Identification of transient glycosylation alterations of sialylated mucin oligosaccharides during infection by the rat intestinal parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.
ABSTRACT: The sialylation of the oligosaccharides from small-intestinal mucins during a 13-day infectious cycle was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats with the parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Sialic acid analysis and release, permethylation and analysis by GC-MS of the sialylated oligosaccharides isolated from the 'insoluble' mucin complex revealed a relative decrease (4-7-fold) of N-glycolylneuraminic acid compared with N-acetylneuraminic acid just before parasite expulsion. Northern blots showed that this effect was due to the decreased expression of a hydroxylase converting CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid into CMP-N-glycolylneuraminic acid. Analysis of other rat strains showed that this parasite infection also caused the same effect in these animals. Detailed analysis of infected Sprague-Dawley rats revealed four sialylated oligosaccharides not found in the uninfected animals. These new oligosaccharides were characterized in detail and all shown to contain the trisaccharide epitope NeuAc/NeuGcalpha2-3(GalNAcbeta1-4)Galbeta1 (where NeuGc is N-glycolyl neuraminic acid). This epitope is similar to the Sd(a)- and Cad-type blood-group antigens and suggests that the infection causes the induction of a GalNAcbeta1-4 glycosyltransferase. This model for an intestinal infection suggests that the glycosylation of intestinal mucins is a dynamic process being modulated by the expression of specific enzymes during an infection process.
Project description:Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic parasite transmitted from macaques causing malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium parasites bind to red blood cell (RBC) surface receptors, many of which are sialylated. While macaques synthesize the sialic acid variant N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), humans cannot because of a mutation in the enzyme CMAH that converts N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to Neu5Gc. Here we reconstitute CMAH in human RBCs for the reintroduction of Neu5Gc, which results in enhancement of P. knowlesi invasion. We show that two P. knowlesi invasion ligands, PkDBP? and PkDBP?, bind specifically to Neu5Gc-containing receptors. A human-adapted P. knowlesi line invades human RBCs independently of Neu5Gc, with duplication of the sialic acid-independent invasion ligand, PkDBP? and loss of PkDBP?. Our results suggest that absence of Neu5Gc on human RBCs limits P. knowlesi invasion, but that parasites may evolve to invade human RBCs through the use of sialic acid-independent pathways.
Project description:CstII from bacterium Campylobacter jejuni strain OH4384 has been previously characterized as a bifunctional sialyltransferase having both alpha2,3-sialyltransferase (GM3 oligosaccharide synthase) and alpha2,8-sialyltransferase (GD3 oligosaccharide synthase) activities which catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP)-Neu5Ac to C-3' of the galactose in lactose and to C-8 of the Neu5Ac in 3'-sialyllactose, respectively (Gilbert M, Karwaski MF, Bernatchez S, Young NM, Taboada E, Michniewicz J, Cunningham AM, Wakarchuk WW. 2002. The genetic bases for the variation in the lipo-oligosaccharide of the mucosal pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni. Biosynthesis of sialylated ganglioside mimics in the core oligosaccharide. J Biol Chem. 277:327-337). We report here the characterization of a truncated CstII mutant (CstIIDelta32(I53S)) cloned from a synthetic gene whose codons are optimized for an Escherichia coli expression system. In addition to the alpha2,3- and alpha2,8-sialyltransferase activities reported before for the synthesis of GM3- and GD3-type oligosaccharides, respectively, the CstIIDelta32(I53S) has alpha2,8-sialyltransferase (GT3 oligosaccharide synthase) activity for the synthesis of GT3 oligosaccharide. It also has alpha2,8-sialidase (GD3 oligosaccharide sialidase) activity that catalyzes the specific cleavage of the alpha2,8-sialyl linkage of GD3-type oligosaccharides and alpha2,8-trans-sialidase (GD3 oligosaccharide trans-sialidase) activity that catalyzes the transfer of a sialic acid from a GD3 oligosaccharide to a different GM3 oligosaccharide (3'-sialyllactoside). The donor substrate specificity study of the CstIIDelta32(I53S) GD3 oligosaccharide synthase activity indicates that the enzyme is flexible in using different CMP-activated sialic acids and their analogs for the synthesis of GD3 oligosaccharides containing natural and nonnatural modifications at the terminal sialic acid.
Project description:Bacterial ?(2,6)-sialyltransferases (STs) from Photobacterium damsela, Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224, and P. leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145 were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and their ST activities were compared directly using a galactosylated bi-antennary N-glycan as an acceptor substrate. In all ST reactions, there was an increase of sialylated glycans at shorter reaction times and later a decrease in prolonged reactions, which is related with the inherent sialidase activities of bacterial STs. These sialidase activities are greatly increased by free cytidine monophosphate (CMP) generated from a donor substrate CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) during the ST reactions. The decrease of sialylated glycans in prolonged ST reaction was prevented through an inhibition of sialidase activity by simple treatment of alkaline phosphatase (AP), which dephosphorylates CMP to cytidine. Through supplemental additions of AP and CMP-Neu5Ac to the reaction using the recombinant ?(2,6)-ST from P. leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145 (P145-ST), the content of bi-sialylated N-glycan increased up to ~98% without any decrease in prolonged reactions. This optimized P145-ST reaction was applied successfully for ?(2,6)-sialylation of asialofetuin, and this resulted in a large increase in the populations of multi-sialylated N-glycans compared with the reaction without addition of AP and CMP-Neu5Ac. These results suggest that the optimized reaction using the recombinant P145-ST readily expressed from E. coli has a promise for economic glycan synthesis and glyco-conjugate remodeling.
