Chimaeras reveal the role of the catalytic core in the activation of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump.
ABSTRACT: Isoform 2b of the plasma membrane calcium pump differs from the ubiquitous isoform 4b in the following: (a) higher basal activity in the absence of calmodulin; (b) higher affinity for calmodulin; and (c) higher affinity for Ca(2+) in the presence of calmodulin [Elwess, Filoteo, Enyedi and Penniston (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 17981-17986]. To investigate which parts of the molecule determine these kinetic differences, we made four chimaeric constructs in which portions of isoform 2b were grafted into isoform 4b: chimaera I contains only the C-terminal regulatory region of isoform 2b; chimaera II contains the N-terminal moiety of isoform 2b, including both cytoplasmic loops; chimaera III contains the sequence of isoform 2b starting from the N-terminus to after the end of the first (small) cytoplasmic loop; and chimaera IV contains only the second (large) cytoplasmic loop. Surprisingly, chimaera I showed low basal activity in the absence of calmodulin and low affinity for calmodulin, unlike isoform 2b. In contrast, the chimaera containing both loops showed high basal activity, and Ca(2+) activation curves (both in the absence and in the presence of calmodulin) similar to those of isoform 2b. The rates of activation by calmodulin and of inactivation by calmodulin removal were measured, and the apparent K(d) for calmodulin was calculated from the ratio between these rate constants. The order of affinity was: 2b=II>4b=IV>III=I. From these results it is clear that the construct that most closely resembles isoform 2b is chimaera II. This shows that, in order to obtain an enzyme with properties similar to those of isoform 2b, both cytoplasmic loops are needed.
Project description:Changes in free intracellular Ca2+ concentration regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. The existence of steep Ca2+ gradients within the beta-cell requires the presence of specialized Ca2+ exclusion systems. In this study we have characterized the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs) which extrude Ca2+ from the cytoplasm. PMCA isoform- and subtype-specific mRNA expression was investigated in rodent pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell lines, and in human and rat islets of Langerhans using reverse-transcription PCR with primers flanking the calmodulin-binding region of rat PMCA. The expression pattern of PMCA 1 and 2 was conserved in different species and islet-cell types since both rat and human islets of Langerhans and all cell lines tested contained the 1b and 2b forms. PMCA 4 isoform subtypes, however, were expressed in a cell-type-specific manner since beta-cells expressed PMCA 4b only, whereas in islets of Langerhans, which contain alpha, beta, delta and polypeptide-secreting cells, PMCA 4a and 4b were simultaneously present. No evidence was obtained for the expression of PMCA 3. Characterization of the beta-cell Ca2+-pump protein showed that it shared several similarities with the erythrocyte PMCA. It is a P-type ATPase; its phosphorylated intermediate was stabilized by La3+; it reacted with a PMCA-specific antibody; and it was not N-glycosylate. However, the beta-cell PMCA had a higher molecular mass than that of the erythrocyte; this difference could be explained by either predominant translation of the PMCA2 form, which has a molecular mass 3-8 kDa higher than the erythrocyte PMCA 1 and 4 proteins, or by a possible sequence insertion. Thus a unique combination of functionally distinct PMCA isoforms (1b, 2b, 4b) participates in Ca2+ homoeostasis in the beta-cell.
Project description:Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) Ca(2+) transporters pump cytosolic Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum, maintaining a Ca(2+) gradient that controls vital cell functions ranging from proliferation to death. To meet the physiological demand of the cell, SERCA activity is regulated by adjusting the affinity for Ca(2+) ions. Of all SERCA isoforms, the housekeeping SERCA2b isoform displays the highest Ca(2+) affinity because of a unique C-terminal extension (2b-tail). Here, an extensive structure-function analysis of SERCA2b mutants and SERCA1a2b chimera revealed how the 2b-tail controls Ca(2+) affinity. Its transmembrane (TM) segment (TM11) and luminal extension functionally cooperate and interact with TM7/TM10 and luminal loops of SERCA2b, respectively. This stabilizes the Ca(2+)-bound E1 conformation and alters Ca(2+)-transport kinetics, which provides the rationale for the higher apparent Ca(2+) affinity. Based on our NMR structure of TM11 and guided by mutagenesis results, a structural model was developed for SERCA2b that supports the proposed 2b-tail mechanism and is reminiscent of the interaction between the alpha- and beta-subunits of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. The 2b-tail interaction site may represent a novel target to increase the Ca(2+) affinity of malfunctioning SERCA2a in the failing heart to improve contractility.
