Detection of phospholipid oxidation in oxidatively stressed cells by reversed-phase HPLC coupled with positive-ionization electrospray [correction of electroscopy] MS.
ABSTRACT: Measurement of lipid peroxidation is a commonly used method of detecting oxidative damage to biological tissues, but the most frequently used methods, including MS, measure breakdown products and are therefore indirect. We have coupled reversed-phase HPLC with positive-ionization electrospray MS (LC-MS) to provide a method for separating and detecting intact oxidized phospholipids in oxidatively stressed mammalian cells without extensive sample preparation. The elution profile of phospholipid hydroperoxides and chlorohydrins was first characterized using individual phospholipids or a defined phospholipid mixture as a model system. The facility of detection of the oxidized species in complex mixtures was greatly improved compared with direct-injection MS analysis, as they eluted earlier than the native lipids, owing to the decrease in hydrophobicity. In U937 and HL60 cells treated in vitro with t-butylhydroperoxide plus Fe(2+), lipid oxidation could not be observed by direct injection, but LC-MS allowed the detection of monohydroperoxides of palmitoyl-linoleoyl and stearoyl-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholines. The levels of hydroperoxides observed in U937 cells were found to depend on the duration and severity of the oxidative stress. In cells treated with HOCl, chlorohydrins of palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine were observed by LC-MS. The method was able to detect very small amounts of oxidized lipids compared with the levels of native lipids present. The membrane-lipid profiles of these cells were found to be quite resistant to damage until high concentrations of oxidants were used. This is the first report of direct detection by LC-MS of intact oxidized phospholipids induced in cultured cells subjected to oxidative stress.
Project description:The intake of dietary lipids is known to affect the composition of phospholipids in gastrointestinal cells, thereby influencing passive lipid absorption. However, dietary lipids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as vegetable oils, are prone to oxidation. Studies investigating the phospholipid-regulating effect of oxidized lipids are lacking. We aimed at identifying the effects of oxidized lipids from moderately (18.8 ± 0.39 meq O2/kg oil) and highly (28.2 ± 0.39 meq O2/kg oil) oxidized and in vitro digested cold-pressed grape seed oils on phospholipids in human gastric tumor cells (HGT-1). The oils were analyzed for their antioxidant constituents as well as their oxidized triacylglycerol profile by LC-MS/MS before and after a simulated digestion. The HGT-1 cells were treated with polar oil fractions containing epoxidized and hydroperoxidized triacylglycerols for up to six hours. Oxidized triacylglycerols from grape seed oil were shown to decrease during the in vitro digestion up to 40% in moderately and highly oxidized oil. The incubation of HGT-1 cells with oxidized lipids from non-digested oils induced the formation of cellular phospholipids consisting of unsaturated fatty acids, such as phosphocholines PC (18:1/22:6), PC (18:2/0:0), phosphoserine PS (42:8) and phosphoinositol PI (20:4/0:0), by about 40%-60%, whereas the incubation with the in vitro digested oils did not affect the phospholipid metabolism. Hence, the gastric conditions inhibited the phospholipid-regulating effect of oxidized triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), with potential implications in lipid absorption.
Project description:Oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) have been recently recognized as important mediators of various and often controversial cellular functions and stress responses. Due to the low concentrations in vivo, oxPL detection is mostly performed by targeted mass spectrometry. Although significantly improving the sensitivity, this approach does not provide a comprehensive view on oxPLs required for understanding oxPL functional activities. While capable of providing information on the diversity of oxPLs, the main challenge of untargeted lipidomics is the absence of bioinformatics tools to support high-throughput identification of previously unconsidered, oxidized lipids. Here, we present LPPtiger, an open-source software tool for oxPL identification from data-dependent LC-MS datasets. LPPtiger combines three unique algorithms to predict oxidized lipidome, generate oxPL spectra libraries, and identify oxPLs from tandem MS data using parallel processing and a multi-scoring identification workflow.
Project description:Lipids constitute 70% of the myelin sheath, and autoantibodies against lipids may contribute to the demyelination that characterizes multiple sclerosis (MS). We used lipid antigen microarrays and lipid mass spectrometry to identify bona fide lipid targets of the autoimmune response in MS brain, and an animal model of MS to explore the role of the identified lipids in autoimmune demyelination. We found that autoantibodies in MS target a phosphate group in phosphatidylserine and oxidized phosphatidylcholine derivatives. Administration of these lipids ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by suppressing activation and inducing apoptosis of autoreactive T cells, effects mediated by the lipids' saturated fatty acid side chains. Thus, phospholipids represent a natural anti-inflammatory class of compounds that have potential as therapeutics for MS.
