Differential regulation and expression of hyaluronan synthases in human articular chondrocytes, synovial cells and osteosarcoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Recently three isoforms of hyaluronan synthase (HAS), the enzyme responsible for hyaluronate/hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis, have been cloned, allowing us to study their expression pattern. Our objective was to determine which of the HAS isoenzymes were expressed in human articular chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts and osteosarcoma cells, whether their expression could be modulated by growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-1, basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1) and cytokines [interleukin 1beta1 (IL-1beta)], and whether changes in the rate of HA synthesis by the cells correlated with changes in mRNA levels for one or more of the HAS isoforms. All three HAS isoforms were found to be expressed in the cultured cells analysed in this study, although the relative proportions varied for each cell type. HAS2 mRNA was usually predominant in chondrocytes, whereas synovial cells contained increased amounts of HAS1. HAS3 was always the least abundant message. The rapidly growing osteosarcoma cells contained almost exclusively HAS2 message. HAS usage in uncultured cartilage and synovial tissues was similar to that in the cultured cells, with HAS2 message being the predominant species in cartilage and HAS1 usually being the predominant species in synovium. HA synthesis was stimulated by the growth factors, but the extent of the response was cell-type specific. Synovial cells responded particularly well to IL-1beta, and showed a unique synergistic response when IL-1beta was used in combination with TGF-beta1. This response was much reduced in articular chondrocytes and absent in the osteosarcoma cells. Analysis of changes in HAS message levels indicated that there was often no correlation with the changes in HA secretion following exposure to growth factors. Although HAS-1 mRNA was increased in synovial cells after exposure to TGF-beta1/IL-1beta, the magnitude of the change was far less than the effect on HA synthesis. Our data thus suggest that HAS gene usage is tissue specific, and the regulation by growth factors is unique for each HAS gene and is further modulated by cell-specific factors. In addition, regulation of HA biosynthesis appears to be multi-faceted, with control of HAS gene expression and mRNA levels being only one aspect of this process.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC) administration induces atrophy of skin, bone, and other organs, partly by reducing tissue content of glycosaminoglycans, particularly hyaluronic acid (HA). We took advantage of the recent cloning of the three human hyaluronan synthase (HAS) enzymes (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3), to explore the molecular mechanisms of this side effect. Northern and slot blots performed on RNA extracted from cultured dermal fibroblasts and the MG-63 osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line indicated that HAS2 is the predominant HAS mRNA in these cells. Incubation of both cell types for 24 h in the presence of 10(-6) M dexamethasone (DEX) resulted in a striking 97--98% suppression of HAS2 mRNA levels. Time-course studies in fibroblasts demonstrated suppression of HAS2 mRNA to 28% of control by 1 h, and to 1.2% of control by 2 h, after addition of DEX. Dose-response studies in fibroblasts indicated that the majority of the suppressive effect required concentrations characteristic of cell-surface GC receptors, a point confirmed by persistent DEX-induced suppression in the presence of RU486, an antagonist of classic cytosolic steroid hormone receptors. Nuclear run-off experiments showed a 70% suppression of HAS2 gene transcription in nuclei from DEX-treated fibroblasts, which is unlikely to fully explain the rapid 50--80-fold reduction in message levels. Experiments with actinomycin D (AMD) demonstrated that the message half-life was 25 min in cells without DEX, whereas the combination of AMD with DEX dramatically increased the half-life of HAS2 mRNA, suggesting that DEX acts by inducing a short-lived destabilizer of the HAS2 message. Direct assessment of HAS2 mRNA stability by wash-out of incorporated uridine label established a half-life of 31 min in cells without DEX, which substantially shortened in the presence of DEX. In conclusion, GCs induce a rapid and sustained, near-total suppression of HAS2 message levels, mediated through substantial decreases in both gene transcription and message stability. These effects may contribute to the loss of HA in GC-treated organs.
Project description:The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a structural component of extracellular matrices and also interacts with cell surface receptors to directly influence cell behavior. To explore functions of HA in limb skeletal development, we conditionally inactivated the gene for HA synthase 2, Has2, in limb bud mesoderm using mice that harbor a floxed allele of Has2 and mice carrying a limb mesoderm-specific Prx1-Cre transgene. The skeletal elements of Has2-deficient limbs are severely shortened, indicating that HA is essential for normal longitudinal growth of all limb skeletal elements. Proximal phalanges are duplicated in Has2 mutant limbs indicating an involvement of HA in patterning specific portions of the digits. The growth plates of Has2-deficient skeletal elements are severely abnormal and disorganized, with a decrease in the deposition of aggrecan in the matrix and a disruption in normal columnar cellular relationships. Furthermore, there is a striking reduction in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes and in the expression domains of markers of hypertrophic differentiation in the mutant growth plates, indicating that HA is necessary for the normal progression of chondrocyte maturation. In addition, secondary ossification centers do not form in the central regions of Has2 mutant growth plates owing to a failure of hypertrophic differentiation. In addition to skeletal defects, the formation of synovial joint cavities is defective in Has2-deficient limbs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HA has a crucial role in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and synovial joint formation in the developing limb.
Project description:Regulation of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and degradation is essential to maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. We recently reported that HYBID (HYaluronan-Binding protein Involved in hyaluronan Depolymerization), also called KIAA1199, plays a key role in HA depolymerization in skin and arthritic synovial fibroblasts. However, regulation of HA metabolism mediated by HYBID and HA synthases (HASs) under stimulation with growth factors remains obscure. Here we report that TGF-?1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB commonly enhance total amount of HA in skin fibroblasts through up-regulation of HAS expression, but molecular size of newly produced HA is dependent on HYBID expression levels. Stimulation of HAS1/2 expression and suppression of HYBID expression by TGF-?1 were abrogated by blockade of the MAPK and/or Smad signaling and the PI3K-Akt signaling, respectively. In normal human skin, expression of the TGF-?1 receptors correlated positively with HAS2 expression and inversely with HYBID expression. On the other hand, TGF-?1 up-regulated HAS1/2 expression but exerted only a slight suppressive effect on HYBID expression in synovial fibroblasts from the patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in the production of lower molecular weight HA compared with normal skin and synovial fibroblasts. These data demonstrate that although TGF-?1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB enhance HA production in skin fibroblasts, TGF-?1 most efficiently contributes to production of high molecular weight HA by HAS up-regulation and HYBID down-regulation and suggests that inefficient down-regulation of HYBID by TGF-?1 in arthritic synovial fibroblasts may be linked to accumulation of depolymerized HA in synovial fluids in arthritis patients.
Project description:Cytokine regulation of synovial fluid (SF) lubricants, hyaluronan (HA), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is important in health, injury, and disease of synovial joints, and may also provide powerful regulation of lubricant secretion in bioreactors for articulating tissues. This study assessed lubricant secretion rates by human synoviocytes and the molecular weight (MW) of secreted lubricants in response to interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-17, IL-32, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), applied individually and in all combinations. Lubricant secretion rates were assessed using ELISA and binding assays, and lubricant MW was assessed using gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. HA secretion rates were increased approximately 40-fold by IL-1beta, and increased synergistically to approximately 80-fold by the combination of IL-1beta + TGF-beta1 or TNF-alpha + IL-17. PRG4 secretion rates were increased approximately 80-fold by TGF-beta1, and this effect was counterbalanced by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. HA MW was predominantly <1 MDa for controls and individual cytokine stimulation, but was concentrated at >3 MDa after stimulation by IL-1beta + TGF-beta1 + TNF-alpha to resemble the distribution in human SF. PRG4 MW was unaffected by cytokines and similar to that in human SF. These results contribute to an understanding of the relationship between SF cytokine and lubricant content in health, injury, and disease, and provide approaches for using cytokines to modulate lubricant secretion rates and MW to help achieve desired lubricant composition of fluid in bioreactors.