Project description:A simple three-step synthesis of 5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl-2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-4-ol (3a) was achieved using an osmium tetroxide mediated oxidation of the known intermediate 6. A pyrrolidine-ring variant of 3a (3-(7-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-1-yl)phenol (5)) was isolated when other routes were used. The epimeric hydroxy analogue 4a was synthesized by simple inversion of the stereochemistry at C-4. Both N-methyl (3a and 4a) and N-phenethyl (3b and 4b) derivatives were synthesized. The compounds were examined for their opioid receptor affinity and the N-phenethyl analogue 3b was found to have relatively weak affinity for the ?-opioid receptor (K(i) = 74 nM). However, the N-phenethyl analogue of the C-4 epimer, 4b, had about 15 fold higher affinity than 3b and was selective for the ?-opioid receptor (K(i) = 4.6 nM). Compound 4b was a moderately potent ?-opioid antagonist (K(e) = 12 nM), as determined by [(35)S]GTP-?-S assays. Compounds 3b and 4b were energy minimized at the level of B3LYP/6-31G*, and then overlaid onto the 5-phenylmorphan, the (1R,5R,9S)-(-)-enantiomer of 2b (Fig. 1) with the ? or ?-OH group at the C-9 position. The spatial orientation of the hydroxyl moiety in 3b, 4b, 2a, and 2b is proposed to be the structural requirement for high ?-opioid receptor binding affinity and their agonist or antagonist activity. The modest change in spatial position of the hydroxyl moiety, and not the N-substituent, induced the change from potent agonist to an antagonist of moderate potency.
Project description:We have partially purified a protein kinase from rat pancreas that phosphorylates two light-chain subunits of pancreatic myosin, a doublet with components of 18 and 20 kDa. This protein kinase was purified approx. 1000-fold by sequential (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography on calmodulin-Sepharose 4B. The resultant enzyme preparation is free of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent type I or II kinase activities. The purified protein kinase is completely dependent on Ca2+ and calmodulin, and phosphorylates a 20 kDa light-chain subunit of intact gizzard myosin, suggesting that it belongs to a class of enzymes known as myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). The apparent Km values of the putative pancreatic MLCK for ATP (73 microM), gizzard myosin light chains (18 microM) and calmodulin (2 nM) are similar to those reported for MLCKs isolated from smooth muscle, platelet and other sources. The enzyme is half-maximally activated at a free Ca2+ concentration of 2.5 microM. A single component of the affinity-purified kinase reacts with antibodies to turkey gizzard MLCK. The apparent molecular mass of this component is 138 kDa. Immunoprecipitation of a pancreatic homogenate with these antibodies decreases calmodulin-dependent kinase activity for pancreatic myosin by over 85%. The immunoprecipitate contains a single electrophoretic band of 138 kDa. Tryptic phosphopeptide analyses of pancreatic myosin, phosphorylated by either gizzard or pancreatic MLCK, are identical. Thus the enzyme that we have purified from rat pancreas is a MLCK, as judged by (1) absolute dependence on Ca2+ and calmodulin, (2) high affinity for calmodulin, (3) narrow substrate specificity for the light-chain subunit of myosin, and (4) reactivity with antibodies to turkey gizzard MLCK. These studies establish the existence of a pancreatic MLCK which may be responsible for regulating myosin phosphorylation and enzyme secretion in situ.
Project description:Myosin VIIA is a motor molecule with a conserved head domain and tail region unique to myosin VIIA, which probably defines its unique function in vivo. In an attempt to further characterize myosin VIIA function we set out to identify molecule(s) that specifically associate with it. We demonstrate that 17 and 55 kDa proteins from mouse kidney and cochlea co-purify with myosin VIIA on affinity columns carrying immobilized anti-myosin VIIA antibody. N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting analysis identified the 17 kDa protein as calmodulin, whereas MS and immunoblotting analysis identified the 55 kDa protein as microtubule-associated protein-2B (MAP-2B). Myosin VIIA can also be co-immunoprecipitated from kidney homogenate using anti-calmodulin or anti-MAP2 (recognizing isoforms 2A and 2B) antibodies, confirming the strong association between calmodulin and myosin VIIA and between MAP-2B and myosin VIIA. Myosin VIIA binds to calmodulin with an apparent K(d) of 10(-9) M. Scatchard analysis of the binding of myosin VIIA to MAP-2B provided evidence for two binding sites, with K(d) values of 10(-10) and 10(-9) M, which have been mapped to medial and C-terminal tail domains of myosin VIIA. The characterization of the interaction of calmodulin and MAP-2B with myosin VIIA provides new insights into the function of myosin VIIA.
Project description:Hxt2 is a high-affinity facilitative glucose transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Hxt1 shares approximately 70% amino acid identity with Hxt2 in its transmembrane segments (TMs) and inter-TM loops, but transports D-glucose with an affinity about one-tenth of that of Hxt2. To determine which TMs of Hxt2 are important for high-affinity glucose transport, we constructed chimaeras of Hxt2 and Hxt1 by randomly replacing each of the 12 TMs of Hxt2 with the corresponding segment of Hxt1, for a total of 4096 different transporters. Among > 20000 yeast transformants screened, 39 different clones were selected by plate assays of high-affinity glucose-transport activity and sequenced. With only two exceptions, the selected chimaeras contained Hxt2 TMs 1, 5, 7 and 8. We then constructed chimaeras corresponding to all 16 possible combinations of Hxt2 TMs 1, 5, 7 and 8. Only one chimaera, namely that containing all four Hxt2 TMs, exhibited transport activity comparable with that of Hxt2. The K (m) and V (max) values for D-glucose transport, and the substrate specificity of this chimaera were almost identical with those of Hxt2. These results indicate that TMs 1, 5, 7 and 8 are necessary for exhibiting high-affinity glucose-transport activity of Hxt2.
