Implication of the proprotein convertases furin, PC5 and PC7 in the cleavage of surface glycoproteins of Hong Kong, Ebola and respiratory syncytial viruses: a comparative analysis with fluorogenic peptides.
ABSTRACT: Fluorogenic peptides encompassing the processing sites of envelope glycoproteins of the infectious influenza A Hong Kong virus (HKV), Ebola virus (EBOV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were tested for cleavage by soluble recombinants of the proprotein convertases furin, PC5 and PC7. Kinetic studies with these intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic peptides revealed selective cleavages at the physiological dibasic sites. The HKV peptide is cleaved by both furin and PC5 with similar efficacy; in comparison, PC7 cleaves this substrate poorly. In contrast with the basic tetrapeptide insertion within the haemagglutinin sequence of HKV, two other dipeptide insertions revealed a poorer cleavage with a similar rank order of potency. These results demonstrate that the N-terminal RERR insertion to the wild-type avian RKKR downward arrow sequence is functionally significant, and suggest that the approx. 5-fold increase in cleavage efficacy contributes to the high infectivity of the H5N1 virus subtype. With regard to RSV peptide processing, PC7 is twice as effective as PC5 and furin. The EBOV peptide was processed with similar efficiency by the three enzymes. Our observations that all of these cleavages can be effectively inhibited by a plant andrographolide derivative at 250 microM or less might aid in the design of potent convertase inhibitors as alternative antiviral therapies.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a member of the TGF-? superfamily and plays a critical role in heart development. In the postnatal heart, BMP10 is restricted to the right atrium. The inactive pro-BMP10 (?60 kDa) is processed into active BMP10 (?14 kDa) by an unknown protease. Proteolytic cleavage occurs at the RIRR(316)? site (human), suggesting the involvement of proprotein convertase(s) (PCs). In vitro digestion of a 12-mer peptide encompassing the predicted cleavage site with furin, PACE4, PC5/6, and PC7, showed that furin cleaves the best, whereas PC7 is inactive on this peptide. Ex vivo studies in COS-1 cells, a cell line lacking PC5/6, revealed efficient processing of pro-BMP10 by endogenous PCs other than PC5/6. The lack of processing of overexpressed pro-BMP10 in the furin- and PACE4-deficient cell line, CHO-FD11, and in furin-deficient LoVo cells, was restored by stable (CHO-FD11/Fur cells) or transient (LoVo cells) expression of furin. Use of cell-permeable and cell surface inhibitors suggested that endogenous PCs process pro-BMP10 mostly intracellularly, but also at the cell surface. Ex vivo experiments in mouse primary hepatocytes (wild type, PC5/6 knock-out, and furin knock-out) corroborated the above findings that pro-BMP10 is a substrate for endogenous furin. Western blot analyses of heart right atria extracts from wild type and PACE4 knock-out adult mice showed no significant difference in the processing of pro-BMP10, implying no in vivo role of PACE4. Overall, our in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo data suggest that furin is the major convertase responsible for the generation of BMP10.
Project description:Proprotein convertases (PCs), also known as eukaryotic subtilases, are a group of serine proteases comprising furin (PACE), PC1 (PC3), PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5 (PC6), and PC7 (LPC, PC8) that generate bioactive proteins and peptides, such as hormones, receptors, and growth factors by cleaving precursor proteins at multibasic motifs. Two other family members, SKI-1/S1P and PCSK9, cleave regulator proteins involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis at nonbasic peptide bonds. Furin is ubiquitous in eukaryotic tissues and cells. PACE4, PC5, and PC7 are also widespread, whereas the expression of the other PCs is more restricted. PCs are synthesized as multi-segmented zymogens which are autocatalytically activated. The prodomains have regulatory and inhibitory functions. The catalytic domains are the most conserved domains among the PCs. The architecture of the catalytic active furin domain is known in different binding states. The C-terminal parts of the PCs differ in length and structure and contain encoded peptide signatures guiding the PCs to the subcellular destinations on the secretory pathways: SKI-1/S1P to the cis-Golgi, furin, PC5B, and PC7 to the TGN region but also to the plasma membrane. PACE4, PC5A, and PCSK9 are attached at the cell surface. Truncated, soluble furin and SKI-1/S1P, as well as PC1 and PC2, are released into the extracellular matrix. Many enveloped viruses are activated by furin and furin-like PCs and arenaviruses and a few bunyaviruses by SKI-1/S1P. The PCs cleave the viral fusion glycoprotein to trigger fusion of viral envelopes with cellular membranes to deliver the viral genome into host cells. Cleavage by PCs, occasionally in concert with other endoproteases, enables conformational changes in the viral membrane proteins needed for correct oligomerization of glycoprotein spikes and their effective incorporation into virions. Mutational alterations of PC cleavage sites can reduce the fusion potential of viral surface proteins and thus facilitate the development of secure live attenuated vaccines. Alternatively, agents preventing cleavage of viral surface (glyco)proteins block fusion capacity and multicyclic virus replications. PC inhibitors are suggested as promising antiviral drugs for quite a number of viruses causing severe infections.
