Phospholamban remains associated with the Ca2+- and Mg2+-dependent ATPase following phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
ABSTRACT: We have used fluorescence and spin-label EPR spectroscopy to investigate how the phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLB) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) modifies structural interactions between PLB and the Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase (Ca-ATPase) that result in enzyme activation. Following covalent modification of N-terminal residues of PLB with dansyl chloride or the spin label 4-isothiocyanato-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl ('ITC-TEMPO'), we have co-reconstituted PLB with affinity-purified Ca-ATPase isolated from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with full retention of catalytic function. The Ca(2+)-dependence of the ATPase activity of this reconstituted preparation is virtually identical with that observed using native cardiac SR before and after PLB phosphorylation, indicating that co-reconstituted sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 1 (SERCA1) and PLB provide an equivalent experimental model for SERCA2a-PLB interactions. Phosphorylation of PLB in the absence of the Ca-ATPase results in a greater amplitude of rotational mobility, suggesting that the structural linkage between the transmembrane region and the N-terminus is destabilized. However, whereas co-reconstitution with the Ca-ATPase restricts the amplitude of rotational motion of PLB, subsequent phosphorylation of PLB does not significantly alter its rotational dynamics. Thus structural interactions between PLB and the Ca-ATPase that restrict the rotational mobility of the N-terminus of PLB are retained following the phosphorylation of PLB by PKA. On the other hand, the fluorescence intensity decay of bound dansyl is sensitive to the phosphorylation state of PLB, indicating that there are changes in the tertiary structure of PLB coincident with enzyme activation. These results suggest that PLB phosphorylation alters its structural interactions with the Ca-ATPase by inducing structural rearrangements between PLB and the Ca-ATPase within a defined complex that modulates Ca(2+)-transport function.
Project description:We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to probe the homo- and heterooligomeric interactions of reconstituted sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) and its regulator phospholamban (PLB). SERCA is responsible for restoring calcium to the sarcoplasmic reticulum to allow muscle relaxation, whereas PLB inhibits cardiac SERCA unless phosphorylated at Ser(16). To determine whether changes in protein association play essential roles in regulation, we detected the microsecond rotational diffusion of both proteins using saturation transfer EPR. Peptide synthesis was used to create a fully functional and monomeric PLB mutant with a spin label rigidly coupled to the backbone of the transmembrane helix, while SERCA was reacted with a Cys-specific spin label. Saturation transfer EPR revealed that sufficiently high lipid/protein ratios minimized self-association for both proteins. Under these dilute conditions, labeled PLB was substantially immobilized after co-reconstitution with unlabeled SERCA, reflecting their association to form the regulatory complex. Ser(16) phosphorylation slightly increased this immobilization. Complementary measurements with labeled SERCA showed no change in mobility after co-reconstitution with unlabeled PLB, regardless of its phosphorylation state. We conclude that phosphorylating monomeric PLB can relieve SERCA inhibition without changes in the oligomeric states of these proteins, indicating a structural rearrangement within the heterodimeric regulatory complex.
Project description:We have used site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to map interactions between the transmembrane (TM) domains of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and phospholamban (PLB) as affected by PLB phosphorylation. In the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, PLB binding to SERCA results in Ca-dependent enzyme inhibition, which is reversed by PLB phosphorylation at Ser16. Previous spectroscopic studies on SERCA-PLB have largely focused on the cytoplasmic domain of PLB, showing that phosphorylation induces a structural shift in this domain relative to SERCA. However, SERCA inhibition is due entirely to TM domain interactions. Therefore, we focus here on PLB's TM domain, attaching Cys-reactive spin labels at five different positions. In each case, continuous-wave EPR indicated moderate spin-label mobility, with the addition of SERCA revealing two populations, one indistinguishable from PLB alone and another with more restricted rotational mobility, presumably due to SERCA-binding. Phosphorylation had no effect on the rotational mobility of either component but significantly decreased the mole fraction of the restricted component. Solvent-accessibility experiments using power-saturation EPR and saturation-recovery EPR confirmed that these two spectral components were SERCA-bound and unbound PLB and showed that phosphorylation increased the overall lipid accessibility of the TM domain by increasing the fraction of unbound PLB. However-based on these results-at physiological levels of SERCA and PLB, most SERCA would have bound PLB even after phosphorylation. Additionally, no structural shift in the TM domain of SERCA-bound PLB was detected, as there were no significant changes in membrane insertion depth or its accessibility. Therefore, we conclude that under physiological conditions, the phosphorylation of PLB induces little or no change in the interaction of the TM domain with SERCA, so relief of inhibition is predominantly due to the previously observed structural shift in the cytoplasmic domain.
