A large family of endosome-localized proteins related to sorting nexin 1.
ABSTRACT: Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), a peripheral membrane protein, has previously been shown to regulate the cell-surface expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor [Kurten, Cadena and Gill (1996) Science 272, 1008-1010]. Searches of human expressed sequence tag databases with SNX1 revealed eleven related human cDNA sequences, termed SNX2 to SNX12, eight of them novel. Analysis of SNX1-related sequences in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome clearly shows a greatly expanded SNX family in humans in comparison with yeast. On the basis of the predicted protein sequences, all members of this family of hydrophilic molecules contain a conserved 70-110-residue Phox homology (PX) domain, referred to as the SNX-PX domain. Within the SNX family, subgroups were identified on the basis of the sequence similarities of the SNX-PX domain and the overall domain structure of each protein. The members of one subgroup, which includes human SNX1, SNX2, SNX4, SNX5 and SNX6 and the yeast Vps5p and YJL036W, all contain coiled-coil regions within their large C-terminal domains and are found distributed in both membrane and cytosolic fractions, typical of hydrophilic peripheral membrane proteins. Localization of the human SNX1 subgroup members in HeLa cells transfected with the full-length cDNA species revealed a similar intracellular distribution that in all cases overlapped substantially with the early endosome marker, early endosome autoantigen 1. The intracellular localization of deletion mutants and fusions with green fluorescent protein showed that the C-terminal regions of SNX1 and SNX5 are responsible for their endosomal localization. On the basis of these results, the functions of these SNX molecules are likely to be unique to endosomes, mediated in part by interactions with SNX-specific C-terminal sequences and membrane-associated determinants.
Project description:Endosomal recycling of transmembrane proteins requires sequence-dependent recognition of motifs present within their intracellular cytosolic domains. In this study, we have reexamined the role of retromer in the sequence-dependent endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) transport of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR). Although the knockdown or knockout of retromer does not perturb CI-MPR transport, the targeting of the retromer-linked sorting nexin (SNX)-Bin, Amphiphysin, and Rvs (BAR) proteins leads to a pronounced defect in CI-MPR endosome-to-TGN transport. The retromer-linked SNX-BAR proteins comprise heterodimeric combinations of SNX1 or SNX2 with SNX5 or SNX6 and serve to regulate the biogenesis of tubular endosomal sorting profiles. We establish that SNX5 and SNX6 associate with the CI-MPR through recognition of a specific WLM endosome-to-TGN sorting motif. From validating the CI-MPR dependency of SNX1/2-SNX5/6 tubular profile formation, we provide a mechanism for coupling sequence-dependent cargo recognition with the biogenesis of tubular profiles required for endosome-to-TGN transport. Therefore, the data presented in this study reappraise retromer's role in CI-MPR transport.
Project description:Early endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) transport is organized by the retromer complex. Consisting of cargo-selective and membrane-bound subcomplexes, retromer coordinates sorting with membrane deformation and carrier formation. Here, we describe four mammalian retromers whose membrane-bound subcomplexes contain specific combinations of the sorting nexins (SNX), SNX1, SNX2, SNX5, and SNX6. We establish that retromer requires a dynamic spatial organization of the endosomal network, which is regulated through association of SNX5/SNX6 with the p150(glued) component of dynactin, an activator of the minus-end directed microtubule motor dynein; an association further defined through genetic studies in C. elegans. Finally, we also establish that the spatial organization of the retromer pathway is mediated through the association of SNX1 with the proposed TGN-localized tether Rab6-interacting protein-1. These interactions describe fundamental steps in retromer-mediated transport and establish that the spatial organization of the retromer network is a critical element required for efficient retromer-mediated sorting.
Project description:Protein dimerization and oligomerization is commonly used by nature to increase the structural and functional complexity of proteins. Regulated protein assembly is essential to transfer information in signaling, transcriptional, and membrane trafficking events. Here we show that a combination of cell-free protein expression, a proximity based interaction assay (AlphaScreen), and single-molecule fluorescence allow rapid mapping of homo- and hetero-oligomerization of proteins. We have applied this approach to the family of BAR domain-containing sorting nexin (SNX-BAR) proteins, which are essential regulators of membrane trafficking and remodeling in all eukaryotes. Dimerization of BAR domains is essential for creating a concave structure capable of sensing and inducing membrane curvature. We have systematically mapped 144 pairwise interactions between the human SNX-BAR proteins and generated an interaction matrix of preferred dimerization partners for each family member. We find that while nine SNX-BAR proteins are able to form homo-dimers, several including the retromer-associated SNX1, SNX2, and SNX5 require heteromeric interactions for dimerization. SNX2, SNX4, SNX6, and SNX8 show a promiscuous ability to bind other SNX-BAR proteins and we also observe a novel interaction with the SNX3 protein which lacks the BAR domain structure.