Project description:Furin belongs to the family of proprotein convertases (PCs) and is involved in numerous normal physiological and pathogenic processes, such as viral propagation, bacterial toxin activation, cancer, and metastasis. Furin and related furin-like PCs cleave their substrates at characteristic multibasic consensus sequences, preferentially after an arginine residue. By incorporating decarboxylated arginine mimetics in the P1 position of substrate analogue peptidic inhibitors, we could identify highly potent furin inhibitors. The most potent compound, phenylacetyl-Arg-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide (15), inhibits furin with a K(i) value of 0.81 nM and has also comparable affinity to other PCs like PC1/3, PACE4, and PC5/6, whereas PC2 and PC7 or trypsin-like serine proteases were poorly affected. In fowl plague virus (influenza A, H7N1)-infected MDCK cells, inhibitor 15 inhibited proteolytic hemagglutinin cleavage and was able to reduce virus propagation in a long-term infection test. Molecular modeling revealed several key interactions of the 4-amidinobenzylamide residue in the S1 pocket of furin contributing to the excellent affinity of these inhibitors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In zebrafish, vascular endothelial growth factor-C precursor (proVEGF-C) processing occurs within the dibasic motif HSIIRR(214) suggesting the involvement of one or more basic amino acid-specific proprotein convertases (PCs) in this process. In the present study, we examined zebrafish proVEGF-C expression and processing and the effect of unprocessed proVEGF-C on caudal fin regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell transfection assays revealed that the cleavage of proVEGF-C, mainly mediated by the proprotein convertases Furin and PC5 and to a less degree by PACE4 and PC7, is abolished by PCs inhibitors or by mutation of its cleavage site (HSIIRR(214) into HSIISS(214)). In vitro, unprocessed proVEGF-C failed to activate its signaling proteins Akt and ERK and to induce cell proliferation. In vivo, following caudal fin amputation, the induction of VEGF-C, Furin and PC5 expression occurs as early as 2 days post-amputation (dpa) with a maximum levels at 4-7 dpa. Using immunofluorescence staining we localized high expression of VEGF-C and the convertases Furin and PC5 surrounding the apical growth zone of the regenerating fin. While expression of wild-type proVEGF-C in this area had no effect, unprocessed proVEGF-C inhibited fin regeneration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Taken together, these data indicate that zebrafish fin regeneration is associated with up-regulation of VEGF-C and the convertases Furin and PC5 and highlight the inhibitory effect of unprocessed proVEGF-C on fin regeneration.
Project description:The molecular determinants of substrate specificity and selectivity in the proprotein convertase (PC) family of proteases are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the natural serpin family inhibitor, serpin B8, is a specific and selective inhibitor of furin relative to the other PCs of the constitutive protein secretion pathway, PC4, PC5, PACE4, and PC7 (PC4-PC7, respectively), and identify reactive-site (P6-P5' residues) and exosite elements of the serpin that contribute to this specificity and selectivity through studies of chimeras of serpin B8 and ?1PDX, an engineered serpin inhibitor of furin. Kinetic studies revealed that the specificity and selectivity of the serpin chimeras for inhibiting PCs were determined by P6-P5 and P3-P2 residue-dependent recognition of the P4Arg-X-X-P1Arg PC consensus sequence and exosite-dependent recognition of the reactive loop P2' residue of the chimeras by the PCs. Both productive and nonproductive binding of the chimeras to PC4-PC7 but not to furin contributed to a decreased specificity for inhibiting PC4-PC7 and an increased selectivity for inhibiting furin. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that nonproductive binding of the chimeras to the PCs was correlated with a greater conformational variability of the catalytic sites of PC4-PC7 relative to that of furin. Our findings suggest a new approach for designing selective inhibitors of PCs using ?1PDX as a scaffold, as evidenced by our ability to engineer highly specific and selective inhibitors of furin and PC4-PC7.