Project description:Calmodulin plays a vital role in mediating bidirectional synaptic plasticity by activating either calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) or protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) at different calcium concentrations. We propose an allosteric model for calmodulin activation, in which binding to calcium facilitates the transition between a low-affinity [tense (T)] and a high-affinity [relaxed (R)] state. The four calcium-binding sites are assumed to be nonidentical. The model is consistent with previously reported experimental data for calcium binding to calmodulin. It also accounts for known properties of calmodulin that have been difficult to model so far, including the activity of nonsaturated forms of calmodulin (we predict the existence of open conformations in the absence of calcium), an increase in calcium affinity once calmodulin is bound to a target, and the differential activation of CaMKII and PP2B depending on calcium concentration.
Project description:In mammals, the second messenger cAMP is synthesized by a family of transmembrane isoforms (tmACs) and one known cytoplasmic enzyme, "soluble" adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Understanding the individual contributions of these families to cAMP signaling requires tools which can distinguish them. Here, we describe the structure-based development of isoform discriminating AC inhibitors. Docking calculations using a library of small molecules with the crystal structure of a sAC homologue complexed with the noncompetitive inhibitor catechol estrogen identified two novel inhibitors, 3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-21-yl4-bromobenzenesulfonate (2) and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,13,13,14,14-dodecachloro-1,4,4a,4b,5,8,8a,12b-octahydro-11-sulfo-1,4:5,8-dimethanotriphenylene-10-carboxylic acid (3). In vitro testing revealed that 3 defines a novel AC inhibitor scaffold with high affinity for human sAC and less inhibitory effect on mammalian tmACs. 2 also discriminates between sAC and tmACs, and it appears to simultaneously block the original binding pocket and a neighboring interaction site. Our results show that compounds exploiting the catechol estrogen binding site can produce potent, isoform discriminating AC inhibitors.
Project description:ACA8 is a type 2B Ca(2+)-ATPase having a regulatory N terminus whose auto-inhibitory action can be suppressed by binding of calmodulin (CaM) or of acidic phospholipids. ACA8 N terminus is able to interact with a region of the small cytoplasmic loop connecting transmembrane domains 2 and 3. To determine the role of this interaction in auto-inhibition we analyzed single point mutants produced by mutagenesis of ACA8 Glu(252) to Asn(345) sequence. Mutation to Ala of any of six tested acidic residues (Glu(252), Asp(273), Asp(291), Asp(303), Glu(302), or Asp(332)) renders an enzyme that is less dependent on CaM for activity. These results highlight the relevance in ACA8 auto-inhibition of a negative charge of the surface area of the small cytoplasmic loop. The most deregulated of these mutants is D291A ACA8, which is less activated by controlled proteolysis or by acidic phospholipids; the D291A mutant has an apparent affinity for CaM higher than wild-type ACA8. Moreover, its phenotype is stronger than that of D291N ACA8, suggesting a more direct involvement of this residue in the mechanism of auto-inhibition. Among the other produced mutants (I284A, N286A, P289A, P322A, V344A, and N345A), only P322A ACA8 is less dependent on CaM for activity than the wild type. The results reported in this study provide the first evidence that the small cytoplasmic loop of a type 2B Ca(2+)-ATPase plays a role in the attainment of the auto-inhibited state.
Project description:1. By covalently linking nuclear components from hormone-sensitive cells to Sepharose 2B, it is possible to investigate the interaction between nuclear components and cytoplasmic receptor-steroid complexes by affinity chromatography. 2. Many factors are implicated in the specifity of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, including the nature of the nuclear components, the presence of the cytoplasmic receptor protein and the provision of the appropriate steroid ligand. 3. Two distinct sets of binding sites are present in nuclear extracts immobilized to Sepharose 2B, namely a small number of specific high-affinity sites and a larger number of non-specific low affinity-sites. 4. Considerable evidence supports the importance of the high-affinity binding sites in the manifestation of hormonal specificity in different tissues. Although the study has centred largely on androgenresponsive systems, the findings are germane to cytoplasmic-nuclear interactions in general. 5. The high-affinity or acceptor sites in nuclear extracts reside in the basic but non-histone protein fraction. 6. Hormonal specificity is seemingly maintained by both the cytoplasmic and nuclear components, and the results are discussed in the context of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones.