Type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein from iris (Iris hollandica var. Professor Blaauw) binds specific genomic DNA fragments.
ABSTRACT: The capacity of IRIP, a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from the bulbs of Iris hollandica, to bind specific DNA sequences from a mixture of approx. 200 bp (average length) fragments of total genomic DNA from Iris genome was studied. Fragments that were preferentially bound by IRIP were enriched by several cycles of affinity binding and PCR, and were cloned and sequenced. The selected DNA fragments do not share conserved sequences, indicating that IRIP does not bind DNA fragments in a strictly sequence-specific manner. According to sequence analysis, most IRIP-bound fragments contain one or more possible free energy-stable hairpin structure(s) in their secondary structure, which may be the basis for recognition between IRIP and these DNA fragments. Some, but not all, DNA fragments moderately lower the RNA N-glycosidase activity of IRIP towards rabbit reticulocyte lysate ribosomes. IRIP does not remove adenines from the binding fragments, which implies that it does not act as a polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase towards these DNA fragments. The selective binding of IRIP to conspecific DNA fragments is also discussed in view of the novel concept that RIPs may act as DNA-binding proteins with a regulatory activity on gene expression.
Project description:Four different type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) with RNA N-glycosidase activity were tested for their ability to attack the large rRNA of plant ribosomes derived from tobacco plants, as well as from the plant species from which the particular RIP had been isolated. Incubation of tobacco ribosomes with RIPs isolated from either Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed), Dianthus barbatus L. (carnation), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) or Chenopodium amaranthicolor Coste and Reyn. (chenopodium) rendered the 25S rRNA sensitive to aniline-catalyzed hydrolysis, generating a single rRNA-fragment of about 350 nucleotides. The same fragment was generated when rRNAs from pokeweed, carnation, spinach or chenopodium ribosomes were aniline-treated without any deliberate treatment of the ribosomes with the respective RIP. This indicated that ribosomes from all RIP-producing plants were already inactivated by their own RIPs during preparation. These results demonstrate that plant ribosomes are generally susceptible to RIP attack, including modification by their own RIPs. Direct sequencing of the newly generated fragments revealed that a single N-glycosidic bond at an adenosine residue within the highly conserved sequence 5'-AGUACGAGAGGA-3' was cleaved by all of the RIPs investigated, a situation also found in animal, yeast and Escherichia coli ribosomes.
Project description:Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes that inhibit protein synthesis after depurination of a specific adenine in rRNA. The RIP family members are classified as type I RIPs that contain an RNA-N-glycosidase domain and type II RIPs that contain a lectin domain (B chain) in addition to the glycosidase domain (A chain). In this work, we identified 30 new plant RIPs and characterized 18 Ricinus communis RIPs. Phylogenetic and functional divergence analyses indicated that the emergence of type I and II RIPs probably occurred before the monocot/eudicot split. We also report the expression profiles of 18 castor bean genes, including those for ricin and agglutinin, in five seed stages as assessed by quantitative PCR. Ricin and agglutinin were the most expressed RIPs in developing seeds although eight other RIPs were also expressed. All of the RIP genes were most highly expressed in the stages in which the endosperm was fully expanded. Although the reason for the large expansion of RIP genes in castor beans remains to be established, the differential expression patterns of the type I and type II members reinforce the existence of biological functions other than defense against predators and herbivory.
Project description:Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were first isolated over a century ago and have been shown to be catalytic toxins that irreversibly inactivate protein synthesis. Elucidation of atomic structures and molecular mechanism has revealed these proteins to be a diverse group subdivided into two classes. RIPs have been shown to exhibit RNA N-glycosidase activity and depurinate the 28S rRNA of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit. In this review, we compare archetypal RIP family members with other potent toxins that abolish protein synthesis: the fungal ribotoxins which directly cleave the 28S rRNA and the newly discovered Burkholderia lethal factor 1 (BLF1). BLF1 presents additional challenges to the current classification system since, like the ribotoxins, it does not possess RNA N-glycosidase activity but does irreversibly inactivate ribosomes. We further discuss whether the RIP classification should be broadened to include toxins achieving irreversible ribosome inactivation with similar turnovers to RIPs, but through different enzymatic mechanisms.