Project description:In the present study we have investigated the expression of mRNAs for hyaluronan synthase isoforms (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) in different cells in response to various stimuli. Human mesothelial cells, which synthesize large amounts of hyaluronan, express mRNAs encoding all three HAS isoforms, whereas their transformed counterparts, mesothelioma cells, which produce only minute amounts of hyaluronan, express only HAS3 mRNA. Human lung fibroblasts and the glioma cell line U-118 MG express only the HAS2 and HAS3 genes. The expression of the transcripts was higher in subconfluent than in confluent cultures and was well correlated with the production of hyaluronan by the cells. Stimulation of mesothelial cells with platelet-derived growth factor-BB induced an up-regulation of mRNA for HAS2 to a maximum after 6 h of stimulation; HAS1 and HAS3 genes were only induced slightly. Transforming growth factor-beta1 reduced HAS2 mRNA slightly, and hydrocortisone reduced it strongly, within 6 h of stimulation in mesothelial cell cultures but did not significantly affect the expression of mRNAs for HAS1 and HAS3. Induction of HAS1 and HAS2 protein levels in response to the stimuli above correlated with HAS transcript levels. Thus the expression of the three HAS isoforms is more prominent in growing cells than in resting cells and is differentially regulated by various stimuli suggesting distinct functional roles of the three proteins.
Project description:The contribution of hyaluronan (HA) to the regulatory network of the hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3). The number of hematopoietic progenitors was decreased in bone marrow and increased in extramedullary sites of Prx1-Cre;Has2(flox/flox);Has1(-/-);Has3(-/-) triple knock-out (tKO) mice as compared with wild type (WT) and Has1(-/-);Has3(-/-) double knock-out (dKO) mice. In line with this observation, decreased hematopoietic activity was observed in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) from tKO mice, whereas the formation of the adherent layer and generation of hematopoietic cells in WT and dKO cultures was not different. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4MU) was used to pharmacologically inhibit the production of HA in LTBMC. Treatment with 4MU inhibited HA synthesis, decreased expression of HAS2 and HAS3, and eliminated hematopoiesis in LTBMC, and this effect was alleviated by the addition of exogenous HA. Exogenous HA also augmented the cell motility in LTBMC, which correlated with the HA-stimulated production of chemokines and growth factors. Conditioned media from HA-induced LTBMC enhanced the chemotaxis of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in response to SDF-1. Exposure of endothelial cells to 4MU decreased their ability to support HSPC rolling and adhesion. In addition, migration of transplanted HSPC into the marrow of 4MU-pretreated mice was lower than in untreated mice. Collectively, the results suggest that HA depletion reduces the ability of the microenvironment to support HSPC, and confirm a role for HA as a necessary regulatory element in the structure of the hematopoietic microenvironment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intra-articular hyaluronan (HA) injection provides symptomatic benefit in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Previously we found superior beneficial effects in a large animal OA model of a hexadecylamide derivative compared with unmodified HA of the same initial molecular weight. The current study sought to define possible molecular mechanisms whereby this enhanced relief of symptoms was occurring. METHODS:Chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts were isolated from tissues of patients undergoing arthroplasty for knee OA. Monolayer cultures of cells were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/mL of unmodified HA (500-730 kDa) or a hexadecylamide derivative of HA of the same initial molecular weight (HYADD4®-G; HYMOVIS®) simultaneously or 1 hour before incubation with interleukin (IL)-1beta (2 ng/mL). Cultures were terminated 15 or 30 minutes later (chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts, respectively) for quantitation of phosphorylated-(p)-JNK, p-NFkappaB, p-p38, or at 24 hours for quantitation of gene expression (MMP1 &13, ADAMTS4 &5, TIMP1 &3, CD44, COL1A1 &2A1, ACAN, PTGS2, IL6, TNF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 activity. RESULTS:The hexadecylamide derivative of HA had significantly better amelioration of IL-1beta-induced gene expression of key matrix degrading enzymes (MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS5), and inflammatory mediators (IL6, PTGS2) by human OA chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. Pre-incubation of cells with the derivatized HA for 1 hour prior to IL-1beta exposure significantly augmented the inhibition of MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS4 and IL6 expression by chondrocytes. The reduction in MMP13 mRNA by the amide derivative of HA was mirrored in reduced MMP-13 protein and enzyme activity in IL-1beta-stimulated chondrocytes. This was associated in part with a greater inhibition of phosphorylation of the cell signalling molecules JNK, p38 and NF-kappaB. CONCLUSIONS:The present studies have demonstrated several potential key mechanisms whereby the intra-articular injection of a hexadecylamide derivative of HA may be acting in joints with OA.