Project description:The pulmonary route represents one of the most important portals of entry for nanoparticles into the body. However, the in vivo interactions of nanoparticles with biomolecules of the lung have not been sufficiently studied. Here, using an established mouse model of pharyngeal aspiration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), we recovered SWCNTs from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf), purified them from possible contamination with lung cells, and examined the composition of phospholipids adsorbed on SWCNTs by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. We found that SWCNTs selectively adsorbed two types of the most abundant surfactant phospholipids: phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG). Molecular speciation of these phospholipids was also consistent with pulmonary surfactant. Quantitation of adsorbed lipids by LC-MS along with the structural assessments of phospholipid binding by atomic force microscopy and molecular modeling indicated that the phospholipids (?108 molecules per SWCNT) formed an uninterrupted "coating" whereby the hydrophobic alkyl chains of the phospholipids were adsorbed onto the SWCNT with the polar head groups pointed away from the SWCNT into the aqueous phase. In addition, the presence of surfactant proteins A, B, and D on SWCNTs was determined by LC-MS. Finally, we demonstrated that the presence of this surfactant coating markedly enhanced the in vitro uptake of SWCNTs by macrophages. Taken together, this is the first demonstration of the in vivo adsorption of the surfactant lipids and proteins on SWCNTs in a physiologically relevant animal model.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen, which causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromized patients. These bacteria express a secreted lipoxygenase (PA-LOX), which oxygenates free arachidonic acid to 15S-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid. It binds phospholipids at its active site and physically interacts with lipid vesicles. When incubated with red blood cells membrane lipids are oxidized and hemolysis is induced but the structures of the oxygenated membrane lipids have not been determined. Using a lipidomic approach, we analyzed the formation of oxidized phospholipids generated during the in vitro incubation of recombinant PA-LOX with human erythrocytes and cultured human lung epithelial cells. Precursor scanning of lipid extracts prepared from these cells followed by multiple reaction monitoring and MS/MS analysis revealed a complex mixture of oxidation products. For human red blood cells this mixture comprised forty different phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine species carrying oxidized fatty acid residues, such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, hydroxy- and keto-eicosatetraenoic acid, hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid as well as oxygenated derivatives of less frequently occurring polyenoic fatty acids. Similar oxygenation products were also detected when cultured lung epithelial cells were employed but here the amounts of oxygenated lipids were smaller and under identical experimental conditions we did not detect major signs of cell lysis. However, live imaging indicated an impaired capacity for trypan blue exclusion and an augmented mitosis rate. Taken together these data indicate that PA-LOX can oxidize the membrane lipids of eukaryotic cells and that the functional consequences of this reaction strongly depend on the cell type.
Project description:Nonenzymatic glycation of lipids plays an important role in several physiological and pathological processes, such as normal aging and complications of diabetes mellitus. To develop liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric (LC-MS) methods for accurate analysis of Amadori compound-glycated lipids from biological samples, it is essential to obtain isotope-labeled Amadori-lipid standards. Herein, we report optimized methods for the preparation of six stable isotope-labeled Amadori-glycated lipid standards covering four types of lipids, including [13C6]Amadori-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), -phosphatidyl serine (PS), -LysoPE, and -LysoPS. Optimal conditions for the synthesis and purification of these four types of Amadori-glycated lipids were detailed in this study. LC-MS and LC-UV analyses showed that destination products were highly purified (>95%). Accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation in both positive- and negative-ion modes further validated the identification of these six synthetic [13C6]Amadori-glycated lipid standards. Successful preparation of these highly purified isotope-labeled standards makes it possible to develop targeted LC-MS/MS methods for accurate analysis of Amadori-glycated phospholipids from biological samples.