Project description:Sorting nexin 5 (SNX5), a member of sorting nexin family, plays an important role in membrane trafficking, including the retrograde trafficking of the cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) and macropinocytosis. Using ESI-LCMS/MS analysis, we confirmed that SNX5 serine 226 is phosphorylated. Since SNX5 forms heterodimers with SNX1 or SNX2, we examined the effect of phosphorylation at S226 on the heterodimer formations. Wild-type and mutants of SNX5, in which S226 was mutated to a glutamic acid or an alanine, were expressed in 8505C cells. In pull-down assays using SNX5 as bait, only the S226E mutant failed to precipitate both SNX1 and SNX2. Confocal microscopy data indicated that the wild type and S226A mutant were colocalized with SNX1 and SNX2 in endosomes, but the S226E was not. SNX5 and SNX6 support each other's functions and are involved with CI-M6PR retrograde trafficking. In SNX5 and SNX6 double knockdown cells, CI-M6PR was dispersed and colocalized with the endosomal marker EEA1. In a rescue experiment using SNX5 mutants, the S226A rescued CI-M6PR localization, similar to control cells, but S226E did not. Furthermore, the decrease in the uptake of dextran by macropinocytosis in SNX5 knockdown cells was recovered by the expression of rescue-wild type or S226A mutant, but not by the rescue-S226E mutant. These observations indicate that SNX5 constitutive phosphorylation that mimics the mutant S226E decreases the active SNX5 in these cells. The phosphorylation of SNX5 regulates the dimerization with SNX1 or SNX2, and this suggests that it controls membrane trafficking and protein sorting.
Project description:The retromer complex, which recycles the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), is thought to consist of a cargo-selective VPS26-VPS29-VPS35 trimer and a membrane-deforming subunit of sorting nexin (SNX)-Bin, Amphyphysin, and Rvs (BAR; SNX-BAR) proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that heterodimers of the SNX-BAR proteins, SNX1, SNX2, SNX5, and SNX6, are the cargo-selective elements that mediate the retrograde transport of CI-MPR from endosomes to the TGN independently of the core retromer trimer. Using quantitative proteomics, we also identify the IGF1R, among more potential cargo, as another SNX5 and SNX6 binding receptor that recycles through SNX-BAR heterodimers, but not via the retromer trimer, in a ligand- and activation-dependent manner. Overall, our data redefine the mechanics of retromer-based sorting and call into question whether retromer indeed functions as a complex of SNX-BAR proteins and the VPS26-VPS29-VPS35 trimer.
Project description:The retromer is a heteropentameric complex that associates with the cytosolic face of endosomes and mediates retrograde transport of transmembrane cargo from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. The mammalian retromer complex comprises a sorting nexin dimer composed of a still undefined combination of SNX1, SNX2, SNX5 and SNX6, and a cargo-recognition trimer composed of Vps26, Vps29 and Vps35. The SNX subunits contain PX and BAR domains that allow binding to PI(3)P enriched, highly curved membranes of endosomal vesicles and tubules, while Vps26, Vps29 and Vps35 have arrestin, phosphoesterase and alpha-solenoid folds, respectively. Recent studies have implicated retromer in a broad range of physiological, developmental and pathological processes, underscoring the critical nature of retrograde transport mediated by this complex.
Project description:Macropinocytosis mediates the bulk endocytosis of solute molecules, nutrients and antigens. As this endocytic pathway is considered important in functions associated with immune responses, the molecular mechanisms regulating this pathway in immune cells is of particular significance. However, the regulators of macropinocytosis in primary cells remain poorly defined. Members of the sorting nexin (SNX) family have been implicated in macropinosome biogenesis in cultured cells and here we have analyzed the role of two SNX family members, SNX1 and its binding partner SNX5, in macropinocytosis of mouse primary macrophages. We show that endogenous SNX1 and SNX5 are localised to newly-formed macropinosomes in primary mouse macrophages and, moreover, demonstrate that SNX5 plays an essential role in macropinosome biogenesis. Depletion of SNX5 in bone marrow-derived macrophages dramatically decreased both the number and size of macropinosomes. Depletion of SNX5 also resulted in dramatic reduction in uptake and processing of soluble ovalbumin in macrophages, indicating that the majority of antigen uptake and delivery to late endosomes is via macropinocytosis. By contrast, the absence of SNX1 had no effect on endogenous SNX5 localisation and macropinosome biogenesis using macrophages from SNX1 knockout mice. Therefore, SNX5 can function independently of SNX1 and is a modulator of macropinocytosis that influences the uptake and processing of soluble antigen in primary mouse macrophages.