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of the joints caused in part by a change in the phenotype of resident chondrocytes within affected joints. This altered phenotype, often termed proinflammatory or procatabolic, features enhanced production of endoproteinases and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) as well as secretion of endogenous inflammatory mediators. Degradation and reduced retention of the proteoglycan aggrecan is an early event in OA. Enhanced turnover of hyaluronan (HA) is closely associated with changes in aggrecan. Here, to determine whether experimentally increased HA production promotes aggrecan retention and generates a positive feedback response, we overexpressed HA synthase-2 (HAS2) in chondrocytes via an inducible adenovirus construct (HA synthase-2 viral overexpression; HAS2-OE). HAS2-OE incrementally increased high-molecular-mass HA >100-fold within the cell-associated and growth medium pools. More importantly, our results indicated that the HAS2-OE expression system inhibits MMP3, MMP13, and other markers of the procatabolic phenotype (such as TNF-stimulated gene 6 protein (TSG6)) and also enhances aggrecan retention. These markers were inhibited in OA-associated chondrocytes and in chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1? (IL1?), but also chondrocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), or HA oligosaccharides. However, the enhanced extracellular HA resulting from HAS2-OE did not reduce the procatabolic phenotype of neighboring nontransduced chondrocytes as we had expected. Rather, HA-mediated inhibition of the phenotype occurred only in transduced cells. In addition, high HA biosynthesis rates, especially in transduced procatabolic chondrocytes, resulted in marked changes in chondrocyte dependence on glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation for their metabolic energy needs.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA) is a key molecule of the extracellular matrix that is thought to be critically involved in both atherosclerosis and restenosis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the cyclooxygenase (COX) products, prostacyclin and prostaglandin E(2), induce HA synthesis in vitro by transcriptional up-regulation of HA-synthase 2 (HAS2) and HAS1. The relative roles in atherosclerotic and restenotic artery disease of tissue specifically expressed COX-1 and COX-2 are still under debate. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of COX isoform inhibition on HA-accumulation and regulation of HAS isoform expression in two models of pathologic artery remodelling in vivo. Firstly, ApoE-deficient mice were treated with a prototypic isoform non-selective inhibitor, indomethacin or with a prototypic COX-2 selective inhibitor, rofecoxib, for 8 weeks. Aortic HAS mRNA expression and HA-accumulation in atherosclerotic aortic root lesions were analyzed. Secondly, neointimal hyperplasia was induced by carotid artery ligation in ApoE-deficient mice on a high fat diet and the effects of the COX inhibitors were determined after 4 weeks of treatment. Intimal HA-accumulation was markedly reduced in both models by indomethacin and rofecoxib. This coincided with a strong inhibition of HAS1 mRNA expression in both models and with decreased HAS2 mRNA in the aorta of ApoE-deficient mice. HAS3 was not affected. The repression of HA-accumulation by both COX-2 selective and non-selective COX inhibition implicates COX-2 in the regulation of HA synthesis via stimulation of HAS1 and HAS2 expression in vivo. Modulation of vascular HA-accumulation might play a role in chronic effects of COX inhibitors on the progression of atherosclerosis.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant matrix molecule, the function of which in the skin remains to be fully defined. To explore the roles of HA in cutaneous injury responses, double-knockout mice (abbreviated as Has1/3 null) that lack two HA synthase enzymes (Has1 and Has3), but still express functional Has2, were used in two types of experiments: (i) application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and (ii) full-thickness wounding of the skin. Uninjured Has1/3-null mice were phenotypically normal. However, after TPA, the accumulation of HA that normally occurs in wild-type epidermis was blunted in Has1/3-null epidermis. In excisional wound-healing experiments, wound closure was significantly faster in Has1/3 null than in wild-type mice. Coincident with this abnormal wound healing, a marked decrease in epidermal and dermal HA and a marked increase in neutrophil efflux from cutaneous blood vessels were observed in Has1/3-null skin relative to wild-type skin. Has1/3-null wounds displayed an earlier onset of myofibroblast differentiation. In summary, selective loss of Has1 and Has3 leads to a proinflammatory milieu that favors recruitment of neutrophils and other inflammation-related changes in the dermis.