Project description:Oligomeric interactions between Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains and their modulation by phospholamban (PLB) were measured in native cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) microsomes. Progressive modification of Lys(514) with fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate (FITC), which physically blocks access to the nucleotide binding site by ATP, demonstrates that Ca-ATPase active sites function independently of one another prior to the phosphorylation of PLB. However, upon cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation of PLB, a second-order dependence between residual enzyme activity and the fraction of active sites is observed, consistent with a dimeric functional complex. Complementary distance measurements were made using FITC or 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein (IAF) bound to Cys(674) within the N- or P-domains, respectively, to detect structural coupling within oligomeric complexes. Accompanying the phosphorylation of PLB, neighboring Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains exhibit a 4 +/- 2 A decrease in the proximity between FITC sites within the N-domain and a 9 +/- 3 A increase in the proximity between IAF sites within P-domains. Thus, the phosphorylation of PLB induces spatial rearrangements between the N- and P-domain elements of proximal Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains which restore functional interactions between neighboring polypeptide chains and, in turn, result in increased rates of catalytic turnover. These results are interpreted in terms of a structural model, calculated through optimization of shape complementarity, desolvation, and electrostatic energies, which suggests a dimeric arrangement of Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains through the proximal association of N-domains that accommodates interaction with PLB. We suggest that the phosphorylation of PLB acts to release constraints involving interdomain subunit interactions that enhance catalytically important N-domain motions.
Project description:We have used time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) to characterize the interaction between phospholamban (PLB) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca-ATPase (SERCA) under conditions that relieve SERCA inhibition. Unphosphorylated PLB inhibits SERCA in cardiac SR, but inhibition is relieved by either micromolar Ca(2+) or PLB phosphorylation. In both cases, it has been proposed that inhibition is relieved by dissociation of the complex. To test this hypothesis, we attached fluorophores to the cytoplasmic domains of SERCA and PLB, and reconstituted them functionally in lipid bilayers. TR-FRET, which permitted simultaneous measurement of SERCA-PLB binding and structure, was measured as a function of PLB phosphorylation and [Ca(2+)]. In all cases, two structural states of the SERCA-PLB complex were resolved, probably corresponding to the previously described T and R structural states of the PLB cytoplasmic domain. Phosphorylation of PLB at S16 completely relieved inhibition, partially dissociated the SERCA-PLB complex, and shifted the T/R equilibrium within the bound complex toward the R state. Since the PLB concentration in cardiac SR is at least 10 times that in our FRET measurements, we calculate that most of SERCA contains bound phosphorylated PLB in cardiac SR, even after complete phosphorylation. 4 ?M Ca(2+) completely relieved inhibition but did not induce a detectable change in SERCA-PLB binding or cytoplasmic domain structure, suggesting a mechanism involving structural changes in SERCA's transmembrane domain. We conclude that Ca(2+) and PLB phosphorylation relieve SERCA-PLB inhibition by distinct mechanisms, but both are achieved primarily by structural changes within the SERCA-PLB complex, not by dissociation of that complex.
