the key facets of Mk maturation including polyploidization, proplatelet formation, and apoptosis. Experiment Overall Design: CHRF-288 cells were cultured in the presence of 10 ng/mL phorbol ester (PMA) or equivalent volume of DMSO solvent (0.02%). Unstimulated control cells from time zero (exponentially growing CHRF cells) were also analyzed. For PMA treated legs, only the adherent cells were included in the transcriptional analysis. Two biological replicate experiments were analyzed and approximately one-half of the samples with each experiment were technically replicated. Hybridizations were performed in a reference design with all samples labeled with Cy3 and a reference RNA pool labeled with Cy5.
Project description:In order to examine genes whose expression is altered as a result of the knock-down (KD) of p53, we used gene expression microarray analysis based on the CHRF cell line, a human megakaryoblastic cell line, which upon PMA stimulation undergoes polyploidization, and extends proplatelet-like cytoplasmic protrusions combined with apoptosis. The CHRF cell line has been validated in our laboratory as a good model of in vitro megakaryopoiesis by comparison to hematopoietic stem cells undergoing Mk differentiation. As described, we have previously generated stable p53-KD CHRF cell lines by lentiviral delivery of microRNA-adapted-short hairpin sequences targeting p53 as well as a suitable scrambled-control cell line. For the microarray analysis we utilized the 4x44K whole human genome microarrays from Agilent. This analysis compared the p53-KD CHRF cells against the control CHRF cells in the absence of PMA treatment and on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after PMA treatment (5 time-points). p53-KD and control samples were hybridized against each other (direct comparison). We carried out two biological replicate experiments, i.e., 10 measurements of gene expression for each microarray probe. Probes from which >50% of measurements were missing were discarded and not included in the analysis of differential expression. Differentially expressed genes were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) with a false discovery rate (FDR) of less than 5%, as implemented in the MultiExperiment Viewer (MeV) tool.
Project description:P2X1 receptors play an important role in platelet function as they can induce shape change, granule centralization and are also involved in thrombus formation. As platelets have no nuclei, the level of P2X1 expression depends on transcriptional regulation in megakaryocytes, the platelet precursor cell. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating megakaryocytic P2X1 expression, this study aimed to identify and functionally characterize the P2X1 core promoter utilized in the human megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01.In order to identify cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of P2X1 expression, the ability of 4.7 kb P2X1 upstream sequence to drive luciferase reporter gene expression was tested. Low promoter activity was detected in proliferating MEG-01 cells. This activity increased 20-fold after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced differentiation. A transcription start site was detected 365 bp upstream of the start codon by primer extension. Deletion analysis of reporter constructs indicated a core promoter located within the region -68 to +149 bp that contained two Sp1 sites (named Sp1a and Sp1b) and an NF-1 site. Individual mutations of Sp1b or NF-1 binding sites severely reduced promoter activity whereas triple mutation of Sp1a, Sp1b and NF-1 sites completely abolished promoter activity in both untreated and PMA treated cells. Sp1/3 and NF-1 proteins were shown to bind their respective sites by EMSA and interaction of Sp1/3, NF-1 and TFIIB with the endogenous P2X1 core promoter in MEG-01 cells was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Alignment of P2X1 genes from human, chimp, rat, mouse and dog revealed consensus Sp1a, Sp1b and NF-1 binding sites in equivalent positions thereby demonstrating evolutionary conservation of these functionally important sites.This study has identified and characterized the P2X1 promoter utilized in MEG-01 cells and shown that binding of Sp1/3 and NF-1 to elements in the direct vicinity of the transcription start site is essential for basal transcription. Targeting the function of these transcription factors in megakaryocytes may therefore provide a basis for the future therapeutic manipulation of platelet P2X1 function.
Project description:The molecular cloning of two previously unknown human sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 3 (SERCA3) 3'-end transcripts, 3b and 3c, has been recently published. Data were lacking, however, for the presence of these SERCA3 variants in different tissue or cell types at the protein level. Here we report the co-expression of three human SERCA3 protein isoforms in platelets and T lymphoid Jurkat cells. Isoform-specific polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies have been generated that recognize specifically the SERCA3a, 3b or 3c splice variants at their C-termini, and this has been confirmed by peptide-competition experiments as well. None of these antibodies cross-reacted with the housekeeping SERCA2b isoform co-expressed endogenously with SERCA3 proteins in non-muscle cells. Although all three SERCA3 isoforms could be detected in platelets, the 3a form was the most abundantly expressed species. Its size matched the apparent size of SERCA3a over-expressed in HEK-293 cells. Immunoprecipitation of the SERCA3 variants from platelet membranes using a PL/IM 430-affinity matrix provided evidence that the putative pan-anti-SERCA3 antibody, PL/IM 430, recognizes all SERCA3 protein isoforms. The epitope for the PL/IM 430 antibody could be localized in a 40 kDa N-terminal tryptic fragment common to all three SERCA3 variants. Comparative Western-blot analysis showed that the expression level of the SERCA3a, 3b and 3c isoforms was more than 10 times lower in Jurkat cells than in platelets, whereas expression of the ubiquitous SERCA2b was nearly identical. This work highlights new Ca(2+)-transporting proteins of haematopoietic cells and provides specific antibodies for their detection.
Project description:Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depends on Ca(2+); uptake of Ca(2+) into the ER is mediated by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 3 (SERCA3). The 5'-flanking region of the SERCA3 gene (ATP2A3) contains numerous binding sites for the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. Biotin affects the nuclear abundance of Sp1 and Sp3, which may act as transcriptional activators or repressors. Here we determined whether biotin affects the expression of the SERCA3 gene and, thus, protein folding in human lymphoid cells. Jurkat cells were cultured in media containing 0.025 nmol/L biotin (denoted "deficient") or 10 nmol/L biotin ("supplemented"). The transcriptional activity of the full-length human SERCA3 promoter was 50% lower in biotin-supplemented cells compared to biotin-deficient cells. Biotin-dependent repressors bind to elements located 731-1312 bp upstream from the transcription start site in the SERCA3 gene. The following suggest that low expression of SERCA3 in biotin-supplemented cells impaired folding of secretory proteins in the ER, triggering unfolded protein response: (i) sequestration of Ca(2+) in the ER decreased by 14-24% in response to biotin supplementation; (ii) secretion of interleukin-2 into the extracellular space decreased by 75% in response to biotin supplementation; (iii) the nuclear abundance of stress-induced transcription factors increased in response to biotin supplementation; and (iv) the abundance of stress-related proteins such ubiquitin activating enzyme 1, growth arrest and DNA damage 153 gene, X-box binding protein 1 and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha increased in response to biotin supplementation. Collectively, this study suggests that supplements containing pharmacological doses of biotin may cause cell stress by impairing protein folding in the ER.