Project description:Sorting nexins (SNX) orchestrate membrane trafficking and signaling events required for the proper distribution of proteins within the endosomal network. Their phox homology (PX) domain acts as a phosphoinositide (PI) recognition module that targets them to specific endocytic membrane domains. The modularity of SNX proteins confers a wide variety of functions from signaling to membrane deformation and cargo binding, and many SNXs are crucial modulators of endosome dynamics and are involved in a myriad of physiological and pathological processes such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and inflammation. Here, we have studied the poorly characterized SNX20 and its paralogue SNX21, which contain an N-terminal PX domain and a C-terminal PX-associated B (PXB) domain of unknown function. The two proteins share similar PI-binding properties and are recruited to early endosomal compartments by their PX domain. The crystal structure of the SNX21 PXB domain reveals a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-fold, a module that typically binds short peptide motifs, with three TPR ?-helical repeats. However, the C-terminal capping helix adopts a highly unusual and potentially self-inhibitory topology. SAXS solution structures of SNX20 and SNX21 show that these proteins adopt a compact globular architecture, and membrane interaction analyses indicate the presence of overlapping PI-binding sites that may regulate their intracellular localization. This study provides the first structural analysis of this poorly characterized subfamily of SNX proteins, highlighting a likely role as endosome-associated scaffolds.
Project description:Subcellular retrograde transport of cargo receptors from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network is critically involved in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes and highly regulated by a genetically conserved heteropentameric complex, termed retromer. Among the retromer components identified in mammals, sorting nexin 5 and 1 (SNX5; SNX1) have recently been found to interact, possibly controlling the membrane binding specificity of the complex. To elucidate how the unique sequence features of the SNX5 phox domain (SNX5-PX) influence retrograde transport, we have determined the SNX5-PX structure by NMR and x-ray crystallography at 1.5 A resolution. Although the core fold of SNX5-PX resembles that of other known PX domains, we found novel structural features exclusive to SNX5-PX. It is most noteworthy that in SNX5-PX, a long helical hairpin is added to the core formed by a new alpha2'-helix and a much longer alpha3-helix. This results in a significantly altered overall shape of the protein. In addition, the unique double PXXP motif is tightly packed against the rest of the protein, rendering this part of the structure compact, occluding parts of the putative phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) binding pocket. The PtdIns binding and specificity of SNX5-PX was evaluated by NMR titrations with eight different PtdIns and revealed that SNX5-PX preferentially and specifically binds to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). The distinct structural and PtdIns binding characteristics of SNX5-PX impart specific properties on SNX5, influencing retromer-mediated regulation of retrograde trafficking of transmembrane cargo receptors.
Project description:The sorting nexin (SNX) family is a diverse group of cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins that are involved in membrane-trafficking steps within the endocytotic network. SNX1 and SNX2 are components of the mammalian retromer complex and they also play critical roles in the membrane trafficking of growth factor receptors including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met. The human lung cancer cell lines, which harbor activating mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR gene, are sensitive to EGFR-targeted drugs gefitinib or erlotinib. However, a lung cancer cell line harboring gene amplification of c-Met is sensitive to the c-Met-targeted drug SU11274 but not to EGFR-targeted drugs. C-Met overexpression is identified as one of the bypass mechanisms for acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted drugs. Here we show that the siRNA-mediated knockdown of SNX2 decreases the cell-surface localization of c-Met, but not that of EGFR, resulting in lysosomal degradation of the c-Met protein. SNX2 specifically interacts with c-Met and treatment with lysosomal inhibitors almost completely annihilates downregulation of c-Met protein by SNX2 knockdown. Therefore, silencing of SNX2 markedly alters sensitivity to anticancer drugs targeted to c-Met (SU11274) and EGFR (gefitinib and erlotinib) through promotion of compensatory activation of the EGFR pathway in lung cancer cells. These findings suggest that development of drugs targeting SNX2 could be useful in overcoming drug resistance to EGFR-targeted drugs in lung cancer cells harboring c-Met gene amplification.