Project description:A facile one-pot two-enzyme chemoenzymatic approach has been established for the gram (Neu4,5Ac2?3Lac, 1.33 g) and preparative scale (Neu4,5Ac2?3LNnT) synthesis of monotreme milk oligosaccharides. Other O-acetyl-5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu4,5Ac2)- or 4-O-acetyl-5-N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu4Ac5Gc) -containing ?2-3-sialosides have also been synthesized in the preparative scale. Used as an effective probe, Neu4,5Ac2?3Gal?pNP was found to be a suitable substrate by human influenza A viruses but not bacterial sialidases.
Project description:The Gram-negative bacteria Campylobactor jejuni is the primary bacteria responsible for food poisoning in industrialized countries, and acute diarrheal illness is a leading cause of mortality among children in developing countries. C. jejuni are commensal in chickens. They are particularly abundant in the caecal crypts, and poultry products are commonly infected as a result of cross-contamination during processing. The interactions between C. jejuni and chicken intestinal tissues as well as the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of colonization in humans are unknown, but identifying these factors could provide potential targets to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis. Recently, purified chicken intestinal mucin was shown to attenuate adherence and invasion of C. jejuni in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-8 in vitro, and this effect was attributed to mucin O-glycosylation. Mucins from different regions of the chicken intestine inhibited C. jejuni binding and internalization differentially, with large intestine>small intestine>caecum. Here, we use LC-MS to perform a detailed structural analysis of O-glycans released from mucins purified from chicken large intestine, small intestine, and caecum. The O-glycans identified were abundantly sulfated compared with the human intestines, and sulfate moieties were present throughout the chicken intestinal tract. Interestingly, alpha 1-2 linked fucose residues, which have a high binding affinity to C. jejuni, were identified in the small and large intestines. Additionally, N-glycolylneuraminic/N-acetylneuraminic acid containing structures present as Sd(a)-like epitopes were identified in large intestine samples but not small intestine or caecum. O-glycan structural characterization of chicken intestinal mucins provides insights into adherence and invasion properties of C. jejuni, and may offer prospective candidate molecules aimed at reducing the incidence of infection.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human-adapted pathogen that encounters terminally sialylated glycoconjugates and free sialic acid (Sia) in the airways. Upon scavenging by the bacterial sialidase NanA, Sias serve as carbon sources for the bacteria. Unlike most animals in which cytidine-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) converts Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) into N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), humans have an inactive CMAH, causing an absence of Neu5Gc and excess Neu5Ac. We find that pneumococcal challenge in Cmah(-/-) mice leads to heightened bacterial loads, virulence, and NanA expression. In vitro, NanA is upregulated in response to Neu5Ac compared with Neu5Gc, a process controlled by the two-component response regulator CiaR and requiring Sia uptake by the transporter SatABC. Additionally, compared with Neu5Gc, Neu5Ac increases pneumococcal resistance to antimicrobial reactive oxygen species in a CiaR-dependent manner. Thus, S. pneumoniae senses and responds to Neu5Ac, leading to CiaR activation and increased virulence and potentially explaining the greater susceptibility in humans.
Project description:Sialyltransferases transfer sialic acid from cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to an acceptor molecule. Trans-sialidases of parasites transfer alpha2,3-linked sialic acid from one molecule to another without the involvement of CMP-NeuAc. Here we report another type of sialylation, termed reverse sialylation, catalyzed by mammalian sialyltransferase ST3Gal-II. This enzyme synthesizes CMP-NeuAc by transferring NeuAc from the NeuAcalpha2,3Galbeta1,3GalNAcalpha unit of O-glycans, 3-sialyl globo unit of glycolipids, and sialylated macromolecules to 5'-CMP. CMP-NeuAc produced in situ is utilized by the same enzyme to sialylate other O-glycans and by other sialyltransferases such as ST6Gal-I and ST6GalNAc-I, forming alpha2,6-sialylated compounds. ST3Gal-II also catalyzed the conversion of 5'-uridine monophosphate (UMP) to UMP-NeuAc, which was found to be an inactive sialyl donor. Reverse sialylation proceeded without the need for free sialic acid, divalent metal ions, or energy. Direct sialylation with CMP-NeuAc as well as the formation of CMP-NeuAc from 5'-CMP had a wide optimum range (pH 5.2-7.2 and 4.8-6.4, respectively), whereas the entire reaction comprising in situ production of CMP-NeuAc and sialylation of acceptor had a sharp optimum at pH 5.6 (activity level 50% at pH 5.2 and 6.8, 25% at pH 4.8 and 7.2). Several properties distinguish forward/conventional versus reverse sialylation: (i) sodium citrate inhibited forward sialylation but not reverse sialylation; (ii) 5'-CDP, a potent forward sialyltransferase inhibitor, did not inhibit the conversion of 5'-CMP to CMP-NeuAc; and (iii) the mucin core 2 compound 3-O-sulfoGalbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,6(Galbeta1,3)GalNAcalpha-O-benzyl, an efficient acceptor for ST3Gal-II, inhibited the conversion of 5'-CMP to CMP-NeuAc. A significant level of reverse sialylation activity is noted in human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3. Overall, the study demonstrates that the sialyltransferase reaction is readily reversible in the case of ST3Gal-II and can be exploited for the enzymatic synthesis of diverse sialyl products.