Project description:We introduced a new method for detecting iris surface furrows and identify its associations with dynamic changes in iris volume in healthy eyes. Swept-source optical coherence tomography was performed on 65 subjects with open angle under light and dark conditions. Iris boundaries were identified and a reconstruction of the anterior iris surface was obtained. Furrows were detected by identifying locally deep (minima) points on the iris surface and reported as furrow length in millimetres. Iris volume was quantified. Associations between furrow length and dynamic changes in iris volume were assessed using linear regression model. With pupil dilation, furrow length increased (15.84?mm) whereas iris volume decreased (-1.19?±?0.66?mm3). Longer furrow length was associated with larger static iris volume, as well as smaller loss of iris volume with pupil dilation (??=?-0.10, representing 0.1?mm3 less loss in iris volume per 10?mm increase in iris furrow length; P?=?0.002, adjusted for age, gender and changes in pupil size). Our iris furrow length measurements are robust and intuitive. Eyes with longer furrows have larger iris volume and lose less volume during physiological pupil dilation. These findings highlight the potential for iris surface features as indicators of iris morphological behavior.
Project description:To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2-15q22-ter, CYP1B1-2p21, CYP2C8-10q23, CYP2C9-10q24, and MAOA-Xp11.4 regions as significantly associated with iris colors. Half of the associated SNPs were located on chromosome 15, which corresponds with results that others have previously obtained from linkage analysis. We identified 5 additional genes (ASIP, MC1R, POMC, and SILV) and one additional region (GSTT2-22q11.23) with haplotype and/or diplotypes, but not individual SNP alleles associated with iris colors. For most of the genes, multilocus gene-wise genotype sequences were more strongly associated with iris colors than were haplotypes or SNP alleles. Diplotypes for these genes explain 15% of iris color variation. Apart from representing the first comprehensive candidate gene study for variable iris pigmentation and constituting a first step toward developing a classification model for the inference of iris color from DNA, our results suggest that cryptic population structure might serve as a leverage tool for complex trait gene mapping if genomes are screened with the appropriate ancestry informative markers.
Project description:Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a class of cytotoxic enzymes that can depurinate rRNAs thereby inhibiting protein translation. Although these proteins have also been detected in bacteria, fungi, and even some insects, they are especially prevalent in the plant kingdom. This review focuses on the RIPs from cereals. Studies on the taxonomical distribution and evolution of plant RIPs suggest that cereal RIPs have evolved at an enhanced rate giving rise to a large and heterogeneous RIP gene family. Furthermore, several cereal RIP genes are characterized by a unique domain architecture and the lack of a signal peptide. This advanced evolution of cereal RIPs translates into distinct structures, activation mechanisms, and physiological roles. Several cereal RIPs are characterized by activation mechanisms that include the proteolytic removal of internal peptides from the N-glycosidase domain, a feature not documented for non-cereal RIPs. Besides their role in defense against pathogenic fungi or herbivorous insects, cereal RIPs are also involved in endogenous functions such as adaptation to abiotic stress, storage, induction of senescence, and reprogramming of the translational machinery. The unique properties of cereal RIPs are discussed in this review paper.
Project description:The ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a family of plant enzymes for which a unique activity has been determined: rRNA N-glycosidase, which removes adenine at a specific universally conserved position (A4324 in the case of rat ribosomes). Here we report that saporin-L1, a RIP from the leaves of Saponaria officinalis, recognizes other substrates, including RNAs from different sources, DNA and poly(A). Saporin-L1 depurinated DNA extensively and released adenine from all adenine-containing polynucleotides tested. Adenine was the only base released from DNA or artificial polynucleotides. The characteristics of the reactions catalysed by saporin-L1 have been determined: optimal pH and temperature, ionic requirements, and the kinetic parameters Km and kcat. The reaction proceeded without cofactors, at low ionic strength, in the absence of Mg2+ and K+. Saporin-L1 had no activity towards various adenine-containing non-polynucleotide compounds (cytokinins, cofactors, nucleotides). This plant protein may now be classified as a polynucleotide: adenosine glycosidase.
