Ca(2+) stabilizes the semiquinone radical of pyrroloquinoline quinone.
ABSTRACT: Spectroelectrochemical studies were performed on the interaction between Ca(2+) and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in soluble glucose dehydrogenase (sGDH) and in the free state by applying a mediated continuous-flow column electrolytic spectroelectrochemical technique. The enzyme forms used were holo-sGDH (the holo-form of sGDH from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus) and an incompletely reconstituted form of this, holo-X, in which the PQQ-activating Ca(2+) is lacking. The spectroelectrochemical and ESR data clearly demonstrated the generation of the semiquinone radical of PQQ in holo-sGDH and in the free state in the presence of Ca(2+). In contrast, in the absence of Ca(2+) no semiquinone was observed, either for PQQ in the free state (at pH 7.0) or in the enzyme (holo-X). Incorporation of Ca(2+) into the active site of holo-X, yielding holo-sGDH, caused not only stabilization of the semiquinone form of PQQ but also a negative shift (of 26.5 mV) of the two-electron redox potential, indicating that the effect of Ca(2+) is stronger on the oxidized than on the reduced PQQ. Combining these data with the observations on the kinetic and chemical mechanisms, it was concluded that the strong stimulating effect of Ca(2+) on the activity of sGDH can be attributed to facilitation of certain kinetic steps, and not to improvement of the thermodynamics of substrate oxidation. The consequences of this conclusion are discussed for the oxidative as well as for the reductive part of the reaction of sGDH.
Project description:Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was discovered as a redox cofactor of prokaryotic glucose dehydrogenases in the 1960s, and subsequent studies have demonstrated its importance not only in bacterial systems but also in higher organisms. We have previously reported a novel eukaryotic quinohemoprotein that exhibited PQQ-dependent catalytic activity in a eukaryote. The enzyme, pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH), from the filamentous fungus Coprinopsis cinerea (CcPDH) of the Basidiomycete division, is composed of a catalytic PQQ-dependent domain classified as a member of the novel auxiliary activity family 12 (AA12), an AA8 cytochrome b domain, and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1), as defined by the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Here, we present the crystal structures of the AA12 domain in its apo- and holo-forms and the AA8 domain of this enzyme. The crystal structures of the holo-AA12 domain bound to PQQ provide direct evidence that eukaryotes have PQQ-dependent enzymes. The AA12 domain exhibits a six-blade ?-propeller fold that is also present in other known PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenases in bacteria. A loop structure around the active site and a calcium ion binding site are unique among the known structures of bacterial quinoproteins. The AA8 cytochrome domain has a positively charged area on its molecular surface, which is partly due to the propionate group of the heme interacting with Arg181; this feature differs from the characteristics of cytochrome b in the AA8 domain of the fungal cellobiose dehydrogenase and suggests that this difference may affect the pH dependence of electron transfer.IMPORTANCE Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is known as the "third coenzyme" following nicotinamide and flavin. PQQ-dependent enzymes have previously been found only in prokaryotes, and the existence of a eukaryotic PQQ-dependent enzyme was in doubt. In 2014, we found an enzyme in mushrooms that catalyzes the oxidation of various sugars in a PQQ-dependent manner and that was a PQQ-dependent enzyme found in eukaryotes. This paper presents the X-ray crystal structures of this eukaryotic PQQ-dependent quinohemoprotein, which show the active site, and identifies the amino acid residues involved in the binding of the cofactor PQQ. The presented X-ray structures reveal that the AA12 domain is in a binary complex with the coenzyme, clearly proving that PQQ-dependent enzymes exist in eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes. Because no biosynthetic system for PQQ has been reported in eukaryotes, future research on the symbiotic systems is expected.
Project description:The levels of free pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in various foods were examined by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PQQ was extracted from the samples, after addition of [U-13C]PQQ as internal standard, with n-butanol and Sep-Pak C18 cartridges. After derivatization of PQQ with phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, molecular peaks at m/z 448 and 462 were used for detection of PQQ and [U-13C]PQQ respectively, by selected ion monitoring. Free PQQ could be detected in every sample in the range 3.7-61 ng/g or ng/ml. Since its levels in human tissues and body fluids are 5-10 times lower than those found in foods, it is probable that PQQ existing in human tissues is derived, at least partly, from the diet.
Project description:We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ-) or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+). Measurements included: 1) serum glucose and insulin, 2) total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt(3/4)), 3) respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states), 4) changes in plasma lipids, 5) the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6) indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ- or PQQ+) were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state) was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and ?-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ- rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days) resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ- rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) comprise a group of persistent organic pollutants that differ significantly in their physicochemical properties, their persistence, and their biological activities. They can be metabolized via hydroxylated and dihydroxylated metabolites to PCB quinone intermediates. We have recently demonstrated that both dihydroxy PCBs and PCB quinones can form semiquinone radicals (SQ(*-)) in vitro. These semiquinone radicals are reactive intermediates that have been implicated in the toxicity of lower chlorinated PCB congeners. Here we describe the synthesis of selected PCB metabolites with differing degrees of chlorination on the oxygenated phenyl ring, e.g., 4,4'-dichloro-biphenyl-2,5-diol, 3,6,4'-trichloro-biphenyl-2,5-diol, 3,4,6,-trichloro-biphenyl-2,5-diol, and their corresponding quinones. In addition, two chlorinated o-hydroquinones were prepared, 6-chloro-biphenyl-3,4-diol and 6,4'-dichloro-biphenyl-3,4-diol. These PCB (hydro-)quinones readily react with oxygen or via comproportionation to yield the corresponding semiquinone free radicals, as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR alias ESR). The greater the number of chlorines on the (hydro-)quinone (oxygenated) ring, the higher the steady-state level of the resulting semiquinone radical at near neutral pH.
Project description:Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) from Methylobacterium extorquens, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Paracoccus denitrificans and Hyphomicrobium X all contained a single atom of Ca2+ per alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer. The role of Ca2+ was investigated using the MDH from Methylobacterium extorquens. This was shown to be similar to the MDH from Hyphomicrobium X in having 2 mol of prosthetic group (pyrroloquinoline quinine; PQQ) per mol of tetramer, the PQQ being predominantly in the semiquinone form. MDH isolated from the methanol oxidation mutants MoxA-, K- and L- contained no Ca2+. They were identical with the enzyme isolated from wild-type bacteria with respect to molecular size, subunit configuration, pI, N-terminal amino acid sequence and stability under denaturing conditions (low pH, high urea and high guanidinium chloride) and in the nature and content of the prosthetic group (2 mol of PQQ per mol of MDH). They differed in their lack of Ca2+, the oxidation state of the extracted PQQ (fully oxidized), absence of the semiquinone form of PQQ in the enzyme, reactivity with the suicide inhibitor cyclopropanol and absorption spectrum, which indicated that PQQ is bound differently from that in normal MDH. Incubation of MDH from the mutants in calcium salts led to irreversible time-dependent reconstitution of full activity concomitant with restoration of a spectrum corresponding to that of fully reduced normal MDH. It is concluded that Ca2+ in MDH is directly or indirectly involved in binding PQQ in the active site. The MoxA, K and L proteins may be involved in maintaining a high Ca2+ concentration in the periplasm. It is more likely, however, that they fill a 'chaperone' function, stabilizing a configuration of MDH which permits incorporation of low concentrations of Ca2+ into the protein.
Project description:Photolyase contains a flavin cofactor in a fully reduced form as its functional state to repair ultraviolet-damaged DNA upon blue light absorption. However, after purification, the cofactor exists in its oxidized or neutral semiquinone state. Such oxidization eliminates the repair function, but it can be reverted by photoreduction, a photoinduced process with a series of electron-transfer (ET) reactions. With femtosecond absorption spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, we completely recharacterized such photoreduction dynamics in the semiquinone state. Comparing with all previous studies, we identified a new intramolecular ET pathway, determined stretched ET behaviors, refined all ET time scales, and finally evaluated the driving forces and reorganization energies for eight elementary ET reactions. Combined with the oxidized-state photoreduction dynamics, we elucidated the different active-site properties of the reduction ability and structural flexibility in the oxidized and semiquinone states, leading to the dramatically different ET dynamics and photoreduction efficiency in the two states.
Project description:Flavin-mediated photocatalytic oxidations are established in synthetic chemistry. In contrast, their use in reductive chemistry is rare. Deazaflavins with a much lower reduction potential are even better suited for reductive chemistry rendering also deazaflavin semiquinones as strong reductants. However, no direct evidence exists for the involvement of these radical species in reductive processes. Here, we synthesise deazaflavins with different substituents at C5 and demonstrate their photocatalytic activity in the dehalogenation of p-halogenanisoles with best performance under basic conditions. Mechanistic investigations reveal a consecutive photo-induced electron transfer via the semiquinone form of the deazaflavin as part of a triplet-correlated radical pair after electron transfer from a sacrificial electron donor to the triplet state. A second electron transfer from the excited semiquinone to p-halogenanisoles triggers the final product formation. This study provides first evidence that the reductive power of excited deazaflavin semiquinones can be used in photocatalytic reductive chemistry.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The biosynthesis pathway of Pyrroloquinoline quinone, a bacterial redox active cofactor for numerous alcohol and aldose dehydrogenases, is largely unknown, but it is proven that at least six genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae (PqqA-F) are required, all of which are located in the PQQ-operon. RESULTS: New structural data of some PQQ biosynthesis proteins and their homologues provide new insights and functional assignments of the proteins in the pathway. Based on sequence analysis and homology models we propose the role and catalytic function for each enzyme involved in this intriguing biosynthesis pathway. CONCLUSION: PQQ is derived from the two amino acids glutamate and tyrosine encoded in the precursor peptide PqqA. Five reactions are necessary to form this quinone cofactor. The PqqA peptide is recognised by PqqE, which links the C9 and C9a, afterwards it is accepted by PqqF which cuts out the linked amino acids. The next reaction (Schiff base) is spontaneous, the following dioxygenation is catalysed by an unknown enzyme. The last cyclization and oxidation steps are catalysed by PqqC. Taken together the known facts of the different proteins we assign a putative function to all six proteins in PQQ biosynthesis pathway.
Project description:A gene encoding an enzyme similar to a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent sugar dehydrogenase from filamentous fungi, which belongs to new auxiliary activities (AA) family 12 in the CAZy database, was cloned from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned enzyme showed only low homology to previously characterized PQQ-dependent enzymes, and multiple-sequence alignment analysis showed that the enzyme lacks one of the three conserved arginine residues that function as PQQ-binding residues in known PQQ-dependent enzymes. The recombinant enzyme was heterologously expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system for further characterization. The UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum of the oxidized form of the holoenzyme, prepared by incubating the apoenzyme with PQQ and CaCl2, revealed a broad peak at approximately 350 nm, indicating that the enzyme binds PQQ. With the addition of 2-keto-d-glucose (2KG) to the holoenzyme solution, a sharp peak appeared at 331 nm, attributed to the reduction of PQQ bound to the enzyme, whereas no effect was observed upon 2KG addition to authentic PQQ. Enzymatic assay showed that the recombinant enzyme specifically reacted with 2KG in the presence of an appropriate electron acceptor, such as 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, when PQQ and CaCl2 were added. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis of reaction products revealed 2-keto-d-gluconic acid (2KGA) as the main product, clearly indicating that the recombinant enzyme oxidizes the C-1 position of 2KG. Therefore, the enzyme was identified as a PQQ-dependent 2KG dehydrogenase (Pa2KGDH). Considering the high substrate specificity, the physiological function of Pa2KGDH may be for production of 2KGA.
Project description:Cytochrome aa(3)-600 is one of the principle respiratory oxidases from Bacillus subtilis and is a member of the heme-copper superfamily of oxygen reductases. This enzyme catalyzes the two-electron oxidation of menaquinol and the four-electron reduction of O(2) to 2H(2)O. Cytochrome aa(3)-600 is of interest because it is a very close homologue of the cytochrome bo(3) ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli, except that it uses menaquinol instead of ubiquinol as a substrate. One question of interest is how the proteins differ in response to the differences in structure and electrochemical properties between ubiquinol and menaquinol. Cytochrome bo(3) has a high affinity binding site for ubiquinol that stabilizes a ubi-semiquinone. This has permitted the use of pulsed EPR techniques to investigate the protein interaction with the ubiquinone. The current work initiates studies to characterize the equivalent site in cytochrome aa(3)-600. Cytochrome aa(3)-600 has been cloned and expressed in a His-tagged form in B. subtilis. After isolation of the enzyme in dodecylmaltoside, it is shown that the pure enzyme contains 1 eq of menaquinone-7 and that the enzyme stabilizes a mena-semiquinone. Pulsed EPR studies have shown that there are both similarities as well as significant differences in the interactions of the mena-semiquinone with cytochrome aa(3)-600 in comparison with the ubi-semiquinone in cytochrome bo(3). Our data indicate weaker hydrogen bonds of the menaquinone in cytochrome aa(3)-600 in comparison with ubiquinone in cytochrome bo(3). In addition, the electronic structure of the semiquinone cyt aa(3)-600 is more shifted toward the anionic form from the neutral state in cyt bo(3).