Project description:The protein acyl transferase ZDHHC5 was recently proposed to regulate trafficking in the endocytic pathway. Therefore, we explored the function of this enzyme in controlling the action of bacterial toxins. We found that ZDHHC5 activity is required for two very different toxins: the anthrax lethal toxin and the pore-forming toxin aerolysin. Both of these toxins have precursor forms, the protoxins, which can use the proprotein convertases Furin and PC7 for activation. We show that ZDHHC5 indeed affects the processing of the protoxins to their active forms. We found that Furin and PC7 can both be S-palmitoylated and are substrates of ZDHHC5. The impact of ZDHHC5 on Furin/PC7-mediated anthrax toxin cleavage is dual, having an indirect and a direct component. First, ZDHHC5 affects the homeostasis and trafficking of a subset of cellular proteins, including Furin and PC7, presumably by affecting the endocytic/recycling pathway. Second, while not inhibiting the protease activity per se, ZDHHC5-mediated Furin/PC7 palmitoylation is required for the cleavage of the anthrax toxin. Finally, we show that palmitoylation of Furin and PC7 promotes their association with plasma membrane microdomains. Both the receptor-bound toxin and the convertases are of very low abundance at the cell surface. Their encounter is unlikely on reasonable time scales. This work indicates that palmitoylation drives their encounter in specific domains, allowing processing and thereby intoxication of the cell.
Project description:The basic amino acid-specific proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC5/6) is an essential secretory protease, as knock-out mice die at birth and exhibit multiple homeotic transformation defects, including impaired bone morphogenesis and lung structure. Some of the observed defects were attributed to impaired processing of the TGF?-like growth differentiating factor 11 precursor (proGdf11). In this work we present evidence that the latent TGF?-binding proteins 2 and 3 (LTBP-2 and -3) inhibit the extracellular processing of proGdf11 by PC5/6A. This is partly due to the binding of LTBPs in the endoplasmic reticulum to the zymogen proPC5/6A, thus allowing the complex to exit the endoplasmic reticulum and be sequestered as an inactive zymogen in the extracellular matrix but not at the cell surface. This results in lower levels of PC5/6A in the media, without affecting those of PACE4, Furin, or a soluble form of PC7. The secreted soluble protease-specific activity of PC5/6A or a variant lacking the C-terminal Cys-rich domain (PC5/6-?CRD) is significantly decreased when co-expressed with LTBPs in cells. A similar enzymatic inhibition seems to apply to PACE4 and Furin. In situ hybridization analyses revealed extensive co-localization of PC5/6 and LTBP-3 mRNAs in mice at embryonic day 15.5 and post partum day 1. In conclusion, this is the first time that a zymogen of the proprotein convertases was shown to exit the endoplasmic reticulum in the presence of LTBPs, representing a potential novel mechanism for the regulation of PC5/6A activity, e.g. in tissues such as bone and lung where LTBP-3 and PC5/6 co-localize.
Project description:The Portland alpha1-antitrypsin variant (alpha1-PDX) inhibits gp160 cleavage into gp120 and gp41 by different prohormone convertases (PCs) including furin, PC5 and PC7. Jurkat cells stably transfected with this inhibitor (J-PDX cells) and, as controls, Jurkat cells transfected with the empty vector (J-pcDNA3) were tested for their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. We found that HIV-1 replication was significantly impaired in J-PDX cells. However, the analysis of the infectivity of HIV-1 viruses produced in J-PDX cells on different days during the infection indicated that they recovered infectivity starting from 13 days post-infection. The sequencing of viruses collected earlier and later from J-PDX cells revealed no mutations in envelope-glycoprotein precursor (Env) maturation sites or in the N-terminal sequence of gp41 fusion peptide, which plays a key role in membrane fusion. Although conserved mutations were detected at the C-terminus of the gp41 fusion peptide and ectodomain, the replication of mutant HIV-1 viruses produced on day 20 in J-PDX cells was inhibited at a similar level to wild-type viruses after a second passage in J-PDX cells. We then investigated the expression of the alpha1-PDX protein, and found that HIV-1 replication activated its proteolysis since the 54 kDa cleaved form became predominant later on in the infection. In contrast, the expression of PC7, a protein that is transported through the secretory pathway, was unaltered in HIV-1 infected cells. We conclude that recovered HIV-1 infectivity in J-PDX cells was due to a loss of alpha1-PDX activity via its extensive processing by intracellular proteases that cleave it through the substrate pathway.