Project description:P-type ATPases are a large family of enzymes that actively transport ions across biological membranes by interconverting between high (E1) and low (E2) ion-affinity states; these transmembrane transporters carry out critical processes in nearly all forms of life. In striated muscle, the archetype P-type ATPase, SERCA (sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase), pumps contractile-dependent Ca(2+) ions into the lumen of sarcoplasmic reticulum, which initiates myocyte relaxation and refills the sarcoplasmic reticulum in preparation for the next contraction. In cardiac muscle, SERCA is regulated by phospholamban (PLB), a small inhibitory phosphoprotein that decreases the Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA and attenuates contractile strength. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of PLB reverses Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibition with powerful contractile effects. Here we present the long sought crystal structure of the PLB-SERCA complex at 2.8-Å resolution. The structure was solved in the absence of Ca(2+) in a novel detergent system employing alkyl mannosides. The structure shows PLB bound to a previously undescribed conformation of SERCA in which the Ca(2+) binding sites are collapsed and devoid of divalent cations (E2-PLB). This new structure represents one of the key unsolved conformational states of SERCA and provides a structural explanation for how dephosphorylated PLB decreases Ca(2+) affinity and depresses cardiac contractility.
Project description:The Ca(2+)-ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum has been reconstituted with peptides corresponding to the hydrophobic domain of phospholamban (PLB) with or without the three Cys residues replaced by Ala, and with PLB with the three Cys residues replaced by Ala [PLBcys-(1-52)]. Reconstitution with the hydrophobic domain of PLB[PLB(25-52)] was found to decrease the apparent affinity of the ATPase for Ca2+ with no effect on the maximal rate of ATP hydrolysis observed at saturating concentrations of Ca2+. Reconstitution with PLBCys-(1-52) decreased both the apparent affinity for Ca2+ and the maximal activity; the effect on maximal activity followed from a decrease in the rate of the Ca2+ transport step (E1PCa2-->E2P) as observed with the hydrophilic domain PLB(1-25). The concentration dependences of the effects of the hydrophobic domain and of the whole PLB molecule were very similar, suggesting that the hydrophilic domain made little contribution to the affinity of the ATPase for PLB. The effect of PLB on the ATPase was dependent on the molar ratio of phospholipid to ATPase, suggesting partition of the PLB between its binding site on the ATPase and the bulk lipid phase in the membrane. Neither PLB nor its hydrophobic domain affected the rates of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of the ATPase. Despite their effects on the apparent affinity of the ATPase for Ca2+, neither PLB nor its hydrophobic domain had any effect on the true affinity of the ATPase for Ca2+, as measured from changes in the tryptophan fluorescence of the ATPase. The effects of PLB on the activity of the ATPase are the sum of the effects of its hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains.
Project description:Phospholamban (PLB) is a membrane protein that regulates heart muscle relaxation rates via interactions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). When PLB is phosphorylated or Arg9Cys (R9C) is mutated, inhibition of SERCA is relieved. (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy is utilized to investigate conformational changes of PLB upon phosphorylation and R9C mutation. (13)C═O NMR spectra of the cytoplasmic domain reveal two α-helical structural components with population changes upon phosphorylation and R9C mutation. The appearance of an unstructured component is observed on domain Ib. (15)N NMR spectra indicate an increase in backbone dynamics of the cytoplasmic domain. Wild-type PLB (WT-PLB), Ser16-phosphorylated PLB (P-PLB), and R9C-mutated PLB (R9C-PLB) all have a very dynamic domain Ib, and the transmembrane domain has an immobile component. (15)N NMR spectra indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of R9C-PLB adopts an orientation similar to P-PLB and shifts away from the membrane surface. Domain Ib (Leu28) of P-PLB and R9C-PLB loses the alignment. The R9C-PLB adopts a conformation similar to P-PLB with a population shift to a more extended and disordered state. The NMR data suggest the more extended and disordered forms of PLB may relate to inhibition relief.
Project description:Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and phospholamban (PLB) are essential components of the cardiac Ca2+ transport machinery. PLB phosphorylation at residue Ser16 (pSer16) enhances SERCA activity in the heart via an unknown structural mechanism. Here, we report a fully atomistic model of SERCA bound to phosphorylated PLB and study its structural dynamics on the microsecond time scale using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in an explicit lipid bilayer and water environment. The unstructured N-terminal phosphorylation domain of PLB samples different orientations and covers a broad area of the cytosolic domain of SERCA but forms a stable complex mediated by pSer16 interactions with a binding site formed by SERCA residues Arg324/Lys328. PLB phosphorylation does not affect the interaction between the transmembrane regions of the two proteins; however, pSer16 stabilizes a disordered structure of the N-terminal phosphorylation domain that releases key inhibitory contacts between SERCA and PLB. We found that PLB phosphorylation is sufficient to guide the structural transitions of the cytosolic headpiece that are required to produce a competent structure of SERCA. We conclude that PLB phosphorylation serves as an allosteric molecular switch that releases inhibitory contacts and strings together the catalytic elements required for SERCA activation. This atomistic model represents a vivid atomic-resolution visualization of SERCA bound to phosphorylated PLB and provides previously inaccessible insights into the structural mechanism by which PLB phosphorylation releases SERCA inhibition in the heart.