Project description:We previously described a transgenic insect cell line, Sfbeta4GalT/ST6, that expresses mammalian beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase and alpha2,6-sialyltransferase genes and produces glycoproteins with terminally sialylated N-glycans. The ability of these cells to produce sialylated N-glycans was surprising because insect cells contain only small amounts of sialic acid and no detectable CMP-sialic acid. Thus, it was of interest to investigate potential sources of sialic acids for sialoglycoprotein synthesis by these cells. We found that Sfbeta4GalT/ST6 cells can produce sialylated N-glycans when cultured in the presence but not in the absence of fetal bovine serum. The serum component(s) supporting N-glycan sialylation by Sfbeta4GalT/ST6 cells is relatively large-it was not removed by dialysis in a 50,000-molecular-weight cutoff membrane. Serum-free media supplemented with purified fetuin but not asialofetuin supported N-glycan sialylation by Sfbeta4GalT/ST6 cells. The terminally sialylated N-glycans isolated from fetuin also supported glycoprotein sialylation by Sfbeta4GalT/ST6 cells. Finally, serum-free medium supplemented with N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-acetylmannosamine supported glycoprotein sialylation by Sfbeta4GalT/ST6 cells but to a much lower degree than serum or fetuin. These results provide the first evidence of a sialic acid salvaging pathway in insect cells, which begins to explain how Sfbeta4GalT/ST6 and other transgenic insect cell lines can sialylate recombinant glycoproteins in the absence of a more obvious source of CMP-sialic acid.
Project description:Sialylation of recombinant therapeutic glycoproteins modulates their pharmacokinetic properties by affecting their in vivo half-life. N-glycan branching on glycoproteins increases the number of potential attachment sites for sialic acid. Here, we introduce a new approach for increasing the sialylation of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) produced in CHO cells by modulating poly-N-acetyllactosamine (poly-LacNAc) biosynthesis. We did not observe an increase in rhEPO sialylation, however, until the feedback inhibition by intracellular cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), which is a limiting factor for sialylation, was released. Thus, we found that a combined approach inhibiting poly-LacNAc biosynthesis and releasing CMP-Neu5Ac feedback inhibition produces the most significant increase in rhEPO sialylation in metabolically engineered CHO cells. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the resulting N-glycan structures using LC/MS revealed increased tri- and tetra- sialylated N-glycan structures accompanied by a reduction of di-sialylated N-glycan structures. These results validate our new approach for glycosylation engineering, and we expect this approach will be useful in future efforts to enhance the efficacy of other therapeutic glycoproteins.
Project description:The two major mammalian sialic acids are N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The only known biosynthetic pathway generating Neu5Gc is the conversion of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid into CMP-Neu5Gc, which is catalyzed by the CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase enzyme. Given the irreversible nature of this reaction, there must be pathways for elimination or degradation of Neu5Gc, which would allow animal cells to adjust Neu5Gc levels to their needs. Although humans are incapable of synthesizing Neu5Gc due to an inactivated CMAH gene, exogenous Neu5Gc from dietary sources can be metabolically incorporated into tissues in the face of an anti-Neu5Gc antibody response. However, the metabolic turnover of Neu5Gc, which apparently prevents human cells from continued accumulation of this immunoreactive sialic acid, has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that pre-loaded Neu5Gc is eliminated from human cells over time, and we propose a conceivable Neu5Gc-degrading pathway based on the well studied metabolism of N-acetylhexosamines. We demonstrate that murine tissue cytosolic extracts harbor the enzymatic machinery to sequentially convert Neu5Gc into N-glycolylmannosamine, N-glycolylglucosamine, and N-glycolylglucosamine 6-phosphate, whereupon irreversible de-N-glycolylation of the latter results in the ubiquitous metabolites glycolate and glucosamine 6-phosphate. We substantiate this finding by demonstrating activity of recombinant human enzymes in vitro and by studying the fate of radiolabeled pathway intermediates in cultured human cells, suggesting that this pathway likely occurs in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed degradative pathway is partially reversible, showing that N-glycolylmannosamine and N-glycolylglucosamine (but not glycolate) can serve as precursors for biosynthesis of endogenous Neu5Gc.