Project description:Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) are widely held to be associated with various diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. To characterize the structure-specific behavior of OxPLs and their physiological relevance, we developed a comprehensive analytical method by establishing a measured MS/MS spectra library of OxPLs. Biogenic OxPLs were prepared by the addition of specific oxidized fatty acids to cultured cells, where they were incorporated into cellular phospholipids, and untargeted lipidomics by LC-quadrupole/TOF-MS was applied to collect MS/MS spectra for the OxPLs. Based on the measured MS/MS spectra for about 400 molecular species of the biogenic OxPLs, we developed a broad-targeted lipidomics system using triple quadrupole MS. Separation precision of structural isomers was optimized by multiple reaction monitoring analysis and this system enabled us to detect OxPLs at levels as low as 10 fmol. When applied to biological samples, i.e., mouse peritoneal macrophages, this system enabled us to monitor a series of OxPLs endogenously produced in a 12/15-lipoxygenase-dependent manner. This advanced analytical method will be useful to elucidate the structure-specific behavior of OxPLs and their physiological relevance in vivo.
Project description:Mitochondrial depolarization aids platelet activation. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) contains the medium length oxidatively truncated phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl-lysoPAF (HAz-LPAF) that disrupts mitochondrial function in nucleated cells, so oxLDL may augment platelet activation.Flow cytometry showed intact oxLDL particles synergized with subthreshold amounts of soluble agonists to increase intracellular Ca2+, and initiate platelet aggregation and surface expression of activated gpIIb/IIIa and P-selectin. oxLDL also induced aggregation and increased intracellular Ca2+ in FURA2-labeled cells by itself at low, although not higher, concentrations. HAz-LPAF, alone and in combination with substimulatory amounts of thrombin, rapidly increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ and initiated aggregation. HAz-LPAF depolarized mitochondria in intact platelets, but this required concentrations beyond those that directly activated platelets. An unexpectedly large series of chemically pure truncated phospholipids generated by oxidative fragmentation of arachidonoyl-, docosahexaneoyl-, or linoleoyl alkyl phospholipids were platelet agonists. The PAF receptor, thought to effectively recognize only phospholipids with very short sn-2 residues, was essential for platelet activation because PAF receptor agonists blocked signaling by all these medium length phospholipids and oxLDL.Intact oxLDL particles activate platelets through the PAF receptor, and the PAF receptor responds to a far wider range of oxidized phospholipids in oxLDL than anticipated.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is defined as a condition causing the gradual loss of kidney function, shows renal lipid droplet (LD) accumulation that is associated with oxidative damage. There is a possibility that an LD abnormality in quality plays a role in CKD development. This study aimed to explore the chemical composition of LDs that are induced in human kidney cells during exposure to free fatty acids as an LD source and oxidized lipoproteins as oxidative stress. The LDs were aspirated directly from cells using nanotips, followed by in-tip microextraction, and the LD lipidomic profiling was conducted using nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. As a result, the free fatty acids increased the LD lipid content and, at the same time, changed their composition significantly. The oxidized lipoproteins caused distorted proportions of intact lipids, such as triacylglycerols (TG), phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and cholesteryl esters (CE). Notably, the oxidized lipids, including the hydroperoxides of TG, PC, and PE, exhibited significant elevations in dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, the dysregulation of intact lipids was paralleled with the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides. The present study has revealed that the oxidation of lipids and the dysregulation of the lipid metabolism coexisted in LDs in the kidney cells, which has provided a potential new target for diagnosis and new insights into CKD.
Project description:Oxidized phospholipids are well known to play physiological and pathological roles in regulating cellular homeostasis and disease progression. However, their role in cancer metastasis has not been entirely understood. In this study, effects of oxidized phosphatidylcholines such as 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-<i>sn</i>-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and autophagy were determined in cancer cells by immunoblotting and confocal analysis. Metastasis was analyzed by a scratch wound assay and a transwell migration/invasion assay. The concentrations of POVPC and 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-<i>sn</i>-glycero-phosphocholine (PGPC) in tumor tissues obtained from patients were measured by LC-MS/MS analysis. POVPC induced EMT, resulting in increase of migration and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and human breast cancer cells (MCF7). POVPC induced autophagic flux through AMPK-mTOR pathway. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of autophagy decreased migration and invasion of POVPC-treated HepG2 and MCF7 cells. POVPC and PGPC levels were greatly increased at stage II of patient-derived intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues. PGPC levels were higher in malignant breast tumor tissues than in adjacent nontumor tissues. The results show that oxidized phosphatidylcholines increase metastatic potential of cancer cells by promoting EMT, mediated through autophagy. These suggest the positive regulatory role of oxidized phospholipids accumulated in tumor microenvironment in the regulation of tumorigenesis and metastasis.