Project description:Phospholamban (PLB) is a pentameric protein that plays an important role in regulating cardiac contractility via a reversible inhibitory association with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ATPase (SERCA), the enzyme responsible for maintaining correct calcium homeostasis. Here we study the functional and biophysical characteristics of a PLB mutant associated with human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), with a deletion of arginine at position 14 (PLBR14Δ). In agreement with recent findings, we find that PLBR14Δ has a reduced inhibitory effect on SERCA compared to wild type PLB (PLBWT) when reconstituted into lipid membranes. The mutation also leads to a large reduction in the protein kinase A-catalysed phosphorylation of Ser-16 in the cytoplasmic domain of PLBR14Δ. Measurements on SERCA co-reconstituted with an equimolar mixture of PLBWT and PLBR14Δ (representing the lethal heterozygous state associated with DCM) indicates that the loss-of-function mutation has a dominant effect on PLBWT functionality and phosphorylation capacity, suggesting that mixed PLBWT/PLBR14Δ pentamers are formed that have characteristics typical of the mutant protein. Structural and biophysical analysis of PLBR14Δ indicates that the mutation perturbs slightly the helical structure of the PLB cytoplasmic domain and reduces its affinity for the phospholipid bilayer surface, thereby altering the orientation of the cytoplasmic domain relative to the wild-type protein. These results indicate that the structure and function consequences of the R14 deletion have profound effects on the regulation of SERCA which may contribute to the aetiology of DCM.
Project description:Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3) regulates cAMP-mediated signaling in the heart, and PDE3 inhibitors augment contractility in patients with heart failure. Studies in mice showed that PDE3A, not PDE3B, is the subfamily responsible for these inotropic effects and that murine PDE3A1 associates with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2 (SERCA2), phospholamban (PLB), and AKAP18 in a multiprotein signalosome in human sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that PDE3A co-localizes in Z-bands of human cardiac myocytes with desmin, SERCA2, PLB, and AKAP18. In human SR fractions, cAMP increased PLB phosphorylation and SERCA2 activity; this was potentiated by PDE3 inhibition but not by PDE4 inhibition. During gel filtration chromatography of solubilized SR membranes, PDE3 activity was recovered in distinct high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) peaks. HMW peaks contained PDE3A1 and PDE3A2, whereas LMW peaks contained PDE3A1, PDE3A2, and PDE3A3. Western blotting showed that endogenous HMW PDE3A1 was the principal PKA-phosphorylated isoform. Phosphorylation of endogenous PDE3A by rPKAc increased cAMP-hydrolytic activity, correlated with shift of PDE3A from LMW to HMW peaks, and increased co-immunoprecipitation of SERCA2, cav3, PKA regulatory subunit (PKARII), PP2A, and AKAP18 with PDE3A. In experiments with recombinant proteins, phosphorylation of recombinant human PDE3A isoforms by recombinant PKA catalytic subunit increased co-immunoprecipitation with rSERCA2 and rat rAKAP18 (recombinant AKAP18). Deletion of the recombinant human PDE3A1/PDE3A2 N terminus blocked interactions with recombinant SERCA2. Serine-to-alanine substitutions identified Ser-292/Ser-293, a site unique to human PDE3A1, as the principal site regulating its interaction with SERCA2. These results indicate that phosphorylation of human PDE3A1 at a PKA site in its unique N-terminal extension promotes its incorporation into SERCA2/AKAP18 signalosomes, where it regulates a discrete cAMP pool that controls contractility by modulating phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions, PLB phosphorylation, and SERCA2 activity.