Project description:Recent genomic technologies have propelled our understanding of the mechanisms underlying complex eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Genotyping postmortem eye tissues for known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AMD may prove valuable, especially when combined with information obtained through other methods such as immunohistochemistry, western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and proteomics. Initially intending to genotype postmortem eye tissues for AMD-related SNPs, our group became interested in isolating and comparing the quality of DNA from the iris and retina of postmortem donor eyes. Since there is no previously published protocol in the literature on this topic, we present a protocol suitable for isolating high-quality DNA from postmortem eye tissues for genomic studies.DNA from 33 retinal samples and 35 iris samples was extracted using the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl method from postmortem donor eye tissues. The quantity of DNA was measured with a spectrophotometer while the quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. The DNA samples were then amplified with PCR for the complement factor H (CFH) gene. The purified amplified products were then genotyped for the SNPs in the CFH gene.Regarding concentration, the retina yielded 936 ng/?l of DNA, while the iris yielded 78 ng/?l of DNA. Retinal DNA was also purer than iris DNA (260/280=1.78 vs. 1.46, respectively), and produced superior PCR results. Retinal tissue yielded significantly more DNA than the iris tissue per mg of sample (21.7 ng/?l/mg vs. 7.42 ng/?l/mg). Retinal DNA can be readily amplified with PCR, while iris DNA can also be amplified by adding bovine serum albumin. Overall, retinal tissues yielded DNA of superior quality, quantity, and suitability for genotyping and genomic studies.The protocol presented here provides a clear and reliable method for isolating total DNA from postmortem eye tissues. Retinal tissue provides DNA of excellent quantity and quality for genotyping and downstream genomic studies. However, DNA isolated from iris tissues, and treated with bovine serum albumin, may also be a valuable source of DNA for genotyping and genomic studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limited DNA sequence and DNA marker resources have been developed for Iris (Iridaceae), a monocot genus of 200-300 species in the Asparagales, several of which are horticulturally important. We mined an I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST database for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and developed ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers for genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris. Here, we describe the abundance and other characteristics of SSRs identified in the transcript assembly (EST database) and the cross-species utility and polymorphisms of I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST-SSR markers among wild collected ecotypes and horticulturally important cultivars. RESULTS:Collectively, 6,530 ESTs were produced from normalized leaf and root cDNA libraries of I. brevicaulis (IB72) and I. fulva (IF174), and assembled into 4,917 unigenes (1,066 contigs and 3,851 singletons). We identified 1,447 SSRs in 1,162 unigenes and developed 526 EST-SSR markers, each tracing a different unigene. Three-fourths of the EST-SSR markers (399/526) amplified alleles from IB72 and IF174 and 84% (335/399) were polymorphic between IB25 and IF174, the parents of I. brevicaulis x I. fulva mapping populations. Forty EST-SSR markers were screened for polymorphisms among 39 ecotypes or cultivars of seven species - 100% amplified alleles from wild collected ecotypes of Louisiana Iris (I.brevicaulis, I.fulva, I. nelsonii, and I. hexagona), whereas 42-52% amplified alleles from cultivars of three horticulturally important species (I. pseudacorus, I. germanica, and I. sibirica). Ecotypes and cultivars were genetically diverse - the number of alleles/locus ranged from two to 18 and mean heterozygosity was 0.76. CONCLUSION:Nearly 400 ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers were developed for comparative genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris, were highly polymorphic among ecotypes and cultivars, and have broad utility for genotyping applications within the genus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Among the different faces of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) developing in HIV-patients, no clinical definition has been reported for Schistosomiasis-IRIS (Schisto-IRIS). Although Schisto-IRIS remains largely uninvestigated, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) have previously been associated with S. mansoni infection and tuberculosis-IRIS. Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of these markers in Schisto-IRIS. METHODOLOGY:Patients were diagnosed with IRIS related to S. mansoni within a cohort of patients with Schistosomiasis-HIV co-infection, using a clinical working definition of Schisto-IRIS. We compared 9 patients who developed Schisto-IRIS to 9 Schisto+HIV+ controls who did not, and 9 Schisto-HIV+ controls. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-7, MMP-10, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, sCD14, intestinal fatty-acid binding protein, C-reactive protein, and 8 anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) were analyzed prior to and during 3 months of ART. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Although no differences were observed for MMP-1 and -7, MMP-10 levels decreased significantly in Schisto+HIV+ controls during 3 months of ART (p = 0.005) while persisting in Schisto-IRIS patients at significantly higher levels compared to Schisto-HIV+ controls (p?0.030). In contrast TIMP-1 levels only decreased significantly in Schisto-IRIS patients (p = 0.012), while TIMP-2 levels were lower compared to Schisto+HIV+ controls at 2 weeks (p = 0.007), 1 month (p = 0.005) and 3 months (p = 0.031) of ART. Five out of 8 ANAs studied decreased significantly in Schisto-IRIS patients after 1 month of ART(p?0.039), whereas only 1 ANA decreased for Schisto+HIV+ controls (p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:In this study, we propose a working definition for the diagnosis of Schisto-IRIS in resource limited settings. We report persistent plasma levels of MMP-10, along with a more pronounced decrease in TIMP-1 and ANA-levels, and low levels of TIMP-2 during 3 months of ART. Corresponding to the clinical symptoms, these data suggest that Schisto-IRIS is marked by unbalanced MMP/TIMP dynamics which favor inflammation.