Project description:Several integrin alpha subunits undergo post-translational endoproteolytic processing at pairs of basic amino acids that is mediated by the proprotein convertase furin. Here we ask whether other convertase family members can participate in these processing events. We therefore examined the endoproteolysis rate of the integrin subunits pro-alpha5, alpha6 and alphav by recombinant furin, proprotein convertase (PC)5A, paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE)4, PC1, PC2 and PC7 in vitro and/or ex vivo after overexpression in LoVo cells that were deficient in furin activity. We found that 60-fold more PC1 than furin was needed to produce 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunit substrates in vitro; the defective pro-alpha chain endoproteolysis in LoVo cells was not rescued by overexpression of PC1 or PC2. No endoproteolysis occurred with PC7 either in vitro or ex vivo, although similar primary sequences of the cleavage site are found in integrins and in proteins efficiently processed by PC7, which suggests that a particular conformation of the cleavage site is required for optimal convertase-substrate interactions. In vitro, 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunits was obtained with one-third of the amount of PC5A and PACE4 than of furin. In LoVo cells, PC5A remained more active than furin, PACE4 activity was quite low, and PC5B, which differs from PC5A by a C-terminal extension containing a transmembrane domain, was very inefficient in processing integrin alpha-subunit precursors. In conclusion, these results indicate that integrin alpha-subunit endoproteolytic processing involves the redundant function of furin and PC5A and to a smaller extent PACE4, but not of PC1, PC2, PC5B or PC7.
Project description:Glycoprotein B (gB) of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is essential for BHV-1 replication and is required for membrane fusion processes leading to virus penetration into the target cell and direct spreading of BHV-1 from infected to adjacent noninfected cells. Like many of the herpesvirus gB homologs, BHV-1 gB is proteolytically processed by furin, an endoproteinase localized in the trans-Golgi network. Cleavage by furin is a common mechanism for the activation of a number of viral fusion (F) proteins. Among these, the F proteins of both human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have the so-far unique feature that cleavage of the respective F protein precursors occurs at two furin recognition sites, resulting in the release of a 27-amino-acid intervening peptide which is secreted into the extracellular space. We showed recently that the intervening peptide of bovine RSV can be replaced by bovine interleukins which are secreted into the medium of cells infected with the respective bovine RSV recombinants (P. Konig, K. Giesow, K. Schuldt, U. J. Buchholz, and G. M. Keil, J. Gen. Virol. 85:1815-1824, 2004). To elucidate whether the approach to transport heterologous proteins as furin-excisable polypeptides functions in principle also in glycoproteins which are cleaved by furin only once, we inserted a second furin cleavage site into BHV-1 gB and integrated a 16-amino-acid peptide sequence, the 246-amino-acid green fluorescent protein (GFP), or the 167 amino acids for mature bovine alpha interferon (boIFN-alpha) as an intervening polypeptide. The resulting gB variants rescued gB-negative BHV-1 mutants, the resulting BHV-1 recombinants were fully infectious, and infected cells secreted biologically active GFP and boIFN-alpha, respectively. In contrast to the gB2Fu and gB2FuGFP precursor molecules, which were efficiently cleaved at both furin sites, the majority of pgB2FuIFN-alpha was not cleaved at the site between the amino-terminal (NH2) subunit and boIFN-alpha, whereas cleavage at the newly introduced site was normal. This resulted in virus particles that also contain the NH2-subunit/boIFN-alpha fusion protein within their envelopes. Our results demonstrate that BHV-1 gB can be used as a transporter for peptides and proteins which could be important for development of novel vaccines. In addition, the general principle might be useful for other applications, e.g., in gene therapy and also in nonviral systems.